Integrated Development of Low-Carbon Energy Systems (IDLES): A Whole-System Paradigm for Creating a National Strategy

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Energy Futures Lab

Abstract

The long-term evolution of energy systems is set by the investment decisions of very many actors such as up-stream resource companies, power plant operators, network infrastructure providers, vehicle owners, transport system operators and building developers and occupiers. But these decisions are deliberately shaped by markets and incentives that have been designed by local and national governments to achieve policy objectives on energy, air-quality, economic growth and so on. It is clear then that government and businesses need detailed and dependable evidence of what can be achieved, what format of energy system we should aim for, what new technologies need to be encouraged, and how energy systems can form part of an industrial strategy to new goods and services. It is widely accepted that a whole-system view of energy is needed, covering not only multiple energy sectors (gas, heat, electricity and transport fuel) but also the behaviour of individuals and organisations within the energy consuming sectors such as transport and the built environment. This means that modelling energy production, delivery and use in a future integrated system is highly complex and analytically challenging. To provide evidence to government and business on what an optimised future system may look like, one has to rise to these modelling challenges. For electricity systems alone, there are established models that can optimise for security, cost and emissions given some assumptions (and sensitivities) and these have been used to provide policy and business strategy evidence. However, such models do not exist for the complex interactions of integrated systems and not at the level of fine detailed needed to expose particularly difficult operating conditions.

Our vision is to tackle the very challenging modelling required for integrated energy systems by combining multi-physics optimising techno-economic models with machine learning of human behaviour and operational models emerging multi-carrier network and conversion technologies. The direction we wish to take is clear but there are many detailed challenges along the way for which highly innovative solutions will be needed to overcome the hurdles encountered. The programme grant structure enables us to assemble an exceptional team of experts across many disciplines. There are new and exciting opportunities, for instance, to apply machine learning to identify in a quantitative way models of consumer behaviour and responsiveness to incentives that can help explore demand-side flexibility within an integrated energy system.

We have engaged four major partners from complementary sectors of the energy system that will support the programme with significant funding (approximately 35% additional funding) and more importantly engage with us and each other to share insights, challenges, data and case studies. EDF Energy provide the perspective on an energy retail business and access to smart meter trail data. Shell provide insights into the future fuels to be used in transport and building services. National Grid (System Operator) give the perspective of the use of flexibility and new service propositions for efficient system operations. ABB are a provider of data acquisition and control systems and provide industrial perspective of decentralisation of control. ABB have committed to providing substantial equipment and resource to build a verification and demonstration facility for decentralised control. We are also engaging examples of the new entrants, often smaller companies with potentially disruptive technologies and business models, who will engage and share some of their insights.

Planned Impact

The use of a whole-system, or integrated, paradigm for the planning and operation of the UK's future energy systems has potential for very large savings in the cost of providing decarbonised energy and potential to bring forward new hardware and data technologies for the realisation of such systems. So, on top of disseminating high quality research findings to the research community we will pursue engagement with industrial and other partners to create societal, policy and industrial impact.

The powerful set of new tools and methods for integrated energy system design and analysis will be used to create policy-relevant evidence to bodies such as the National Infrastructure Commission, BIES, Ofgem and local authorities on the opportunity to make investment in energy infrastructure through smart and system-wide optimisation. There will also be detailed conclusions on the efficacy of various market designs and interventions to deliver the investment needed. We have projects within the programme aimed specifically at comparative analysis of incremental versus integrated development and at the design of markets and incentives. We will invite BEIS and GLA representation onto our steering group to obtain their guidance on achieving policy impact and we will disseminate through briefings, workshops and formal submissions of policy evidence.

We will also identify the "system value" and the use-cases for key energy technologies that integrating across energy carriers and/or provide flexibility in operation and control. This is relevant to individual companies and is valuable evidence to shape the UK's Industrial Strategy in the pursuit of new and expanded business opportunities. Our findings in this area will be propagated through a series of workshops with stakeholders and the creation of roadmaps for emerging technologies and business innovations. The roadmaps will be published as Energy Futures Lab briefing papers and promoted through our launch events and news feeds. The newly separated System Operator function within National Grid has a direct interest, on behalf of the whole system, of identifying the control and operational functions to secure the future energy system and they are a further delivery partner here.

We will work with our project partners to exploit the technology opportunities. We have secured four major project partners at this time (ABB, EDF Energy, National Grid and Shell) and are gathering examples of SMEs with disruptive technologies. As well as providing direct support for the programme, our partners will provide insights and support for moving to demonstration of innovations in business models, data/control services and asset technologies. We have already identified with ABB the need to demonstrate and verify decentralised control in a real-time environment and have agreed to work together to construct such a facility.

We foresee a major opportunity in new approaches for using demand modelling to offer new service propositions to consumers. EDF Energy is our partner in the energy retail sector and we will work with them, and through them with the Energy System Catapult, with SME partners and Ofgem to promote these opportunities. With Shell, we will work to disseminate the role of alternative fuels in heat and transport.

The fundamental research in system-of-systems modelling, in demand modelling and in will be published in journals to create academic impact. We have deliberately included Early Career Researchers among our investigator team and assigned roles that will help develop their careers through leadership opportunities. We believe that the team of post-doctoral researchers working on this challenging cross-disciplinary set of problems will be a remarkable pool of talent of the UK.

Organisations

 
Description Our whole-system model has been used to investigate optimal configuration for a net-zero electricity system in 2035 in compliance with the 6th Carbon Budget. Optimisation has been considered under a variety of assumptions on cost and performance of technologies. We have concluded that:
(1) The volume of offshore wind required for net-zero in the UK is around 100 GW which is two-and-half times larger than the government's target of 40 GW for 2030 and is required only 5 years later. This conclusion is robust to variations in the cost of various technologies
(2) If the build rate of wind implied above needs to be moderated, one could add a further 10 GW of nuclear and 18.5 GW of solar PV. This would avoid building 24 GW of offshore wind but increase system costs (and unit electricity costs) by about 3%.
(3) Alongside offshore wind, very large volumes of energy storage are required, about 100 GW, which is a hundredfold increase on capacity today.

A White Paper expanding on these findings was launched on 8th June 2021 and findings on nuclear energy were also summarised in an Energy Futures Lab blog-post.

A comprehensive database of performance and costs of various energy technologies and components has been developed by our technology modelling colleagues and published to the open-access data repository, Zenodo. It is derived from market research, industrial applications, and other academic research (in collaboration with other academic institutions). The database, which is being continuously updated with more technologies and data, provides efficiency and price information for commercially available air-source and ground-source heat pumps, gas and electric boilers, water-storage cylinders, combined heat and power systems, solar-thermal collector and PV panels as well as compressors and heat exchangers.

An interesting analysis funded through this award disentangled the complex interplay of policies and events that led to the drop in Great Britain's carbon emissions from electricity generation between 2012 and 2019. A key message from a case study by Dr Iain Staffell and Professor Richard Green is that reducing power sector CO2 emissions by two-thirds required a broad, multi-faceted approach. Closure of coal power stations, investment in renewable generation, raising the cost of coal and carbon emissions and improving energy efficiency (to reduce demand) all contributed significantly. The work is available to read, open access, in "The Contribution of Taxes, Subsidies and Regulations to British Electricity Decarbonisation" (https://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/2105-Text.pdf).

Gatherings several strands of work from across IDLES we published a Briefing Paper in October 2021 on the impact of Covid-19 on the energy system. The paper analyses how electricity demand changed at both household and national levels during lockdown and evaluates the measures that were taken by the ESO to balance the grid and maintain a stable supply during lockdown. Valuable insights were gained into how working-from-home policies, electric vehicles, and low-carbon grids can be implemented, incentivised, and managed effectively, which are findings relevant for running a net-zero energy system in the future.
Exploitation Route The results noted above from the whole-system model and on the impact of Covid-19 on the energy system are published in the form of a White Paper/Briefing Paper directed at makers of energy policy. The datasets behind the whole-system modelling were also made available. Both papers were introduced via a launch event and, for the Covid-19 paper, an accompanying short documentary was also released.

