Friction: The Tribology Enigma

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Mechanical Engineering

Abstract

Friction plays a central role in life; in transport, in manufacturing, in process engineering, in medical devices and in everyday human activities. Friction has commanded the attention of Amontons, Coulomb and Da Vinci and their simplistic, empirical laws have been the cornerstone of friction theory. At the conceptual and theoretical levels the vast modern day friction literature has revealed the enormous complexity of even the simplest processes and the limitations of the early friction laws. Friction is intimately linked to both adhesion, contact geometry and wear and all require an appreciation of the highly non-equilibrium and non-linear processes occurring over multiple length scales. The challenge presented is that friction in realistic engineering contacts cannot be predicted. Understanding the physical and chemical processes at contacting interfaces is the only route to cracking the tribological enigma. The research gap addressed in this Programme Grant is linked to the development of accurate experimental and numerical simulations of friction. We appreciate that the search for a unified model for friction prediction is futile because friction is system dependent. However, the goal to predict friction is achievable. We have identified 4 key areas where there are current challenges in understanding the origins of friction because of different complexities as outlined below:
- Reactive surfaces; in many systems the frictional contact brings about chemical reactions that can only be described by non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We need accurate kinetic rate data for reactions which can only be provided by advanced in-situ chemical analysis
- Extreme interfaces; these can be described as any interfaces that are inducing high strain rate material deformation and combined with electrochemical or chemical reactions. Simulation and sensing are key to improving the understanding.
- Non-linear materials; in engineering and in biological systems we see the evolution of "soft" materials for tribological applications. Predicting friction in these systems relies on understanding the rheology/tribology interactions.
- Particles and 2nd phase materials; for materials processing or for understanding the transport of wear particles in a contact we need to understand particle-particle friction in complex contact conditions where fracture/deformation are occurring.

Planned Impact

The Universities of Leeds and Sheffield have strong, sustained track records of engagement with users of their research and of commercialisation via licensing and spin-outs. The user groups are across sectors. As an example of the level of engagement by industry, in our shared Integrated Tribology CDT we have 18 industry sponsors all funding at £80K for the 4 year PhD.
We see the key objectives of our Pathways to Impact (PtI) being the following:
PtI1 - Efficient and timely dissemination of the low TRL research findings to ensure that exploitation of this by other funders (at higher TRL level) occurs; critical for the sustainability of the research area; our dissemination to industry strategy through the 6-monthly Network meetings will enable this to happen.
PtI2 - Exploiting the links between this major tribology programme and other related programmes; reaching out to other UK and overseas centres will be via our Innovation Fund (to create new links with UK Centres) and our International Network of collaborators.
PtI3 - Providing uniquely trained early career researchers who can go on to make substantial contributions in academia or industry; we have a strong programme for the PDRAs employed on the programme through Creativity@Home and employing experience from our other training networks (Marie Curie). In addition we have ECRs as Co-Is who will be exposed to the processes and challenges in a large programme of research
PtI4 - To demonstrate to the wider public that engineering science at this basic level will facilitate the advances of the future; we will engage with external agencies to capitalise on existing engineering outreach activities but will have our ECRs (Slatter and Bryant) implementing our outreach plan.
PtI 5 - Efficient commercialisation of research; we will use the Leeds and Sheffield infrastructure to ensure that we patent and commercialise as appropriate.
Advocacy; Tribology in 1966 was recognised by the then Minister of State for Education and Science, and recorded in Hansard , as a discipline that could have a massive impact on the economy. 50 years on and although the science and technology has evolved beyond recognition, tribology remains a lynch pin of efficient industry sectors. The Programme Grant therefore has to have an impact that will influence scientific policy in academia and industry.
To ensure advocacy we have the following in place (a) National academy committees; for UK through RAEng (Neville/Rainforth/Ghadiri are Fellows. Kapur/Neville sponsored Chairs) (b) Professional Institutions; we have membership in IMechE and IoP tribology committees (Morina (Vice Chair), Lewis (past Chair), Liskiewicz (Hon.Sec)). We have established links with IET UK Tribology through the current Chair (Dr Rich Baker) (c) Through published work; editorial roles for Neville, Dwyer-Joyce, Morina, Liskiewicz, Rainforth

Publications

10 25 50

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Azam A (2019) Modelling tribochemistry in the mixed lubrication regime in Tribology International

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Beadling A (2021) Adverse loading effects on tribocorrosive degradation of 28 mm metal-on-metal hip replacement bearings in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology

 
Description We have been investigating friction....something that everyone understands but does not understand. Our key findings relate to

- friction in surfaces associated with hip joints; we are linking the role of proteins and their interactions with surfaces and friction
- soft systems; looking at gels and their friction
- leaves on the line in rail contacts; understanding friction
- particles in processing; how they stick and jam
- nanoparticle impacts; we have installed a new in-situ system in the SEM
- modelling; we are modelling mixed lubrication in soft systems
Exploitation Route We had dissemination meetings in January 2019 and we are also running our Innovation fund which enables new researchers to be getting proof of concept funding. We have several follow on PhD funded projects emerging from this work.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport,Other

 
Description We have been discussing our Friction advances with DePuy and are writing a major grant application in this area. We also held a dissemination event and this had a lot of interest. We are having discussions with 8 companies about follow on funding. The major advances in our friction predictions are with DePuy for predicting friction and wear in hip simulators, with CSPI (China) in prediction of friction in large marine engines and with a collborative programme to go to NSF/EPSRC programme on texturing of surfaces for friction and wear.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport,Other
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Voting member of ASTM Committee G2 - T Slatter
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL https://www.astm.org/COMMITTEE/G02.htm
 
