Residential building energy demand reduction in India (RESIDE)

Lead Research Organisation: Oxford Brookes University
Department Name: Faculty of Tech, Design and Environment

Abstract

The RESIDE (Residential building energy demand reduction in India) project will help support the improvement of living conditions for millions of Indian citizens through establishing the knowledge base to develop a residential building code for high quality, low-energy housing across all five climatic zones in India.

The project brings together an interdisciplinary team of architects, engineers, digital scientists, urban planners and behavioural researchers to assess all aspects of the residential energy use problem, including performance of the building fabric; in-home appliances including heating, ventilation and air conditioning; indoor environment and occupant behaviour.

RESIDE will undertake surveys and monitoring of energy consumption in 2000 homes spread across the five different climatic zones in India in order to build up a new, open access database for policy and practitioner communities in India and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In 10% of these homes, we will also trial and evaluate a Smart Home Energy Management System, to be designed within the project, to enable householders greater control over their comfort and energy consumption.

These activities will be used to develop low-cost monitoring and post-occupancy evaluation protocols suitable for the Indian situation. This will not only improve Best Practice, but allow a framework by which consistent data can be collected and added to the RESIDE database. Using novel techniques developed by the project team for assessing the potential up-scaling of individual household measures and actions to a neighbourhood level, RESIDE will explore and establish protocols for assessing the potential for, and likely benefits of, widespread take up of energy efficiency and rooftop solar technologies at a community scale.

By engaging with a wide range of stakeholders involved in planning and construction throughout the project, and by undertaking an extensive review of policy experiences in similar countries, the RESIDE project will establish the key factors essential for consideration in the development of a new residential building code for India. Then, building on the extensive data collected through the project, and a set of co-design workshops, the project will develop a proposed framework for a new residential building code.

Planned Impact

Through helping to reduce the currently predicted eightfold increase in residential energy consumption in India by 2050, the RESIDE project acknowledges the extensive benefits that may be accrued across the entire energy sector from the promotion of a new residential building code strongly grounded in evidence applicable to all five of India's climatic zones. Reduction in energy demand from this sector will lead to a more secure energy supply network and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

More specifically, the dual focus of the project is A) to build a strong, open access, evidence base on residential energy use, thermal comfort and energy efficiency measures (at individual dwelling and community scales) in order to support the development of B) proposals for a new residential building energy code grounded in rigorous research and national and international policy experiences. Key stakeholders will be engaged throughout the process to ensure the co-design of both process and outputs of maximum relevance and, therefore, impact potential.

Within the project we specifically recognise seven core groups of non-academic beneficiaries of the RESIDE project:
1) INDUSTRY involved in the supply and promotion of low energy technologies (Fenesta, Glass Academy), and home energy management systems (Schneider Electric, Bosch)
2) CENTRAL GOVERNMENT POLICY-MAKERS such as the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) and Ministry of Power (MoP) dealing with energy generation and emissions, as well as the Ministry of Urban Development (MUD), Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation
3) UTILITIES (electricity generators/suppliers) by the reduction of capacity risks
4) DESIGNERS/ENGINEERS/BUILDERS AND PROFESSIONAL BODIES (ISHRAE, IGBC)
5) MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE (MoEF) for achieving INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contribution) emission targets.
6) CITY AUTHORITIES including housing development authorities (Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Delhi Development Authority) on planning side and development of smart cities.
7) HOME-DWELLERS with reduced electricity bills for energy consumption and improved housing conditions.

As evidenced by the 16 Letters of Support, many of these groups (Indian Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Indian Green Building Council, Bosch, Schneider Electric, UN-Habitat, Development Alternatives, Barclays, Administrative Staff College of India and local educational institutions as survey partners) have already been engaged in the design of the project proposal.