The open-access database of performance and costs of energy technologies, mentioned earlier, has so far had 641 downloads. The library contains useful information for energy system and technology modellers in their efforts to capture the technoeconomic characteristics of different technology options, minimise uncertainties and suggest reliable system and technology design strategies.

The work attributing the drop in Great Britain's carbon emissions from electricity generation to certain policies has been presented at five international seminars and also discussed with contacts at BEIS, who are potentially interested in applying the methodology to work out how much carbon is saved by different interventions.

Sharing their expertise through membership of external advisory boards - for example Prof Goran Strbac appointed as a panel member for BEIS/OFGEM Review of the Electricity Engineering Standards - is another route for taking our research outcomes forward.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Energy

URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/energy-futures-lab/idles/publications/
 
Description The investigators and their teams use their findings and expertise to inform public debate and policy on the future of energy via many channels. For example Professor Tim Green was interviewed by several media outlets during the investigation into the major power outages in August 2019. Dr Iain Staffell's analysis of the impacts on power systems and markets during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic was also quoted widely across the media. In the 'Influence on Policy, Practice, Patients and the Public' section we have also noted examples of academics providing evidence to government and regulatory consultations and committees, which have led to improvements in public service delivery and the regulatory environment. A substantial amount of interest emerged around the publication in Nature Energy on offshore wind auctions (Jansen, M., Staffell, I., Kitzing, L. et al. Offshore wind competitiveness in mature markets without subsidy. Nat Energy 5, 614-622 (2020)). As well as being picked up in over 100 news items and gaining impressive traction on social media, the paper has been cited in the policy arena; being used as evidence in the German parliament and referenced in a report prepared for the European Commission on recommendations for financing offshore wind projects. The findings also influenced the discussion following the UK government's announcement for 40 GW of offshore wind, with the authors quoted responding to the announcement in The Independent, The Conversation and The Register. The launch of the White Paper "Net-zero GB electricity: cost-optimal generation and storage mix" was attended by close to 200 people online on the day and has been viewed 480 times on our YouTube channel. BusinessGreen wrote an article on the White Paper and the story featured prominently in their newsletter on the day and rose to the top of their website's 'Most Read' list. The Energyst also featured it. As a result of the report, Dr Marko Aunedi was invited to participate in an 'Energy Futures Group' lunchtime discussion. This is a monthly meeting Chaired by Dieter Helm, to which the Treasury, BEIS, Ofgem, CCC and key companies come along. Marko was also interviewed by the E&T magazine, the publication of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, about the role of nuclear energy in the future energy system. The White Paper was quoted in the resulting article, which was released online and in the printed magazine and has a member circulation of ~140,000 (generally professional engineers working in all areas of engineering and technology industry). A further useful mechanism for communicating our findings is the podcast series "Low Carbon Conversations", which is the creation of one of the IDLES postgraduate students. It proved successful online, particularly given the number of energy podcasts available, with over 1000 total plays/downloads across the whole series of five episodes. It is intended to be very accessible, and each episode features an interview with a researcher discussing a different aspect of the energy transition and how their research is overcoming the challenge.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Energy
 
Description Consulted the Committee on Climate Change on the implications of accelerated electrification of transport and heat for the GB electricity system
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Our research was used to inform the CCC on the likely impacts of rapid electrification of transport and heat in the net zero context on both local electricity grids and the national power system.
URL https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/accelerated-electrification-and-the-gb-electricity-system/#:~:...
 
Description Contribution by Iain Staffell to the Offshore Wind Outlook 2019, a World Energy Outlook special report from the IEA.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.iea.org/reports/offshore-wind-outlook-2019
 
Description Dr Malte Jansen submission to BEIS Consultation "Enabling a high renewable, net zero electricity system: call for evidence"
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/enabling-a-high-renewable-net-zero-electricity-system-ca...
 
Description Dr Marko Aunedi appointed as the Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Council of the system costs study by the OECD NEA
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Dr Marko Aunedi provided an expert review of a National Infrastructure Commission draft report on the operability of highly renewable electricity systems
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://nic.org.uk/studies-reports/operability-highly-renewable-electricity-systems
 
Description Hydrogen Advisory Council
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description OFGEM RII0-2 Challenge Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Ofgem established the RIIO-2 Challenge Group with the objective to provide challenge to the energy network companies on their Business Plans for RIIO-2 and to Ofgem on their framework for RIIO-2, on behalf of existing and future consumers. Independent report was delivered to OFGEM.
URL https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/system/files/docs/2020/01/riio-2_challenge_group_independent_report_for_ofg...
 
Description Prof Goran Strbac appointed as Lead Author in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group III
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact This will provide evidence to all governments related to the climate change mitigation, assessing methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. It is expected that work will be the core for the development of national and International policy frameworks to ensure cost effective reduction of carbon emissions at the global level.
 
Description Prof Goran Strbac appointed as a member of SAPEA - "Science Advice for Policy by European Academies" Working Group member of "A systemic approach to the energy transition in Europe"
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Informing the EU about many possible pathways towards a carbon-neutral future - it is demonstrated that it can be achieved by 2050, but this requires urgent action. This is the central conclusion of SAPEA's evidence review report on the energy transition, and the corresponding Scientific Opinion of the European Commission's Group of Chief Scientific Advisors.
 
Description Prof Goran Strbac appointed as a panel member for Review of the Electricity Engineering Standards
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact UK industrial strategy has articulated a grand challenge of clean growth: realising our decarbonisation objectives, including electrification of transport sector and maintaining reliable, secure and resilient electricity supplies at minimum cost. A key part of this is delivering an efficient electricity network within a whole electricity system, which maintains high levels of reliability and security of supply in Great Britain at least cost to consumers. In order to unlock benefits, BEIS and Ofgem launched a review of electricity system standards, in which Prof Goran Strbac was a member of the Independent Panel. The objective of the review was to consider how the planning and, where appropriate, operational and investment engineering standards should be updated in the face of our changing electricity system, whilst maintaining security of supply to consumers. A report was produced in Dec 2020: "Electricity Engineering Standards Review".
URL https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/9436...
 
Description Prof Nilay Shah gave evidence on the role of hydrogen in achieving net zero
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Prof Tim Green gave evidence to the inquiry "How will batteries and fuel cells help to decarbonise electricity grids?"
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://committees.parliament.uk/event/4440/formal-meeting-oral-evidence-session/
 
Description Professor Goran Strbac appointed as a member of BEIS Advisory Panel of Alternative Energy Markets project.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact As a result of the reformed price signals driven by the Alternative Energy Market concept, this will incentivise and enable consumers to use energy in a more efficient, less carbon-intense way and for suppliers to develop products and services that support cost effective energy system decarbonisation. UK is the international leader in the development of Alternative Energy Market concepts. .
 
Description Professor Goran Strbac appointed as a member of the Joint EU Programme on Energy Systems Integration of the European Energy Research Alliance
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The Joint Programme in Energy Systems Integration seeks to bring together research strengths across Europe to optimise EU energy system, in particular by benefiting from the synergies between heating, cooling, electricity, renewable energy and fuel pathways at all scales. The energy elements of the water and transport system are also included, as well as the data and control network that enables the optimisation. The Joint Programme in Energy Systems Integration is designed to develop the technical and economic framework that governments and industries will need to build the future efficient and sustainable European energy system. It is fully aligned with the recently published SET Plan Integrated Roadmap and potential impact include increased reliability and performance, minimisation of cost and environmental impacts and, in particular, increased penetration of renewable energy sources. This is informing the EU about the development of future energy research projects.
 
Description Professor Goran Strbac appointed as a member of the Open Networks Challenge Group of Energy Networks Association
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Given the objectives of Ofgem and Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), the Challenge Group provides challenge on policy and regulatory progresses to ensure that the programme remains ambitious in delivery and implementation of key proposals related to development of framework for flexibility. The Challenge Group is giving stakeholders an increased role in challenging and shaping flexibility proposals and ensuring that the programme is sufficiently ambitious in its scope and is delivering change at pace.
 