Description (BioTrib) - Advanced Research Training for the Biotribology of Natural and Artificial Joints in the 21st Century
Amount € 4,332,867 (EUR)
Funding ID 956004 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2021 
End 12/2024
 
Description (GreenTRIBOS) - GreenTRIBOS
Amount € 3,188,498 (EUR)
Funding ID 860246 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2020 
End 12/2023
 
Description (InnovaXN) - Doctoral programme for innovators with X-rays and neutrons
Amount € 6,508,800 (EUR)
Funding ID 847439 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2019 
End 09/2024
 
Description (NU-SPINE) - Training innovative future leaders in research and development of materials and implants for the spine
Amount € 4,272,380 (EUR)
Funding ID 812765 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2022
 
Description Daido Metals PhD Studentship
Amount £85,849 (GBP)
Organisation Daido Metal 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start 09/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description Development of Ultrasonic Oil Condition and Level Sensors for Use with NEXCEL
Amount £83,296 (GBP)
Funding ID 1947955 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description EPSRC Doctoral Training Partnership Studentship in partnership with AC2T
Amount £85,000 (GBP)
Organisation AC2T Research 
Sector Private
Country Austria
Start 09/2021 
End 04/2025
 
Description Machine learning for local rail head friction estimation using environmental sensing and imaging
Amount £52,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rail Safety and Standards Board 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 03/2021
 
Description ORE Catapult Powertrain Research Hub
Amount £699,269 (GBP)
Organisation ORE Catapult 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2024
 
Description PhD Studentship sponsored by Unilever
Amount £45,000 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2020 
End 04/2024
 
Description TRibology as an ENabling Technology (TRENT)
Amount £1,538,131 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S030476/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description The Timken Company Studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Timken Company 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Title Development of a synthetic finger pad for the assessment of pad-surface tribological interactions 
Description We have developed equipment and protocols that include a synthetic finger pad and allow the assessment of pad-surface tribological interactions. The technique allows contact area to be measured during sliding interactions and the simultaneous measurement of friction coefficients. It can also be used in conjunction with optical coherence tomography for sub-surface measurements. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact At the time of writing this technique is in its early stages. 
 
Title Dynamic normal load fretting tribometer. 
Description Electromechanical combined fretting and sliding tribometer capable of applying normal loads between 1 - 50 N and linear displacements between 0.001 - 20 mm (max speed 80 mm/sec). Ability to apply static and dynamic normal loads whilst inducing sliding. Modular design to enable application of bespoke fixturing. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Zimmer-Biomet PhD studentship (£80k) - modular taper derived debris EU MSCA ITN 'Biotrib' - Used within researcher projects 
 
Title In vitro Tribological Testing and Wear Assessment of Cell Monolayers 
Description Biotribology is the application of tribological knowledge to biological systems as introduced by Dowson and Wright [1]. It can be applied to many interactions involving biological tissues and medical device materials. Medical devices that involve biotribology interfaces include artificial hips or joints, catheters, stent retrievers and stents [2] and contact lenses [3]. Often, the biological tissue involves cell monolayers that exist at the device-tissue interface. This method allows the assessment of the tribological interplay between medical device materials and cell monolayers, including the creation of cellular samples that mimic the real mechanical and surface properties; the damage to the cell monolayer is then assessed. The methodology involves a glass probe sliding over an endothelial cell monolayer, seeded on a soft substrate. The interaction is then investigated in order to quantify and assess wear damage. [1] D. DOWSON and V. WRIGHT, "Bio-Tribology.," 1973. [2] R. M. F. Wagner, R. Maiti, M. J. Carré, C. M. Perrault, P. C. Evans, and R. Lewis, "Bio-tribology of Vascular Devices: A Review of Tissue/Device Friction Research," Biotribology, vol. 25, p. 100169, Mar. 2021. [3] A. C. Dunn, J. A. Tichy, J. M. Uruenã, and W. G. Sawyer, "Lubrication regimes in contact lens wear during a blink," in Tribology International, 2013, vol. 63, pp. 45-50. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Publication is imminent with an abstract submitted for a special issue of the IMechE Journal of Engineering Tribology and the technique is also planned for dissemination in conferences. It has potential for impact in any research areas related to medical device interactions (artificial hips or joints, catheters, stent retrievers and stents) 
 