Within the full 'Pathways to Impact' document, we set out how the RESIDE project will engage with all of these groups through five specific impact achievement strands:
1) Policy and practitioner focussed briefings and publications;
2) Specific workshop and engagement activities within five of the key work packages;
3) The provision of four 3-month knowledge exchange fellowships (placements);
4) Capacity building through using local educational establishments as survey partners;
5) Interaction with international networks and the hosting of a week-long international researcher workshop.

These engagement and knowledge exchange processes will ensure that project outputs will be of maximum value in setting out a low energy pathway for India's massive projected growth in residential building stock. The continual engagement of stakeholders through the project will help to ensure that the project acts as an independent broker between the potentially competing interests of different stakeholders, using the broad range of evidence to be collected to develop building code proposals that are realistic and acceptable to all relevant parties.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description RESIDE project has led to deep collaboration between UK and Indian partners for the development of bespoke solutions for tackling the growing residential energy demand and associated CO2 emissions in India. Between November 2017 and February 2020, about 72 online project meetings and 13 face-to-face meetings (India, UK) have been held between UK and India partners. Four RESIDE workshops have been organised in Delhi and Hyderabad to gather expert feedback from non-academic stakeholders (industry, policy-makers, practitioners and civil society).

RESIDE project has created low cost sensors for monitoring residential electricity current (Garud) and indoor temperature and relative humidity (Envilog) using Bluetooth technology for the Indian context. The sensors have been tested in 45 dwellings in Jaipur and Hyderabad, and will be deployed in 2000 dwellings across the country.

A new approach for gathering large-scale data on residential energy use using surveys, interviews and electricity bills, has been developed and applied to 65 dwellings in Jaipur, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune and Vishakhapatnam.

Extensive review of thermal comfort research in India has shown that there is pressing need for the localized thermal comfort models that will improve not only the comfort requirements but also building energy performance.

Review of residential energy datasets has revealed that revealed that the sociology and psychology of energy use in dwellings needs
equal attention, as much as measurement of residential energy use in order to better understand the pattern of energy use. It is evident that empirical data on residential energy use and end uses are presently lacking and urgently required for informing policy. To avoid any duplication of efforts in future, robust data sharing policies should be enforced (by the funding agencies), so that data gathered can be shared with interested stakeholders in an anonymous manner.
Exploitation Route Low cost sensors and survey approach developed in the RESIDE project is being used by five educational institutions to gather energy and environmental data from dwellings in their cities.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Energy,Environment

 
Description RESIDE project has led to deep collaboration between UK and Indian partners for the development of bespoke solutions for tackling the growing residential energy demand and associated CO2 emissions in India. Between November 2017 and February 2020, about 72 online project meetings and 13 face-to-face meetings (India, UK) have been held between UK and India partners. Four RESIDE workshops (includingone RoundTable) have been organised in Delhi and Hyderabad to gather expert feedback from non-academic stakeholders (industry, policy-makers, practitioners and civil society). As part of RESIDE project, three stakeholder workshops were held by the RESIDE project team in 2017-2018 in India. The workshops were held in Delhi (November 2017, April 2018) and Hyderabad (November 2018), and brought together various experts and data users to better understand their needs and gaps in residential energy and thermal comfort data. The experts also provided feedback about the methodological approach of RESIDE for conducting surveys and monitoring in 2000 homes across India. The three workshops were well-attended - by 63 experts representing 32 organisations. The participants included academics, housing developers, policy makers, international agencies, architects, consultants and the voluntary sector. The workshop discussions revealed an urgent need to spread the awareness about the need, importance and challenges of collating empirical data on residential energy use in India, and how this could help in the formation of energy policies for the residential sector that is currently responsible for 22% of national electricity use. The participants also provided useful insights on the methodology for recruiting homes for the field study and data collection, which helped in refining the data collection procedures of the RESIDE field study, such as measuring relative humidity as well as indoor temperature across the 2000 homes in India. RESIDE project also hosted a Round Table on Measuring and monitoring residential energy use in India: challenges and opportunities on 13 February 2020 in Hyderabad. The Round Table was held as part of the plenary session of Energise 2020 conference that took place from 11-13 February 2020. RESIDE Round Table shared the challenges and opportunities arising from the ongoing RESIDE field study, and sought inputs and experiences of other organisations who have undertaken such studies. The Round Table was attended by nearly 50 attendees from academia, Government, industry and civil society. It became evident that building a common understanding of issues and potential solutions to measuring residential energy use in India would help to advance solutions for reducing residential energy. As part of engagement with local survey partners (local educational institutions) in six case study cities in India, capacity building of educational institutions has taken place through faculty/student training by Oxford Brookes University for researchers and academics in the six educational institutions located in Delhi, Ahmedabad, Pune, Chennai, Darjeeling and Vishakhapatnam.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Energy,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Title RESIDE Energy and Comfort Repository for India (REACT) 
Description REACT is an online repository of residential energy and thermal comfort metadata upon which future strategy and policy can be based. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The database has been shared with researchers and policy-makers in India, who are using it get a better understanding of residential energy and thermal comfort research in India. 
URL https://www.reside-energy.org/dissemination
 