Description Professor Richard Green submission to BEIS Consultation "Enabling a high renewable, net zero electricity system: call for evidence"
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/enabling-a-high-renewable-net-zero-electricity-system-ca...
 
Description Provided expert review of International Renewable Energy Agency's policy brief on demand-side flexibility
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Better understanding of the role of demand-side flexibility for the energy transition.
URL https://www.irena.org/publications/2019/Dec/Demand-side-flexibility-for-power-sector-transformation
 
Description Response to BEIS Call for Evidence on Vehicle-to-X
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description The Flexibility in Great Britain - project analysed the system-level value of deploying flexibility across the heat, transport, industry and power sectors in Great Britain to provide a robust evidence-base on the role and value of flexibility in the net zero carbon energy system, to drive decision making across the energy sector and government to create technology, policies and business models to realise this vision.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Key findings of the analysis are: - Embedding greater flexibility across the entire energy system will reduce the cost of achieving net zero for all consumers while assuring energy security. - Investing in flexibility is a no-regrets decision as it has the potential to deliver material net savings of up to £16.7bn per annum across all scenarios analysed in 2050. - A more flexible system will accelerate the benefits of decarbonisation supported by decentralisation and digitalisation. - To maximise the benefits of flexibility, households and businesses should play an active role in the development and operation of the country's future energy system as energy use for transport, heat and appliances becomes more integrated. - Policymakers should preserve existing flexibility options and act now to maximise future flexibility, such as by building it into 'smart' appliances or building standards. This provided fundamental evidence to BEIS, Ofgem, Climate Change Committee, Innovate UK, National Infrastructure Commission, related to the role and value of flexibility supporting cost effective decarbonisation. Some of the key aspect of flexibility are now included in the Ofgem regulatory framework RIIO ED2 (Revenue = Incentives + Innovation + Outputs; for: Electricity Distribution 2).
URL https://www.carbontrust.com/resources/flexibility-in-great-britain
 
Description 2nd Special Exploratory Research Grant Call on Climate Change
Amount £38,412 (GBP)
Funding ID 8907 
Organisation Private Enterprise Development in Low Income Countries (PEDL) 
Sector Multiple
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2022 
End 03/2023
 
Description Adoption and use of smart plugs for demand side management in India (The King Climate Action Initiative)
Amount $75,000 (USD)
Funding ID J-PAL GR-1719 
Organisation JPAL - The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 03/2021 
End 09/2022
 
Description International Growth Centre (IGC) Early-Career Researcher Call
Amount £19,994 (GBP)
Funding ID 22038 
Organisation International Growth Centre (IGC) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2022 
End 04/2023
 
Description Ocean-REFuel - Ocean Renewable Energy Fuels
Amount £939,296 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/W005158/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2021 
End 11/2026
 
Description Strategic Priorities Fund, call on Evidence-based policy
Amount £19,730 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Research and Innovation 
Department Research England
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Title 1-kWe organic Rankine cycle (ORC) functional prototype. 
Description The ORC testing facility is made of a rotary-vane pump, brazed-plate evaporator and condenser units, optional recuperator and superheater, and a 1-kW scroll expander. Powered by an 18-kWth oil heater, the ORC prototype, operated with refrigerants (HFCs, HFOs, hydrocarbons) as working fluids, converts heat into electrical power, rejected via Joule heating in a resistive load bank. Pressure, temperature and mass flow (Coriolis) sensors are used to monitor the time-resolved performance. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Journal publication and upcoming investigation of the ORC dynamics and advanced real-time control. 
 
Title 30-kWe expander testing facility 
Description The expander testing facility is made of a 30-kW two-stage intercooled reciprocating compressor, a heat-rejection heat exchanger, the expander test section, and a heat-addition heat exchanger. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This apparatus will be used (i) to investigate the performance of various positive-displacement expanders whilst operating with different working fluids, namely light gases (e.g., Nitrogen) and refrigerants (e.g., R245fa), (ii) to study components degradation, and (iii) to investigate two-phase expansion. 
 
Title Multi-fidelity energy conversion and storage technologies modelling. 
Description The proposed research aims of IDLES project 2 are to improve the representation of technologies for energy conversion, storage and transport in integrated energy systems modelling, with detailed assessment of cost/efficiency curves, part-load performance, investment and operational costs, trade-offs between cost-efficiency-flexibility at both component and device level. The aim of the methodology is to increase the accuracy of energy systems optimization tools and related results, with a multi-fidelity representation of uncertainties in technologies modelling, and assist manufacturers in optimal design of single components. The research is carried out in strict collaboration with IDLES project 1, where the high spatial and temporal resolution models are developed, and IDLES project 5, focused on robust and stochastic optimization of complex energy systems. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The results of IDLES project 2 will be used to inform whole integrated energy system modelling of IDLES project 1, and tailor stochastic optimization tools proposed in IDLES project 5. 
 
Title Activity-based Microsimulator of Mobility and Energy Demand 
Description A prototype agent and activity-based microsimulation model that can be used to simulate the spatio-temporal mobility and energy demand patterns of the population of interest. The simulator consists of three primary components: population synthesiser, activity synthesiser and energy (currently electricity) demand simulator. The population synthesiser creates digital representations of the desired agents, either purely synthetic or consistent with observed population (e.g. census). The activity synthesiser in turn simulates the desired representation of time use (activity participation), given parameters set by the user, e.g. day of the week or weather, which ensures accurate reflection of people's in-and out-of-home activities. The resulting activity patterns, alongside attributes of the households, are fed into the energy demand simulator that forecasts energy consumption profiles with an arbitrary level of spatial (household, neighbourhood, district, etc.) and temporal (minute, hourly, etc.) resolution. The demand simulator provides a means of comprehensively representing scenarios of interest along three dimensions of set-up: (1) Population: to reflect (changes to) population composition, household attributes, employment, affluence, residential conditions, (electric) vehicle ownership, or (smart) appliance possession; (2) Activity: to reflect (shifts in) activity timing, preference for in-, out-of-home or virtual activity participation, flexible working arrangements, co-participation in activities; (3) Energy policy: to reflect (changes in) energy tariffs, pricing as well as per-activity energy consumption under particular circumstances of the household. The current model is calibrated using the 2014-15 UK Time Use Data, University of Oxford's Project METER. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Writing up a policy briefing paper based on the implementation of this model. 
 
Title Cascaded latent heat store models and packed-bed sensible/latent heat store models for pumped-thermal energy storage 
Description These models are developed using PDE's integration and a numerical solver. The models include a conjugate description of heat transfer and thermos-economic optimization can be performed using these models. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These models are developed using PDE's integration and a numerical solver. The models include a conjugate description of heat transfer and thermos-economic optimization can be performed using these models. 
 
Title Database of heat and electricity storage systems 
Description Database of developing and mature heat and electricity storage systems including key performance indicators which can be used for whole energy system models. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Will be used in energy system modelling tasks. 
 
Title Database of heat pump and CHP performance/costs/operational characteristics 
Description Database of techno-economic key parameters of a range of energy conversion and storage technologies, to be used in energy systems modelling and optimization 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The database collects a large number of techno-economic parameters and cost/performance curves for current and future energy systems technologies. 
 
Title Databases of costs and performance of commercially available heating products and heat and electricity storage systems 
Description The database of costs and performance of commercially available heating technologies (air-source heat pumps, ground-source heat pumps, combined heat and power devices, gas boilers, electric heaters, fuel cells, hot water storage tanks, PV panels, solar thermal collectors, PVT modules) is constantly being developed and updated. These aim to capture the influence of key factors such as scale, working fluid, environmental conditions/weather, single-component and combined-cycle characteristics. The database extends to include key performance indicators associated with various types of heat and electricity storage systems. These can be used in whole-energy system models. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The proposed databases allow predicting the costs and performance of current and future energy system technologies, their integration strategies and optimal operation/sizing. 
 