Title Multi-axis motion sensors to detect micromotion at modular medical device interfaces. 
Description Custom motion sensors were developed using the principle of eddy-current effect as the transducer mechanism. The eddy-current effect is a form of electromagnetic induction which may be utilised to measure the distance to a conductive object. A coil is excited by and AC current to generate an alternating magnetic field, which induces eddy currents in nearby conductive targets. These currents generate an opposing magnetic field, in accordance with Lenz's law, which cancels a part of the applied field and reduces the coil flux. This field coupling between the coil and conductive target acts to increase the coil's resistance, and reduce the observed inductance. As the target moves closer to the coil, the increased alternating field increases the eddy-current density causing a further decrease in inductance. This change in inductance may be calibrated to the distance between the coil and target, giving a displacement sensor which is highly resistant to environmental effects. To capture all types of motion at the taper interface, this study employed four sensing coils on a single custom PCB (P&M Services ltd, UK), allowing for 4 degrees of freedom measurement of the motion. The coils were mounted to the male component below the taper interface and aluminium targets were mounted on the femoral head. Three coils were used to calculate the vector of a plane which allowed pistoning and toggling in two axes to be determined. A fourth coil perpendicular to the other three was used to measure rotation. Texas Instruments (USA) coil and LDC design tools was were used to guide sensor design 63. Each coil comprised of two layers, each with 16 turns, 100 µm (or 4 mil) spacing between turn and 200 µm (8 mil) between layers, 100 µm trace width, an outer diameter of 10 mm and external capacitance of 330 pf. The coils were driven and monitored using a fully integrated, 4-channel inductance to digital converter chip (LDC 1614, Texas Instruments, US). The digital output of the LDC 1614 was then sent to a microcontroller (myRIO, National Instruments, US) via I2C protocol and inductance was recorded at 100 Hz. Raw inductances were then calculated and stored as a .txt file using a bespoke LabView (2019, National Instruments, US) program for export into Matlab (R2020a, MathWorks, US). A bespoke, Matlab program was developed for the conversion of inductance to displacements and the different motions i.e. pistoning, toggling and rotation. The sensors were calibrated using a piezo linear precision positioner stage (MikroMove, Physik Instruments, UK) accurate to 0.1 nm. This included fixing the aluminium target to the precision positioner stage and moving it relative to the coil board which was fixed to a spare male component. Coil 4 was calibrated separately before soldering into position. Calibration curves were determined across the full range of target-coil distances. Three separate sets of calibration data were then used to test the determined inductance-to-displacements relationships. Residuals from the three sets of data indicate that the sensing solution was found to be accurate to ± 0.5 µm. Four coils were used to capture all the different types of motion, including: pistoning, toggling YX, toggling XZ and Rotation. The x and y coordinates of the three points were defined in the coordinate system by the centre of each coil. The z coordinate was the measured target-coil distance. Pistoning was determined by first calculating two vectors in the plane (VAB and VAC using three points A, B and C). The second step was to determine the normal (n) to the plane by taking the cross product of these two vectors (Equation 1). Thirdly, the perpendicular distance (d) from the origin to the plane was determined by taking the dot product of the normal and a point on the plane (Equation 2). n = VABAB VAC Equation 1 d = A . n Equation 2 Toggling YZ was found by first determining the angle the plane, at each sampling point, made with Y axis in the YZ plane i.e. rotation about the x-axis (sx, Equation 3). Likewise, Toggling XZ was found by determining the angle the plane, at each sampling point, made with X axis in the XZ plane i.e. rotation about the y-axis (sy, Equation 4). Each rotation was converted to an equivalent displacement at the taper surface assuming a radius (r) of 7 mm using Equation 5 and Equation 6}. x=90-cos-1n.jn j Equation 3 y=90-cos-1n.in i Equation 4 Toggling YZ = r tan(x) Equation 5 Toggling XZ = r tan(y) Equation 6 Rotation was calculated by use of a fourth coil perpendicular to coils 1 to 3. Once the inductance was converted to a displacement, this was then used to calculate a rotation angle using a radius distance from the centre of coil 4 to the z-axis. The displacement at the taper interface was then calculated as the arc length assuming a radius of 7 mm and the rotation angle derived from the coil. Each subsequent rotation displacement was subtracted from the first calculated value of rotation for relative position with respect to the start of the experiment. All motions calculated from this study were subtracted from an equivalent monoblock to allow the removal of any elastic deformation measured from the test samples. The monoblock was a sample that was assembled to a high force of 8 kN and welded at the taper opening. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact EPSRC IAA with MatOrtho - Streamlining preclinical assessment Zimmer-Biomet PhD studentship (£80k) - modular taper derived debris Zimmer-Biomet CASE studentship (£30k) - preclinical testing of total shoulder replacements 
 
Description Friction Innovation Fund 
Organisation Afton Chemical
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The collaboration is a the coordination of a friction innovation fund, jointly funded by the listed industrial partners and the Universities in receipt of the Friction: The Tribology Enigma grant (£50k commitment from Universities of Leeds and Sheffield). The Friction Innovation Fund will provide up to £50,000 research funding per project via 6 monthly calls for innovative Proof-of-Concept tribology projects that will drive research on the understanding and prediction of friction. The Universities administer and secure funding for the fund via collaboration with industry funders secured as part of the programme grant bid. The Universities administer the grant, and award funding based on a competitive application process with independent Chair Prof. Ian Hutchings. The Universities also host a showcase of the results of the fund at the programme grant annual meeting. In-kind contributon of staff time for reviewing grant applications and fund administration are made. So far 2 projects have been funded - for University of Salford and Manchester Metropolitan University.
Collaborator Contribution The industry partners to the grant provide a cash contribution and in-kind contribution of staff time for ranking/scoring of applications to determine the awards of funding, in collaboration with the programme grant PIs and Independent Chair. To date 1 publication has resulted from 1 of the Innovation projects (both concluded end of 2020), and more are expected from both project. The industry partners also provide and in-kind contribution for attendance to the dissemination meetings.
Impact Dougill G, Starostin EL, Milne AO, van der Heijden GHM, Goss VGA, Grant RA. (2020). Ecomorphology reveals Euler spiral of mammalian whiskers.. Journal of morphology, 281 (10), pp. 1271-1279
Start Year 2018
 