Description RESIDE Round Table on 'Measuring and monitoring residential energy use in India: challenges and opportunities' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact RESIDE project hosted a Round Table on Measuring and monitoring residential energy use in India: challenges and opportunities on 13 February 2020 in Hyderabad. The Round Table was held as part of the plenary session of Energise 2020 conference that took place from 11-13 February 2020.

RESIDE Round Table shared the challenges and opportunities arising from the ongoing RESIDE field study, and sought inputs and experiences of other organisations who have undertaken such studies. The Round Table was attended by nearly 50 attendees from academia, Government, industry and civil society.

Prof Vishal Garg (IIITH) introduced the RESIDE study and the low-cost sensors that have been developed for monitoring indoor environment and electricity current. Prof Rajat Gupta (OBU) described the RESIDE approach for large-scale survey of residential energy use and thermal comfort across different cities in India. Prof Jyotirmay Mathur (MNIT) moderated the discussion.

It became evident that building a common understanding of issues and potential solutions to measuring residential energy use in India would help to advance solutions for reducing residential energy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.reside-energy.org/news
 
Description RESIDE Stakeholder workshop on residential energy 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop had a focused discussion on the aims and objectives of the project as well as on the methodological approach being developed for the energy and thermal comfort survey of the 2000 homes in India. Nearly 24 participants from 15 different organisations participated in the event. These included various prominent architects and consultants, experts from the academia, building materials manufacturers, housing developers etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description RESIDE Stakeholder workshop on residential energy data 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary focus of this workshop held on 4 April 2018 (New Delhi) was to seek feedback from the participants on the scope of the project, discuss the requirements, needs and uses of empirical data on residential energy and how these can be met through the RESIDE field studies. The event was attended by nearly 24 participants from 16 organisations which included policy making bodies, academia, building material manufacturers, voluntary sectors as well as international agencies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description RESIDE project featured in Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) journal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The RIBA journal featured an article on the RESIDE project on 6 July 2018, entitled 'India plans first residential building energy code. In the article the scope of the RESIDE project was described and how it seeks to prepare ground for high quality, low energy, housing in India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ribaj.com/products/sustainable-housing-in-india-first-residential-building-energy-code-s...
 
Description RESIDE stakeholder workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A key aim of these events was to launch the RESIDE project and to bring together relevant organisations to discuss the challenge of gathering data on residential energy use and thermal comfort in India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Roundtable on Residential Electricity Consumption in India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The RESIDE project was presented at a roundtable on residential energy consumption on 1 August 2018 in New Delhi. The roundtable was sponsored by Prayas (Energy Group) and the Centre for Policy Research.

The objective of the round-table was to bring together the different organizations and individuals investigating the factors affecting India's residential electricity consumption. It can provide an avenue to substantively share recently completed and on-going work as well as discuss challen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.reside-energy.org/news