Title Enhanced Project METER Database 
Description The project METER data was collected by the University of Oxford, Environmental Change Institute, to understand energy consumption at the household level, as a function of the socioeconomics, the activity-travel patterns, the household appliance use etc. The Urban Systems Lab research group at Imperial College London have access to this data through a collaboration with the project METER team, and have created an enhanced database (including meteorological data and energy tariff data) that can used to statistically model energy demand at a final temporal scale. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The database was fundamental in the development of our prototype energy demand simulator, and in the paper published through Procedia Computer Science. 
 
Title Enhanced UK Time Use Survey data 
Description The UK Time Use Survey (2015) data contains raw data on the activities reported by a sample of individuals. Our research team have undertaken significant processing of this data to turn it into activity episodes by purpose, location (in-home, out-of-home, during travel), and with/without use of ICTs, as well as adding other secondary data such as meteorological records. This data is useful for analysis of activity travel patterns of individuals and trade-offs between these. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This data is central to the development of our prototype activity-based and agent-based mobility and energy demand simulator, that can model the implications of increased work from home or other forms of virtualisation of activities. 
 
Title Heat pump model 
Description Spatially-lumped, steady-state electricity-driven and hydrogen-drive heat pump thermodynamic and component-costing models 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Thermodynamic and component-costing heat pump models of electricity- and hydrogen-driven heat pumps. Can be used compare electricity- and heat-driven options both from a thermoeconomic and a whole-energy system perspective. 
 
Title Heating sector model 
Description Whole-system model of the UK heating sector, designed to be integrated with other electricity system models. The model will include a comprehensive representation of heating technologies as different scales, which is informed by various thermo-economic technology models. Domestic, commercial and industrial demand will be considered and technology portfolio and dispatch schedules will be optimised. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact It will be used for multiple case studies on optimal pathways for the decarbonisation of heating and to assess different policy measures that can support the transition. 
 
Title Integrated working fluid and process optimisation model of organic Rankine cycles 
Description Lumped, steady-state model of a non-recuperated organic Rankine cycle. The model calculates the performance and the investment costs of a given system. A MINLP optimizer is used to design the optimal system for a given set of operating conditions. A CAMD approach is applied to optimize the organic working fluid. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact A journal publication is currently being prepared. 
 
Title Multi-fidelity energy conversion and storage technologies modelling 
Description Comprehensive organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and heat pump models have been extended with a focus on novel low-GWP working fluids. Heat-pump characteristics have been integrated within whole-energy system model frameworks to evaluate the system impact of different designs. Furthermore, detailed pumped-thermal electricity storage (PTES) system models were created and an evaluation of different system configurations and storage options (packed-bed, molten-salt, ) has been performed. Other technologies including solar thermal collectors, PV systems and thermal storages were also modelled. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The results of this project will be used to inform whole integrated energy system modelling of other IDLES projects and provide evidence for the future evolution and selection of energy technologies. 
 
Title Multi-fidelity representation of heat pumps, CHP systems and energy storage technologies 
Description Accurate multi-fidelity models of heat pumps, energy storage and CHP technologies, able to capture the influence of key factors and parameters such as the effect of scale, alternative working fluids, environmental conditions/weather, single components and combined-cycle characteristics. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The proposed model allows predicting the costs and performance of current and future energy system technologies, their integration strategies and optimal operation/sizing. 
 
Title Object-oriented reduced-order dynamic model of reciprocating-piston devices 
Description The reciprocating-piston model is a Matlab-written dynamic lumped-mass model that explicitly accounts for instantaneous loss mechanisms, i.e., pressure losses through intake/exhaust valves, in-cylinder gas-to-wall conjugate heat transfer, mass leakage past the piston rings and friction losses. Performance with in-cylinder two-phase flows (notably liquid-spray injection) can also be predicted. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Large number of publications (5 conference papers and 3 journal papers so far). 
 
Title Pumped thermal electricity storage lumped-capacity model 
Description This dynamic reduced-order model predicts the thermodynamic part-load performance of a reversible Joule/Brayton cycle used as an electricity storage technology, reversible Joule-Brayton cycle engine, where energy is stored as sensible heat in hot and cold thermal stores, while the temperature difference is achieved through gas compression and expansion processes. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Conference paper and upcoming journal publications. 
 
Title Solar thermal and PV models 
Description Models of solar thermal collectors and PV modules. Based on weather data (temperature, irradiation, wind), losses and available output are calculated. The solar thermal model also includes storage tanks and heat demand. It is used to analyse the performance of various different collectors and modules, and to extract simplified correlations which can then be implemented in whole-energy system models. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact It allows us to assess the value of various solar technologies for the decarbonisation of energy systems. Data and correlations will be used in multiple whole-energy system models. 
 
Title Spatially-lumped, steady-state heat pump thermodynamic and component-costing model, as well as data-driven CHP and district heating models 
Description Thermodynamic and component-costing model of heat pump includes low-GWP working fluids. Can be used to estimate the cost and performance of air-air, air-water, water-air or water-water heat pump systems. Data-driven CHP and district heating models can be used to estimate their technoeconomic potential and compare it to those of small- and large-scale heat pumps. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Other researchers have used these models to capture the cost and performance characteristics of these technologies in their whole-energy system models. 
 
Title Thermodynamic optimisation model for determination of efficient choices for a variety of technical parameters of a nuclear power plant coupled with thermal energy storage system and secondary power generators 
Description Computational model of optimising the cycle thermal efficiency of a primary steam Rankine cycle efficiency of a nuclear power plant coupled with thermal energy storage and secondary steam Rankine cycle systems was developed. The model includes consideration of part-load operation conditions such as the variation of the steam turbine isentropic efficiency during off-design conditions (i.e., thermal energy storage charging phase). The model outputs are then used as inputs in a whole-system model to appreciate the benefits of installing and operating the flexible nuclear power plant in the UK's future low-carbon electricity system. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The work based on this model won the 16th SDEWES best paper prize, and led to submission of an article publication in an international journal (Energy Conversion and Management). 
 
Title Whole-energy system modelling and optimisation 
Description A deterministic model of the UK domestic heating energy system has been developed and first estimations of parameter uncertainties were developed. The stochastic optimisation is being implemented to account for uncertainties. Additionally, another model of the UK heating sector (including commercial and industrial demand) is being developed, which will be integrated with an existing model of the electricity sector to form a comprehensive heating and electricity portfolio and dispatch optimisation model. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The results will have impact for researchers, industry and policymakers. Different pathways for the decarbonisation of heating will be investigated and future energy systems will be optimised. The impact of different policies will be studied in order to assess their usefulness, and optimised policy measures will be proposed. 
 