Description Friction Innovation Fund 
Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The collaboration is a the coordination of a friction innovation fund, jointly funded by the listed industrial partners and the Universities in receipt of the Friction: The Tribology Enigma grant (£50k commitment from Universities of Leeds and Sheffield). The Friction Innovation Fund will provide up to £50,000 research funding per project via 6 monthly calls for innovative Proof-of-Concept tribology projects that will drive research on the understanding and prediction of friction. The Universities administer and secure funding for the fund via collaboration with industry funders secured as part of the programme grant bid. The Universities administer the grant, and award funding based on a competitive application process with independent Chair Prof. Ian Hutchings. The Universities also host a showcase of the results of the fund at the programme grant annual meeting. In-kind contributon of staff time for reviewing grant applications and fund administration are made. So far 2 projects have been funded - for University of Salford and Manchester Metropolitan University.
Collaborator Contribution The industry partners to the grant provide a cash contribution and in-kind contribution of staff time for ranking/scoring of applications to determine the awards of funding, in collaboration with the programme grant PIs and Independent Chair. To date 1 publication has resulted from 1 of the Innovation projects (both concluded end of 2020), and more are expected from both project. The industry partners also provide and in-kind contribution for attendance to the dissemination meetings.
Impact Dougill G, Starostin EL, Milne AO, van der Heijden GHM, Goss VGA, Grant RA. (2020). Ecomorphology reveals Euler spiral of mammalian whiskers.. Journal of morphology, 281 (10), pp. 1271-1279
Start Year 2018
 
Description Friction Innovation Fund 
Organisation Rail Safety and Standards Board
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The collaboration is a the coordination of a friction innovation fund, jointly funded by the listed industrial partners and the Universities in receipt of the Friction: The Tribology Enigma grant (£50k commitment from Universities of Leeds and Sheffield). The Friction Innovation Fund will provide up to £50,000 research funding per project via 6 monthly calls for innovative Proof-of-Concept tribology projects that will drive research on the understanding and prediction of friction. The Universities administer and secure funding for the fund via collaboration with industry funders secured as part of the programme grant bid. The Universities administer the grant, and award funding based on a competitive application process with independent Chair Prof. Ian Hutchings. The Universities also host a showcase of the results of the fund at the programme grant annual meeting. In-kind contributon of staff time for reviewing grant applications and fund administration are made. So far 2 projects have been funded - for University of Salford and Manchester Metropolitan University.
Collaborator Contribution The industry partners to the grant provide a cash contribution and in-kind contribution of staff time for ranking/scoring of applications to determine the awards of funding, in collaboration with the programme grant PIs and Independent Chair. To date 1 publication has resulted from 1 of the Innovation projects (both concluded end of 2020), and more are expected from both project. The industry partners also provide and in-kind contribution for attendance to the dissemination meetings.
Impact Dougill G, Starostin EL, Milne AO, van der Heijden GHM, Goss VGA, Grant RA. (2020). Ecomorphology reveals Euler spiral of mammalian whiskers.. Journal of morphology, 281 (10), pp. 1271-1279
Start Year 2018
 
Description Friction Innovation Fund 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The collaboration is a the coordination of a friction innovation fund, jointly funded by the listed industrial partners and the Universities in receipt of the Friction: The Tribology Enigma grant (£50k commitment from Universities of Leeds and Sheffield). The Friction Innovation Fund will provide up to £50,000 research funding per project via 6 monthly calls for innovative Proof-of-Concept tribology projects that will drive research on the understanding and prediction of friction. The Universities administer and secure funding for the fund via collaboration with industry funders secured as part of the programme grant bid. The Universities administer the grant, and award funding based on a competitive application process with independent Chair Prof. Ian Hutchings. The Universities also host a showcase of the results of the fund at the programme grant annual meeting. In-kind contributon of staff time for reviewing grant applications and fund administration are made. So far 2 projects have been funded - for University of Salford and Manchester Metropolitan University.
Collaborator Contribution The industry partners to the grant provide a cash contribution and in-kind contribution of staff time for ranking/scoring of applications to determine the awards of funding, in collaboration with the programme grant PIs and Independent Chair. To date 1 publication has resulted from 1 of the Innovation projects (both concluded end of 2020), and more are expected from both project. The industry partners also provide and in-kind contribution for attendance to the dissemination meetings.
Impact Dougill G, Starostin EL, Milne AO, van der Heijden GHM, Goss VGA, Grant RA. (2020). Ecomorphology reveals Euler spiral of mammalian whiskers.. Journal of morphology, 281 (10), pp. 1271-1279
Start Year 2018
 
Description Friction Innovation Fund 
Organisation Timken Company
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The collaboration is a the coordination of a friction innovation fund, jointly funded by the listed industrial partners and the Universities in receipt of the Friction: The Tribology Enigma grant (£50k commitment from Universities of Leeds and Sheffield). The Friction Innovation Fund will provide up to £50,000 research funding per project via 6 monthly calls for innovative Proof-of-Concept tribology projects that will drive research on the understanding and prediction of friction. The Universities administer and secure funding for the fund via collaboration with industry funders secured as part of the programme grant bid. The Universities administer the grant, and award funding based on a competitive application process with independent Chair Prof. Ian Hutchings. The Universities also host a showcase of the results of the fund at the programme grant annual meeting. In-kind contributon of staff time for reviewing grant applications and fund administration are made. So far 2 projects have been funded - for University of Salford and Manchester Metropolitan University.
Collaborator Contribution The industry partners to the grant provide a cash contribution and in-kind contribution of staff time for ranking/scoring of applications to determine the awards of funding, in collaboration with the programme grant PIs and Independent Chair. To date 1 publication has resulted from 1 of the Innovation projects (both concluded end of 2020), and more are expected from both project. The industry partners also provide and in-kind contribution for attendance to the dissemination meetings.
Impact Dougill G, Starostin EL, Milne AO, van der Heijden GHM, Goss VGA, Grant RA. (2020). Ecomorphology reveals Euler spiral of mammalian whiskers.. Journal of morphology, 281 (10), pp. 1271-1279
Start Year 2018
 