Description CISCO and IDLES 
Organisation CISCO Systems
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Discussions with investigators; attended whole consortium events.
Impact Reports from consortium events
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with Mitsubishi Electric 
Organisation Mitsubishi Electric
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have provided a detailed review report of the Spatial GB Clean Heat Pathway Model. Results were presented from assessments relating to the modelling framework, key assumptions, equations and validation, technology representation, optimisation approach, computational efficiency, flexibility and user interface. We are also collaborating on the low-GWP heat pump systems, including promising refrigerants, emerging technologies and advanced control strategies.
Collaborator Contribution Mitsubishi Electric has provided detailed technology model inputs, validation and feedback.
Impact The collaboration of our research group and Mitsubishi Electric has resulted to the identification of design and operation strategies that can be used in whole-energy system models to indicate the full techno-economic potential of different technology options.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaboration with National Grid and Element Energy 
Organisation Element Energy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have provided a detailed review report of the Spatial GB Clean Heat Pathway Model. Results were presented from assessments relating to the modelling framework, key assumptions, equations and validation, technology representation, optimisation approach, computational efficiency, flexibility and user interface.
Collaborator Contribution National Grid and Element Energy have provided detailed feedback and, following our review, updated and improved the Spatial GB Clean Heat Pathway Model.
Impact The independent peer review of the Spatial GB Clean Heat Pathway Model was used to improve the model based on which gas and electricity distribution network operators make investment decisions. The peer review report will be available online to the general public in the next few weeks.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with National Grid and Element Energy 
Organisation National Grid UK
Department National Grid
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have provided a detailed review report of the Spatial GB Clean Heat Pathway Model. Results were presented from assessments relating to the modelling framework, key assumptions, equations and validation, technology representation, optimisation approach, computational efficiency, flexibility and user interface.
Collaborator Contribution National Grid and Element Energy have provided detailed feedback and, following our review, updated and improved the Spatial GB Clean Heat Pathway Model.
Impact The independent peer review of the Spatial GB Clean Heat Pathway Model was used to improve the model based on which gas and electricity distribution network operators make investment decisions. The peer review report will be available online to the general public in the next few weeks.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with external partners of IDLES (EDF, ABB, National Grid, West Sussex Country Council etc.) 
Organisation ABB Group
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have conducted early-stage presentations and poster sessions to our external partners, explaining the project progress and indicating which pathways and technologies our models tend towards in the strive towards the decarbonisation of the energy sector.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided us information on cost and performance of heating technologies and district heating. They also ensure that industrial and policy needs are embedded in our results.
Impact IDLES industry partner event conducted on 14th November 2019. Prepared posters and delivered a presentation to industrial partners, identified challenges and aligned the project according to needs and interests of partners.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with external partners of IDLES (EDF, ABB, National Grid, West Sussex Country Council etc.) 
Organisation EDF Energy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have conducted early-stage presentations and poster sessions to our external partners, explaining the project progress and indicating which pathways and technologies our models tend towards in the strive towards the decarbonisation of the energy sector.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided us information on cost and performance of heating technologies and district heating. They also ensure that industrial and policy needs are embedded in our results.
Impact IDLES industry partner event conducted on 14th November 2019. Prepared posters and delivered a presentation to industrial partners, identified challenges and aligned the project according to needs and interests of partners.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with external partners of IDLES (EDF, ABB, National Grid, West Sussex Country Council etc.) 
Organisation National Grid UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have conducted early-stage presentations and poster sessions to our external partners, explaining the project progress and indicating which pathways and technologies our models tend towards in the strive towards the decarbonisation of the energy sector.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided us information on cost and performance of heating technologies and district heating. They also ensure that industrial and policy needs are embedded in our results.
Impact IDLES industry partner event conducted on 14th November 2019. Prepared posters and delivered a presentation to industrial partners, identified challenges and aligned the project according to needs and interests of partners.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with external partners of IDLES (EDF, ABB, National Grid, West Sussex Country Council etc.) 
Organisation West Sussex County Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have conducted early-stage presentations and poster sessions to our external partners, explaining the project progress and indicating which pathways and technologies our models tend towards in the strive towards the decarbonisation of the energy sector.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided us information on cost and performance of heating technologies and district heating. They also ensure that industrial and policy needs are embedded in our results.
Impact IDLES industry partner event conducted on 14th November 2019. Prepared posters and delivered a presentation to industrial partners, identified challenges and aligned the project according to needs and interests of partners.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Daedalus Environmental and IDLES 
Organisation Daedalus Environmental
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings with investigators; attended whole consortium events; attended the IDLES Management Board 14/11/2019 in the rotational place (reserved for non-cash contributing consortium members)
Impact Reports from consortium events.
Start Year 2018
 
Description EDF and IDLES 
Organisation EDF Energy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, management board, newsletters and reports. Dr Iain Staffell and Prof Richard Green undertook consultancy work with EDF Energy on modelling future power prices to support their investment team, drawing on analysis developed within Project 6 of IDLES.
Collaborator Contribution Funded 2 x PhD students working alongside the Programme Attended meetings with investigators and students; attended whole consortium events; participated in IDLES Management Board
Impact Reports from consortium events. PhD students integrated into the IDLES programme. Consultancy work on modelling future power prices completed with Dr Iain Staffell and Prof Richard Green.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Ecocentric Energy and IDLES 
Organisation Ecocentric Energy
Country Australia 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, management board, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Meetings with investigators; attended whole consortium events; holds a position on the IDLES Management Board
Impact Reports from consortium events.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Efficiency limits for spectral-splitting hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar systems 
Organisation Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As part of this research effort our team undertook model investigation and component comparison fro pumped-thermal energy storage. This research is pertinent for the thermos-economic performance analysis on large-scale energy storage technologies.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating institution provided supervision and equipment.
Impact 1 x conference paper presented: 13th International Conference on Solar Energy for Buildings and Industry (EuroSun2020). 1 x journal papers published: Applied Energy. 1 x conference paper submitted: 15th International Conference on Energy Storage (ENERSTOCK 2021). 2 x journal papers in preparation (aimed submission Apr. 2021).
Start Year 2019
 
Description Equinor and IDLES 
Organisation Equinor
Country Norway 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Attending events and interactions with research groups
Impact N/A
Start Year 2020
 
Description GLA and IDLES 
Organisation Greater London Authority (GLA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Discussions with investigators; attended whole consortium events; has a role in the IDLES Steering Committee
Impact Reports from consortium events
Start Year 2018
 
Description Green Giraffe and IDLES 
Organisation Green Giraffe
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Discussing the latest research from IDLES of interest to the partner, and sharing relevant publications. Sharing general programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Attending meetings with investigators; delivered a lecture on energy project finance to students on the MSc Management and International Management and our MBA programmes; delivered a public lecture on "Making biogas work: a financial perspective".
Impact Public lecture and student lecture
Start Year 2018
 
Description High-efficiency low-GWP transport refrigeration - collaboration with Sunswap Ltd 
Organisation Sunswap Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have developed a reduced-order refrigeration system model, which has been integrated - together with a dynamic thermal model of the chilled and frozen compartments - within a duty cycle model.
Collaborator Contribution Sunswap Ltd have developed the dynamic thermal model of the chilled and frozen compartments and provided time-resolved case studies to assess the performance of the overall TRU system.
Impact The ongoing collaboration with Sunswap Ltd, though recent, has already proven fruitful. We have developed a reliable tool to assess and optimise the potential of solar-assisted battery-based TRUs, which is a highly promising technology to decarbonise the refrigerated transport sector.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Hitachi Energy and IDLES (formerly ABB and ABB Power Grids) 
Organisation ABB Group
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Coordinated set up of ABB-Imperial Digital Energy Demonstrator on campus and hosting a launch event; hosting tours of the demonstrator; initiating a research project linking the demonstrator to IDLES models; sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, management board; newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Co-Funded the ABB-Imperial Digital Energy Demonstrator; funding for software, maintenance and a dedicated facility manager. Attended meetings with investigators; attended whole consortium events; participate in the IDLES Management Board.
Impact Construction of ABB-Imperial demonstrator; frequent tours of the demonstrator have been provided as part of engagement activities, for visitors and business meetings. Reports from consortium events. Workshops and meetings are regularly held with various colleagues on the Hitachi/Imperial long term vision for sector coupling and multi-energy vectors.
Start Year 2018
 
Description IBM and IDLES 
Organisation IBM
Department IBM UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, Management Board meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution A member of the Management Board, meets quarterly. Presented an industry perspective at the Management Board, May 2019. Attended whole consortium events.
Impact Reports from consortium events.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Informed Actions and IDLES 
Organisation InformedActions
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Attended whole consortium events and participated in discussions
Impact Reports from consortium events.
Start Year 2018
 
Description National Grid and IDLES 
Organisation National Grid UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, Management Board, newsletters and reports
Collaborator Contribution Sponsored 1 x PhD student working alongside the programme. Attended meetings with investigators; attended whole consortium events; participation in the IDLES Management Board
Impact Reports from consortium events. PhD student integrated into IDLES.
Start Year 2018
 
Description ONZO and IDLES 
Organisation Onzo Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Attended consortium events
Impact Reports from consortium events
Start Year 2018
 