Description Friction Innovation Fund 
Organisation University of Salford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The collaboration is a the coordination of a friction innovation fund, jointly funded by the listed industrial partners and the Universities in receipt of the Friction: The Tribology Enigma grant (£50k commitment from Universities of Leeds and Sheffield). The Friction Innovation Fund will provide up to £50,000 research funding per project via 6 monthly calls for innovative Proof-of-Concept tribology projects that will drive research on the understanding and prediction of friction. The Universities administer and secure funding for the fund via collaboration with industry funders secured as part of the programme grant bid. The Universities administer the grant, and award funding based on a competitive application process with independent Chair Prof. Ian Hutchings. The Universities also host a showcase of the results of the fund at the programme grant annual meeting. In-kind contributon of staff time for reviewing grant applications and fund administration are made. So far 2 projects have been funded - for University of Salford and Manchester Metropolitan University.
Collaborator Contribution The industry partners to the grant provide a cash contribution and in-kind contribution of staff time for ranking/scoring of applications to determine the awards of funding, in collaboration with the programme grant PIs and Independent Chair. To date 1 publication has resulted from 1 of the Innovation projects (both concluded end of 2020), and more are expected from both project. The industry partners also provide and in-kind contribution for attendance to the dissemination meetings.
Impact Dougill G, Starostin EL, Milne AO, van der Heijden GHM, Goss VGA, Grant RA. (2020). Ecomorphology reveals Euler spiral of mammalian whiskers.. Journal of morphology, 281 (10), pp. 1271-1279
Start Year 2018
 
Description Friction Innovation Fund 
Organisation Virtual Vehicle
Country Austria 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The collaboration is a the coordination of a friction innovation fund, jointly funded by the listed industrial partners and the Universities in receipt of the Friction: The Tribology Enigma grant (£50k commitment from Universities of Leeds and Sheffield). The Friction Innovation Fund will provide up to £50,000 research funding per project via 6 monthly calls for innovative Proof-of-Concept tribology projects that will drive research on the understanding and prediction of friction. The Universities administer and secure funding for the fund via collaboration with industry funders secured as part of the programme grant bid. The Universities administer the grant, and award funding based on a competitive application process with independent Chair Prof. Ian Hutchings. The Universities also host a showcase of the results of the fund at the programme grant annual meeting. In-kind contributon of staff time for reviewing grant applications and fund administration are made. So far 2 projects have been funded - for University of Salford and Manchester Metropolitan University.
Collaborator Contribution The industry partners to the grant provide a cash contribution and in-kind contribution of staff time for ranking/scoring of applications to determine the awards of funding, in collaboration with the programme grant PIs and Independent Chair. To date 1 publication has resulted from 1 of the Innovation projects (both concluded end of 2020), and more are expected from both project. The industry partners also provide and in-kind contribution for attendance to the dissemination meetings.
Impact Dougill G, Starostin EL, Milne AO, van der Heijden GHM, Goss VGA, Grant RA. (2020). Ecomorphology reveals Euler spiral of mammalian whiskers.. Journal of morphology, 281 (10), pp. 1271-1279
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry Academia Partnership Programme (IAPP) - University of Cape Town 
Organisation Amira International
Country Australia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Delivering lectures at University of Cape Town during a dedicated workshop on particle characterisation by Prof Ghadiri, Dr Xia, Dr Borissova, Dr Nezamabadi, Dr Pasha and Dr Nadimi Hosting Cape Town team at University of Leeds, two visits, first visit by Dr Safari, second visit by Prof Aubrey Mainza, Dr Safari and Dr David N. de Klerk. Hosting Prof Indresan Govender
Collaborator Contribution Organising a 3-days workshop at the University of Cape Town Attending 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification at Leeds (https://escc2019.com/) Delivering keynote and regular presentation during ESCC2019
Impact Knowledge transfer Safari M, Nadimi S, Deglon D, Filho L, Souza T. Investigating the Effect of Particle Characteristics on Iron Ore Separation using X-ray Micro Tomography. In: 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification (ESCC 2019). 2019, Leeds: University of Leeds. M. Ghadiri was invited to give a talk to an international milling consortium on mechanisms of size reduction in spiral jet mills.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry Academia Partnership Programme (IAPP) - University of Cape Town 
Organisation North Star Imaging Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Delivering lectures at University of Cape Town during a dedicated workshop on particle characterisation by Prof Ghadiri, Dr Xia, Dr Borissova, Dr Nezamabadi, Dr Pasha and Dr Nadimi Hosting Cape Town team at University of Leeds, two visits, first visit by Dr Safari, second visit by Prof Aubrey Mainza, Dr Safari and Dr David N. de Klerk. Hosting Prof Indresan Govender
Collaborator Contribution Organising a 3-days workshop at the University of Cape Town Attending 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification at Leeds (https://escc2019.com/) Delivering keynote and regular presentation during ESCC2019
Impact Knowledge transfer Safari M, Nadimi S, Deglon D, Filho L, Souza T. Investigating the Effect of Particle Characteristics on Iron Ore Separation using X-ray Micro Tomography. In: 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification (ESCC 2019). 2019, Leeds: University of Leeds. M. Ghadiri was invited to give a talk to an international milling consortium on mechanisms of size reduction in spiral jet mills.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry Academia Partnership Programme (IAPP) - University of Cape Town 
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Delivering lectures at University of Cape Town during a dedicated workshop on particle characterisation by Prof Ghadiri, Dr Xia, Dr Borissova, Dr Nezamabadi, Dr Pasha and Dr Nadimi Hosting Cape Town team at University of Leeds, two visits, first visit by Dr Safari, second visit by Prof Aubrey Mainza, Dr Safari and Dr David N. de Klerk. Hosting Prof Indresan Govender
Collaborator Contribution Organising a 3-days workshop at the University of Cape Town Attending 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification at Leeds (https://escc2019.com/) Delivering keynote and regular presentation during ESCC2019
Impact Knowledge transfer Safari M, Nadimi S, Deglon D, Filho L, Souza T. Investigating the Effect of Particle Characteristics on Iron Ore Separation using X-ray Micro Tomography. In: 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification (ESCC 2019). 2019, Leeds: University of Leeds. M. Ghadiri was invited to give a talk to an international milling consortium on mechanisms of size reduction in spiral jet mills.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Industry Academia Partnership Programme (IAPP) - University of Cape Town 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Delivering lectures at University of Cape Town during a dedicated workshop on particle characterisation by Prof Ghadiri, Dr Xia, Dr Borissova, Dr Nezamabadi, Dr Pasha and Dr Nadimi Hosting Cape Town team at University of Leeds, two visits, first visit by Dr Safari, second visit by Prof Aubrey Mainza, Dr Safari and Dr David N. de Klerk. Hosting Prof Indresan Govender
Collaborator Contribution Organising a 3-days workshop at the University of Cape Town Attending 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification at Leeds (https://escc2019.com/) Delivering keynote and regular presentation during ESCC2019
Impact Knowledge transfer Safari M, Nadimi S, Deglon D, Filho L, Souza T. Investigating the Effect of Particle Characteristics on Iron Ore Separation using X-ray Micro Tomography. In: 16th European Symposium on Comminution & Classification (ESCC 2019). 2019, Leeds: University of Leeds. M. Ghadiri was invited to give a talk to an international milling consortium on mechanisms of size reduction in spiral jet mills.
Start Year 2018
 
Description PhD sponsorship by Unilever 
Organisation Unilever
Department Unilever UK R&D Centre Port Sunlight
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supervision and delivery of a PhD study on the bio-tribology of consumer beauty and care products.
Collaborator Contribution Part funding of PhD study.
Impact Project currently scoping aims and objectives.
Start Year 2020
 
Title Machine Learning based tool for wheel/rail interface friction estimation 
Description The tool uses rail head images, images of track surroundings and environmental information to estimate wheel/rail interface friction. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact In the future this will help inform drivers and route planners of low adhesion issues in Autumn reducing incidents and delays to trains. 
 
Title Slippy Python Package for Tribologists 
Description A python package for tribologists. Including: Surface analysis and generation: - multiple random surface generation methods - easy integration with alicona and .csv files - easy generation of common surface shapes for modelling Boundary element normal contact analysis: - CPU and GPU back ends available - easily extendable system for custom behaviour - simple user interface allowing the user to build complex models Mixed lubrication modelling with user defined non newtonian fluids 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2021 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact First soft release has been completed, the software is in ongoing development, it will be developed further with outputs directly from the grant, and from wider external collaboration. 
URL https://friction.org.uk/slippy-software/
 
Title Wheel-rail interface leaf friction model (LILAC) 
Description COde designed to predict friction in the wheel-rail interface with leaves present. Inputs include wheel/rail interface conditions and third-body material levels. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact The model is being integrated to a train braking model to help tune train braking parameters for low adhesion conditions. 
 
Description A DEM Insight on Manipulating Friction by Rail Sanding - Nadimi, S. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rail Sanding is a common practice in the railway industry to manipulate the friction at the
wheel-rail interface during both braking and traction [1]. Although sanding has been widely
accepted as an effective material, in particular for contaminated conditions such as leaf films on the
line, there is a lack of understanding on the influence of the sand characteristics.
In this study, a tribological testing method, called High Pressure Torsion (HPT) [2], is modelled using
Discrete Element Method (DEM). The HPT method is a means of quantifying the friction between
two specimens, in presence of third body materials. In this approach, the torque required to gently
twist a specimen in contact with another specimen under a given normal pressure in an annulus is
measured. This allows the calculation of shear stresses in the contact and therefore
characterisation of the friction. Here, the specimens are made from wheel and rail materials and
the third body material is a different type of sand particles.
To systematically study the mechanisms of traction enhancement of sand particles in the rail-wheel
interface, a DEM model is developed which allows incorporation of different particle shape and the
breakage of particles under loading (see Figure 1). The role of particle morphology, i.e. size and
shape, is evaluated and compared with previous experimental studies [3]. Further work will
investigate extending the range of particles properties, such as material strength and fracture
energy with the ultimate aim of enhancing the current engineering guidelines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://mercurylab.co.uk/dem8/
 