Description Old Oak and Park Royal Development Corporation (OPDC) and IDLES 
Organisation Government of the UK
Department Old Oak and Park Royal Development Corporation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports. Co-supervising 2 x MSc students projects with OPDC on the MSc Sustainable Energy Futures course at Imperial.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings with investigators; attended whole consortium events; is a member of the IDLES Steering Committee. Co-supervising 2 x MSc students projects on the MSc Sustainable Energy Futures course at Imperial.
Impact Valuable input into the Steering Committee; 2 x MSc thesis completed using OPDC as a case study.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Project METER and IDLES 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Environmental Change Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team enhanced the Project METER database, and developed methods, algorithms and code to analyse the data in new ways to put it to further use.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners at the University of Oxford provided the Project METER database at no cost, as well as invested the time to help us understand the data.
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration that brings together transport studies, energy, social sciences, statistical analysis and agent-based microsimulation techniques. Primary outcomes to date 1. Enhanced project METER database 2. Paper published by the Procedia Computer Science 3. Development of energy demand simulator based on the models calibrated using this data
Start Year 2019
 
Description RGB and IDLES 
Organisation KiWi Power
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Design of demand side response trials, and analysis of data from the demand side response trials conducted in 2020-2021
Collaborator Contribution The Royal Borough of Greenwich and Kiwi Power were jointly responsible for conducting a range of demand side response trials, and collecting the resulting data through surveys, smart meters and mobile phone apps
Impact The data from these trials are currently being analysed and will contribute toward the development of the models embedded within our prototype demand simulator
Start Year 2020
 
Description RGB and IDLES 
Organisation Royal Borough of Greenwich
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Design of demand side response trials, and analysis of data from the demand side response trials conducted in 2020-2021
Collaborator Contribution The Royal Borough of Greenwich and Kiwi Power were jointly responsible for conducting a range of demand side response trials, and collecting the resulting data through surveys, smart meters and mobile phone apps
Impact The data from these trials are currently being analysed and will contribute toward the development of the models embedded within our prototype demand simulator
Start Year 2020
 
Description Upside Energy/Krakenflex and IDLES 
Organisation Upside Energy Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports.
Collaborator Contribution Attended whole consortium events; acceptance to attend the IDLES Management Board in the rotational place (reserved for non-cash contributing consortium members)
Impact Reports from consortium events.
Start Year 2018
 
Description West Sussex County Council and IDLES 
Organisation West Sussex County Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sharing programme and research developments via consortium meetings, newsletters and reports. Analysing data sets of energy consumption from West Sussex sites.
Collaborator Contribution Discussions with investigators; attended whole consortium events; sharing energy profile datasets from their sites.
Impact Reports from consortium events
Start Year 2019
 
Title Object-oriented reduced-order dynamic model of reciprocating-piston devices 
Description The reciprocating-piston model is a Matlab-written dynamic lumped-mass model that explicitly accounts for instantaneous loss mechanisms, i.e., pressure losses through intake/exhaust valves, in-cylinder gas-to-wall conjugate heat transfer, mass leakage past the piston rings and friction losses. Performance with in-cylinder two-phase flows (notably liquid-spray injection) can also be predicted. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Large number of publications (5 conference papers and 3 journal papers so far). 
 
Title Optimisation Software for Medium-/Long-Term Scheduling of Hydropower Cascades on Multiple Markets 
Description Peak/off-peak spreads on European electricity forward and spot markets are eroding due to the ongoing nuclear phaseout and the steady growth in photovoltaic capacity. The reduced profitability of peak/off-peak arbitrage forces hydropower producers to recover part of their original profitability on the reserve markets. We have implemented a bi-layer stochastic programming framework for the optimal operation of a fleet of interconnected hydropower plants that sells energy on both the spot and the reserve markets. The outer layer (the planner's problem) optimizes end-of-day reservoir filling levels over one year, whereas the inner layer (the trader's problem) selects optimal hourly market bids within each day. After an approximation which assumes that the end-of-day water levels are decided upon one day ahead of time, we obtain a two-stage stochastic program that can conveniently be solved via the sample average approximation. Numerical experiments based on a cascade in the Salzburg region of Austria demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2021 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Just released, so no impact yet. 
URL http://www.optimization-online.org/DB_FILE/2021/03/8282.pdf
 
Title Pumped thermal electricity storage lumped-capacity model. 
Description This dynamic reduced-order model, written in Matlab using object-oriented programming, predicts the thermodynamic part-load performance of a reversible Joule/Brayton cycle used as an electricity storage technology, reversible Joule-Brayton cycle engine, where energy is stored as sensible heat in hot and cold thermal stores, while the temperature difference is achieved through gas compression and expansion processes. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact Submitted to the ECOS 2020 conference: Paul Sapin, Michael C. Simpson, Andreas Olympios, Matthias Mersch and Christos N. Markides, Cost-benefit analysis of reversible reciprocating-piston engines with adjustable volume ratio in pumped thermal electricity storage, Proceedings of ECOS 2020 - the 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems ECOS June 29-July 3, 2020, Osaka, Japan. 
 
Title Software - Lumped, steady-state organic Rankine cycle optimisation model 
Description Lumped, steady state organic Rankine cycle model in Matlab with a detailed, discretized representation of the heat exchangers. CAMD description of the working fluid. MINLP optimisation problem to minimize specific investment costs for given operating conditions. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact On-going 
 
Title Software - Spatially-lumped, steady-state heat pump thermodynamic and component-costing model, as well as data-driven CHP and district heating models. 
Description Thermodynamic and component-costing model of heat pump can be used in conjection with data-driven CHP and district heating models to accurately compare technologies from a system perspective, as well as to provide new innovative designs (working fluids, component sizing etc.) 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact On-going 
 
Description 'Science in the City' talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr Marko Aunedi delivered a ;Science in the City' talk at Eden Tree Investment Management, organised by The Grantham Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Blog by Dimitrios Papadaskalopoulos 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dimitrios Papadaskalopoulos wrote a blog about his presentation at the PowerTech conference in June 2019; to communicate about his work on electricity market modelling using optimisation and game theoretic approaches; to speak more broadly on what his work contributes to the energy community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2019/08/01/flexible-demand-at-powertech2019/
 
Description Blog by Jacek Pawlak 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Researcher Jacek Pawlak wrote a blog based on his seminar presentation "A microeconomic framework for integrated modelling of emerging activity-travel behaviour patterns and energy consumption". The purpose of the blog was for Jacek to explain his research on understanding energy use as society changes when, where and how we go about our daily routine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2019/10/10/a-microeconomic-framework-for-integrated-modelling-of-emerg...
 
Description Blog by Malte Jansen - "Behind the paper: The era of subsidy-free offshore wind" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog published by Malte Jansen - "Behind the paper: The era of subsidy-free offshore wind" (republished from the community websites of Behavioural and Social Sciences at Nature Research).
The blog describes the development of Malte's research, published in Nature Energy, analysing the rapidly falling prices in offshore wind auctions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2020/10/06/behind-the-paper-the-era-of-subsidy-free-offshore-wind
 
Description Blog by Marco Pantaleo and Marko Aunedi - Combining heat and power 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Marco Pantaleo and Marko Aunedi wrote a blog entitled "Combining heat and power in Dubrovnik", based on a paper they presented at the 14th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES). Purpose - for the researchers to communicate their work presented at the conference to a wider audience, on integrating heating and electricity systems using technologies such as electric heat pumps, boilers and thermal storage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2019/11/07/combining-heat-and-power-in-dubrovnik/
 
Description Blog by Marko Aunedi - New nuclear in the UK: At what price does it make sense? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Marko Aunedi wrote a blog entitled "New nuclear in the UK: At what price does it make sense?".
Positive feedback on the blog and analysis was directly received online from contacts across the nuclear industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2020/11/23/new-nuclear-in-the-uk-at-what-price-does-it-make-sense
 
Description Blog by Prof Nilay Shah on hydrogen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Prof Nilay Shah wrote a blog for The Foundation for Science and Technology (a UK charity, providing an impartial platform for debate of policy issues that have a science, research, technology or innovation element) on "Hydrogen and its role in the low carbon economy".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.foundation.org.uk/Blog/2021/Hydrogen-and-its-role-in-the-low-carbon-economy
 
Description Blog by Xi Zhang - microgrids and resilience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Researcher Xi Zhang wrote a blog about his work on multi energy microgrids and resilience. The EnergyPost.EU also requested to repost it (https://energypost.eu/multi-energy-island-microgrids-can-increase-grid-resilience/)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2020/03/02/multi-energy-microgrids-the-key-to-energy-resilience/
 
Description Blog by an IDLES researcher - Scalable solution approaches for dynamic decision-making in energy planning 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Huikang Liu, IDLES Research Associate in the Analytics and Operations Group in the Business School, discusses scalable solution approaches for dynamic decision-making in energy planning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2021/04/08/scalable-solution-approaches-for-dynamic-decision-making-in...
 