Description ADHERE Webinar Series April-June 2020 - R Lewis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact ADHERE (ADHEsion REsearch challenge) sets out to deliver research to achieve 'adhesion conditions that are unaffected by and independent of the weather and climate' and address industry's gaps in knowledge with new insight that helps improve how we manage low adhesion. RSSB has set up a cross-industry research programme to develop a better understanding of the causes of low adhesion and possible mitigation strategies. ADHERE (ADHEsion REsearch challenge) aims to deliver research to achieve 'adhesion conditions that are unaffected by and independent of the weather and climate'. The programme strives to address gaps in the industry's knowledge with new insight which will help to improve the management of low adhesion. The webinars aimed to disseminate advances managing low adhesion, and significant contributions were made from Challenge 2 of the programme grant via 3 seminars (of 5) contributed to by R Lewis from the programme grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.rssb.co.uk/what-we-do/key-industry-topics/adhesion/adhere-programme-webinar-series
 
Description Annual Royal Microscopical Society School in Elecron Microscopy - every Spring or Summer 2008 onwards 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Week long Training School for users of the technique
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021
 
Description Article in international and national media - Understanding why leaves on the line cause low friction - M Watson 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release, radio and newspaper interviews were carried out in relation to publication of research. This was related to publication of a paper in Proceedings of the Royal Society A (doi: 10.1098/rspa.2020.0057) demonstrating the underlying causes of low friction leaf layers that form on rail tracks in autumn and cause significant delays. The press release was picked up in national and international news outlets including The Guardian, iNews, The Telegraph, Phys.org, nrc.nl (Netherlands), tekniikkatalous.fi (Finland), Gigazine (Japan). Interviews were carried out for BBC Radio Cambridge, and national newspapers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/jul/29/scientists-find-out-why-leaves-on-the-track-causes-t...
 
Description Article in national media - Article on solutions to leaves on the line - R Lewis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was issued relating to a dry ice solution for leaves on the line that had been developed at the University of Sheffield. Numerous national media articles were written based on the press release, including articles in the Daily Mail, Times, BBC wesbsite and IMechE. Dry ice was trialled for use as a railhead cleaning agent in autumn 2018 on a low traffic freight line, and was then further trialled during autumn 2019 on a selection of sites across the UK. Network Rail Arriva Rail North, the wider rail industry and Supertram in Sheffield have all shown interest in/made further plans from the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/news/nr/leaves-on-the-line-railways-solutions-delays-dry-ice-how-to-remo...
 
Description Article in national media - synthetic tongue development - M Bryant and A Neville 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was put out based on the publication '3D Biomimetic Tongue-Emulating Surfaces for Tribological Applications' (Efren Andablo-Reyes, Michael Bryant, Anne Neville, Paul Hyde, Rik Sarkar, Mathew Francis, and Anwesha Sarkar), M Bryant and A Neville from the Friction grant were heavily involved in the work to develop a synthetic tongue, this is related to work on the grant on soft tribology applications, and is useful in understanding the fundamentals of human feeding and speech. The press release has introduced this work to a wider audience in the general public, and the contributions tribology can have to human health. This press release was picked up by several national news agencies including the Daily Mail, Irish News, and Evening Express.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-8881341/Scientists-create-synthetic-soft-surface-hum...
 
Description BBC Radio Interview - Leaves on the line - Dr. Mike Watson 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr. Mike Watson explained the problem of leaves on the line, and how pioneering research from Friction: The Tribology Enigma has helped to understand the problem, and potential solutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.thenakedscientists.com/podcasts/naked-scientists-podcast/sizzling-bbq-science
 
Description Be Curious Science Outreach event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Microscopy Talk, Activities and Display at Be Curious Festival at University of Leeds, Annual event every March
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
URL http://www.leeds.ac.uk/info/4000/around_campus/460/be_curious_festival-about_leeds_and_yorkshire
 
Description Brazilian National Railway Engineering Symposium talk - R Lewis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the Wheel/Rail Interface: Measurement; Understanding and Problem Solving as part of the Railway Engineering Symposium a forum to disseminate research results, but also to bring together representatives of the academy, railway concessionaires and manufacturers of railway material in a single environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.simposio-ferroviario.com.br/
 
Description Co-organisation of Royal Society Discussion Meeting, Dynamic in-situ microscopy relating structure and function 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Fast-track discussion meeting organised by Dame Pratibha Gai FREng FRS, Professor Edward Boyes, Professor Rik Brydson and Professor Richard Catlow FRS.
October 21-22 2019
This meeting evidenced and advanced development in dynamic in-situ environmental electron, scanning probe, optical and fast time resolved microscopy and computer modelling studies of vital interest in the chemical, physical and life sciences, underpinning technologies of high commercial and societal value. It focused on the pivotal role of imaging and spectroscopy for dynamic processes across the sciences to access previously invisible aspects of real world processes.
An accompanying journal issue for this meeting was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2019/10/in-situ-microscopy/
 
Description Conference Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given at the European Society of Biomechanics on the links between biotribology and Acoustic emission. This was to approx. 60 attendees which included researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description DEM Simulation of Mechanofusion System - Nadimi, S. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Mechanofusion is a dry coating method for fine powders in the micron and sub-micron
particle size range[1]. The bulk powder is compressed against a retaining wall by a high centrifugal
force field and is sheared at a high strain rate by a fixed 'pusharm', engaging with the bed, thereby
further increasing the compressive force, and shearing it. The use of the centrifugal field does not
allow the bed to get aerated, and therefore the shearing forces acting on individual particles can be
sufficiently high and suitable for dry coating of fine powders by smearing their surfaces with coating
powders, flow aids, lubricants and glidents [2]. It could also even alter the physical and chemical
characteristics of the surfaces. Its application in pharmaceutical engineering has been explored by
Zhou et al. [3] by assessing the extent of coating of fine lactose powders by magnesium stearate
(MgST) powder. The use of MgST is ubiquitous in the pharmaceutical industry as it enhances
powder flowability and tabletting. Therefore the vast range of applications for fine powder
processing raises the demand for detailed knowledge of the system dynamics and factors affecting
the energy requirements and process efficiency. In this study, the mini-mechanofusion system of
Hosokawa Micron is modelled using Discrete Element Method (DEM) at four different operational
speeds. Particle dynamics around the pusharm and velocity profiles before the pusharm and at the
highest compression zone are analysed. Stresses on the pusharm are also quantified and correlated
to the operational speed. The expended energy for this extreme shearing condition is also
quantified and correlated to operational speed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://mercurylab.co.uk/dem8/
 
Description Friction Outreach - Lydgate Junior School Sheffield - R Lewis and R Maiti 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Sheffield researchers from the Friction Programme Grant Roger Lewis and Raman Maiti ran a friction outreach event at Lydgate Junior School in Sheffield as part of the schools Science Week. Roger talked to all 4 year groups at the school (120 pupils) about the causes of friction and why it's important to understand it. This was accompanied by some fun practical demonstrations of friction to the students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Friction Outreach - Tapton Secondary School Seminar Series - R Lewis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Seminar on the fundamentals of friction and the importance of friction/tribology in everyday life, including why it's an important and interesting subject to study at University, and potential career options in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Imaging dynamic sub-surface skin strain patterns during object interaction using Optical Coherence Tomography. Z.S. Lee (2021) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The fingertip acts as an efficient tactile sensing organ with high acuity and sensibility. It is populated by thousands of mechanoreceptors responsible for translating the various aspects of the skin deformations into spike trains. However, receptors are located within the skin and separated from the surface, where object contact happens, by several layers of skin tissue. Little is known about the biomechanics of the skin below its immediate surface, even though sub-surface skin strains are ultimately transduced by mechanoreceptors to form the first stage of sensory encoding in the tactile system.
In this study, we employ Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a non-invasive imaging technique appropriate for biological tissue, to capture the skin's internal morphology. The recorded data consists of images acquired with OCT at a rate of 20 frames per second and presents a sliced side view along the proximal-distal axis of the fingerpad with high spatial resolution (7.5 µm lateral and 5µm axial resolution). The images capture the finger pad while various surfaces slide against it along the imaging direction. The skin surface, the epidermal ridges, the stratum corneum, and the dermis-epidermis ridges can be identified in the acquired images.
To study the biomechanics of the captured tissues, we first tracked features of the movement of the skin in different layers. Then we reconstruct time-varying strain patterns to derive the local skin strain changes at different depths. In particular, a Delaunay triangulation was computed over the tracked features, and for each triangle, displacement field gradients were derived within adjacent frames and used to calculate Green-Lagrange strains. This technique allows us to reconstruct the skin mechanics at the location where mechanoreceptors are typically located.We found stereotypical spatiotemporal patterns of mechanical strain that depend on the mechanical, elastic, and geometrical features of both the sliding object and the skin. Interestingly, we observed differences in the strain propagation between and within different skin layers.
This study provides valuable insight into the mechanical transduction process at different skin layers. The data will help understand how surface strains propagate into deep layers of the skin tissues towards mechanoreceptor locations and shed light on the nature and function of skin morphology in encoding tactile stimuli.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.abstractsonline.com/pp8/#!/10485/presentation/25015
 
Description Interview for Wired Magazine - Roger Lewis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Roger Lewis was featured in a Wired Magazine article on the complexities of predicting friction due to leaves on rail lines. He provided expert opinion on, and explanation of, the issues of leaves on rail line and the influence on friction between the wheel and the rail.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.wired.co.uk/article/network-rail-leaves-on-the-line-uk
 
Description Invited presentations on Cryogenic Railhead Cleaning - R Lewis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited presentations to Network Rail (x 3 presentations in 2020) to discuss work on Cryogenic Railhead Cleaning Trials
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Pint of Science talk - Getting to Grips with Friction - M Carre and R Lewis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Friction PG researchers Dr Matt Carré and Professor Roger Lewis took part in the public 'Pint of Science - All hands to the pump' event in Sheffield on 22nd May 2019. They explained some fundamentals of friction related to human grip and manipulation of objects, and how this affects our gripping and perception abilities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Scientific Organisation of Microscience Microscience Microscopy Congresses MMC2013, 2015, 2017, 2019, 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attendance and presentation at conferences
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2015,2017,2019,2021
URL https://www.mmc-series.org.uk/
 
Description Sixth form visit to Tribology Excellence Hub University of Sheffield - R Lews and R Maiti 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Local sixth form students visited University of Sheffield for hands on practical demonstrations of tribology from everyday applications. The goal was to increase the interest of sixth form students in Tribological research and help to increase university applications in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018