Description Blog by researchers who won a Best Paper award at an international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Abdullah Al Kindi and Andreas Olympios wrote a blog about their attendance at the 16th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) and the results they presented. Abdullah presented his results from a collaboration with Dr Marko Aunedi, Dr Marco Pantaleo, Professor Goran Strbac and Professor Christos Markides, that undertakes a thermo-economic assessment of flexible nuclear power plants in the UK's future low-carbon electricity system. This collaboration between IDLES system modellers and technology modellers won a Best Paper prize, which is discussed in the blog.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2021/11/08/idles-research-on-show-at-international-conference-with-new...
 
Description Briefing Paper launch: Impacts of COVID-19 on the Energy System 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A launch event for the Briefing Paper "Impacts of COVID-19 on the Energy System" in October 2021 attracted just under 100 online attendees and has since been viewed on YouTube by close to 300 people. The paper was presented by co-authors and this was followed by a panel discussion on the topic with:
Julian Leslie (Head of Networks and Chief Engineer at National Grid ESO); Dr Tina Fawcett, (Acting Leader, Energy Programme and Senior Researcher at the Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford) and David Sykes (Data Analyst at Octopus Energy).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wh0S8XUlu8k
 
Description DAFNI Roadshow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Approximately 25-30 people attended a workshop organised jointly by Dr Aruna Sivakumar of Imperial College London and DAFNI. The workshop was focused on the development and implementation of large scale models of national infrastructures (e.g. transport, energy). The event sparked lively discussion with strong interest from the attendees to learn more about research and deployment opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://dafni.ac.uk/roadshow-imperial/
 
Description Demand side response data workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Hosted a workshop on DSR data with participation from collaborators from UCL, Oxford University and University of Reading. To share knowledge between colleagues and collaborators about our existing, and desired, data sets of energy consumption. Sharing of data from the METER project at the University of Oxford with ICL was initiated. Areas of follow up with the Smart Energy Research Lab identified
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Dr Marko Aunedi interviewed for Imperial Stories 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Marko Aunedi gave an interview to feed into an article for 'Imperial Stories' on the future of the UK's energy mix. 'Imperial Stories' include features and opinion from the Imperial College community, from world-leading experts. The article's aim is to inform the public on the future of energy, provide a voice to Imperial researchers and share recommendations with policymakers, as well as raising the visibility of IDLES research on net zero energy mix.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/be-inspired/stories/
 
Description Drax Electric Insights Report, Q4, 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release about the Q4 Drax Electric Insights report, referencing IDLES work from Iain Staffell and Richard Green
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://electricinsights.co.uk/#/reports/report-2019-q4/detail/what-drove-britains-decarbonisation?_...
 
Description Educational brochure on whole energy systems analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Produced an educational brochure in conjunction with the company Futurum on the topic of whole energy systems analysis. It featured profiles of a number of IDLES investigators and described the 6 projects of IDLES, and the importance of connecting across the various strands of the energy sector. The brochure comprised a 6-page main article, activity sheet and case study. It was sent to the ~50k circulation list of Futurum, uploaded to the TES global resource repository and to www.teacherpayteachers.com and is freely available for download. Also promoted online via Futurum and Energy Futures Lab.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://futurumcareers.com/how-do-we-prepare-the-uk-for-a-zero-carbon-future
 
Description Electric Insights Quarterly and website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We are now working with Drax Power to produce a quarterly newsletter, and they maintain a website of accessible and processed data from Elexon and National Grid, showing the state of the electricity system in Great Britain. The insights in the newsletter, commenting on developments in output shares by generator type, wholesale prices, carbon emissions, and similar indicators, draw on the research for this project. The newsletter has been mentioned in several national newspapers or other media outlets (particularly the finding that over half of Britain's electricity was low-carbon in the third (summer) quarter of 2016) and the website is now regularly referred to by the Financial Times as a source of electricity data
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022
URL http://www.electricinsights.co.uk
 
Description Energy Futures Lab Seminar - a framework for integrated modelling of emerging activity-travel behaviour patterns and energy consumption 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Energy Futures Lab Lunchtime seminar from Dr Jacek Pawlak. Presentation entitled "A microeconomic framework for integrated modelling of emerging activity-travel behaviour patterns and energy consumption". The presentation discussed changes in energy consumption due to activity/travel behaviour patterns. The audience contained many MSc students who were in the process of choosing their dissertation projects, so Jacek's presentation raised the profile of his group's work in this respect.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/administration/energyfutureslab/events...
 
Description Energy Futures Lab Seminar from IDLES partner N-SIDE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The company N-SIDE, who are a consortium partner of IDLES, delivered a lunchtime seminar on Integrating day-ahead multi energy carrier markets, discussing research from their Horizon 2020 project 'MAGNITUDE'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/events/117134/integrating-day-ahead-multi-energy-carrier-markets-equilibr...
 
Description Energy Futures Lab Webinar - Microgrids: An enabling technology towards more resilient energy systems? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Energy Futures Lab Lunchtime webinar from Dr Anastasios Oulis Rousis. Presentation entitled "Microgrids: An enabling technology towards more resilient energy systems?".
The presentation discussed innovative design and operational models for microgrids to help realise their potential to actively contribute to grid resilience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/microgrids-an-enabling-technology-towards-more-resilient-energy-syste...
 
Description Energy Futures Lab Webinar - The Subsidy-Free Era of Offshore Wind 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Energy Futures Lab Lunchtime webinar from Dr Malte Jansen "The Subsidy-Free Era of Offshore Wind", communicating his research on the cost reductions across offshore wind.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/the-subsidy-free-era-of-offshore-wind-tickets-124248074335#
 
Description Exhibited at 'Imperial Lates', evening engagement event open to general public 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Ran the Wattown demonstrator at the Imperial Lates 'Beautiful Data' event in March 2020, in order to engage with visitors about the use of data and digitalisation in the energy sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/events/116446/imperial-lates-beautiful-data/
 
Description Feature written for the IMechE magazine's online content 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A feature was written by the IDLES Project 2 team, led by Prof Christos Markides, for the Institution of Mechanical Engineers publication 'Professional Engineering'. The title was 'Beyond batteries and pumped-hydro for large-scale energy storage' and the article drew on the group's review paper of thermo-mechanical energy storage. It was published online by 'Professional Engineering', included in their weekly newsletter and shared on their Twitter page (23.1K Followers). We timed registration opening for a linked event on the topic with the day that the article was published, so that the event details could be included in the article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.imeche.org/news/news-article/feature-beyond-batteries-and-pumped-hydro-for-large-scale-e...
 
Description Featured in the Imperial College eBook 'Innovations for Sustainable Energy' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact IDLES was included in the Energy Systems section of a short eBook from the Enterprise Division at Imperial College. Their publications are targeted at Imperial's industry and business collaborators.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://enterprise.imperial.ac.uk/transition-to-zero-pollution-sustainable-energy?utm_campaign=Campa...
 
Description Great Exhibition Road Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in the Energy Futures Lab stand at the festival. The purpose was to inform visitors about developments in renewable energy and integration into the energy system, through interactive demonstrations. The demos could be used on a simple level with younger visitors and used to initiate more detailed conversations with adult visitors. We also ran tours of the ABB-Imperial digital energy demonstrator. The purpose of the tour was to show visitors examples of the way the grid will be controlled and managed in the near future and how this will be impacted by research in IDLES and across Imperial College.

Issued 250 "Renewables Ninja" business cards to visitors (containing details of Iain Staffell's web tool for running simulations of hourly power output from wind and solar PV farms). Volunteers were invited to run the Wattown demo at ResearchFest! - an activity run by the Centre for Academic English at Imperial College. A volunteer was invited to host an "ask-a-scientist" afternoon for primary children. Videos and social media posts were generated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/192110/energy-futures-lab-joins-great-exhibition/
 
Description IDLES Evening Lecture with Professor Mark O'Malley, NREL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The inaugral 'IDLES Lecture'. Entitled "Towards 100% renewables: The integration challenge", from Professor Mark O'Malley, NREL. Aiming to communicate the technological and economic integration challenges to a 100% renewable electricity system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/administration/energyfutureslab/events...
 
Description IDLES industry partner consortium event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The first consortium engagement since the grant was awarded. The purpose was to welcome partners to the programme and remind them on the aims and vision. A programme overview was presented and partner feedback was sought on a series of research questions developed within IDLES.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description IDLES industry partner consortium events 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact IDLES events with consortium partners (two per year). Purpose - to update partners on the programme and share some keys areas of research. Presentations delivered by IDLES researchers; poster session; activities and group discussions with partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Imperial College news story reporting on "Spectral-splitting photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors" research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A research article led by Professor Christos Markides, published in the Nature journal, Light: Science & Applications, was the focus of an Imperial College news story.
The research has been picked up by 8 news outlets and 2 blogs, including PV Magazine, Solar Daily, SciTechDaily and TechXplore. The publication has been accessed 1355 times, and has an Altmetric score of 80 which puts it in the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric. (ref: Huang, G., Wang, K. & Markides, C.N. Efficiency limits of concentrating spectral-splitting hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) solar collectors and systems. Light Sci Appl 10, 28 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00465-1).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/214093/solar-collectors-that-split-sunlight-more/
 
Description Internal science communication activity - ResearchFest! 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact To assist new starters (primarily post-grad students) at Imperial College practice their English language skills within a topic relevant to their research. In 2019 'Wattown' demo was shown then the participants asked questions and discussed the energy research in IDLES and Imperial College generally. Visitors took away flyers about the IDLES programme and Energy Futures Lab. In 2020 the event was held online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Interview with report author and citation of IDLES White Paper in an article for the IET's magazine 'Engineering & Technology' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Findings from the IDLES White Paper "Net-zero GB electricity: cost-optimal generation and storage mix" on the role of nuclear energy in a future net-zero system were cited in an article in the IET's magazine 'Engineering & Technology'. Following an interview with the White Paper's lead author Dr Marko Aunedi, an E&T article, 'Could nuclear power help get us to net zero?' featured online and in the print version of the magazine with circulation to approx. 140,000 members, which referenced the White Paper findings and the IDLES Programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2022/02/could-nuclear-power-help-get-us-to-net-zero/
 
Description Invited to participate in a high level energy discussion group chaired by Dieter Helm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On the back of his White Paper "Net-zero GB electricity: cost-optimal generation and storage mix", lead author Dr Marko Aunedi was invited to participate in a discussion with the small, high-level organisation 'Energy Futures Group', which is Chaired by Dieter Helm. This group meets monthly and the Treasury, BEIS, Ofgem, CCC and key companies attend. Marko was invited to participate in the topic: The 2035 target - can it be done? Will it? And what happens if it isn't?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Lecture delivered to MSc students on energy project finance by IDLES partner 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Michael Ware, Director at the IDLES partner Green Giraffe (renewable energy finance company), delivered a lecture to 45 students from the MSc in Management and International Management and MBA programmes, on the topic of green energy project finance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Lunchtime seminar as part of London Climate Action Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Konstantinos Zavitsas and Aruna Sivakumar presented "The mechanics of smart sustainable cities" to align with London Climate Action Week - communicating their research on the Sharing Cities project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/events/96803/the-mechanics-of-smart-sustainable-cities/
 
Description Media interviews by Prof Tim Green following the Aug 2019 power outage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following widespread power cuts in Britain on 9th August 2019, Prof Tim Green gave interviews for Sky News, ITV News and Channel Four News, broadcast on Saturday 10th August 2019, and Radio Interviews for BBC 5Live Breakfast and BBC Radio Wales on Monday 12th August 2019.
Quotes released by Science Media Centre picked up by several newspapers: The Guardian, The Independent, FT, The Sun and other UK newspapers. Gave additional briefings for BBC 5Live Business, Bloomberg News, The Sunday Telegraph and Wired Magazine.
Commentary on National Grid's interim report was issued via Science Media Centre, Energy Futures Lab blog and Twitter thread. Interviewed for Channel 5 news and quoted in The Times, The Guardian, The Independent and many other outlets on 20th August 2019. Further interviews for BBC News Channel and BBC 5Live on 10th September 2019 following publication of the final report from National Grid.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Mini-documentary on Britain's energy under lockdown 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The mini-documentary "Power down: Britain's energy under lockdown" was produced to coincide with the Briefing Paper "Impacts of COVID19 on the Energy System". The documentary was produced as a digestible, high-level, overview of the Briefing Paper and its findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/energy-futures-lab/reports/briefing-papers/paper-7/#
 
Description News story released via Energy Futures Lab 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Imperial College (engineering) news story released about IDLES Project 2 research on the potential of thermo-mechanical energy storage (TMES) technologies as grid-scale electricity storage. The news story discussed their recent comprehensive international review in Progress in Energy into the advancement of a range of TMES technologies, including compressed-air energy storage, liquid-air energy storage and pumped-thermal electricity storage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/217313/thermo-mechanical-technologies-offer-promise-grid-scale-elect...
 
Description Panel participation at European Utility Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Marko Aunedi participated in a panel debate titled "Future-proofing the Transmission and Distribution Networks" within the European Utility Week in Paris, 12-14 November 2019. Five panelists represented the research, industry, policy, regulatory and NGO sectors and discussed how to manage network development in an increasingly uncertain environment. The session reached a broad audience and was also recorded for wider access.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participating in an IAEA Consultancy Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Marko Aunedi participated in International Atomic Energy Agency's 3-day expert meeting on the Role of Nuclear Energy in Energy systems with Increased Shares of Variable Renewable Energy Sources in Vienna in May 2019. Marko delivered a presentation on the role of flexibility in cost-efficient transition to low-carbon systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participation in a roundtable discussion on the power sector - Dr Marko Aunedi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Marko Aunedi took part in the roundtable discussion on the future of the UK power sector, organised by the National Infrastructure Commission and involving 20 participants from government, energy industry and research organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Podcast series produced; 'Low Carbon Conversations' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An IDLES and Energy Futures Lab podcast series 'Low Carbon Conversations' was launched in March 2021. Hosted by IDLES postgraduate researcher Cormac O'Malley, each episode features an interview with a researcher discussing how challenges in running a decarbonised energy system are being overcome. 5 episodes were produced and released monthly, on topics including how to maintain a balanced power system, heat decarbonisation and hydrogen; what, why and where?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/energy-futures-lab/idles/podcast/
 
Description Powering Net-Zero Britain (IDLES White Paper Launch) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IDLES White Paper was launched in an online webinar on 8 June 2021, titled "Powering Net-Zero Britain". The presentation of the key findings of the White Paper was followed by a panel discussion. Over 400 participants registered for the event. Recording of the event is available on YouTube.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntGuThYXlPI
 
Description Powerswarm network workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Iain Staffell and Malte Jansen co-organise the monthly Powerswarm network workshops. In Sept 2019: 'Future Electricity Networks', Glasgow. In Oct 2019: 'Decarbonisation of Heat', Birmingham. In Nov 2019: 'Mobility Services', London. In Dec 2019:'Wind Energy', London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL http://powerswarm.co.uk/
 
Description Presentation and panel discussion about storage technologies based on thermo-mechanical principles 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The event on 08/03/2022 featured a 20 minute presentation from Prof Christos Markides about thermo-mechanical energy storage systems, as alternatives to batteries and pumped hydro for large-scale storage. This was followed by a panel discussion with Stuart Nelmes (Highview Power), Nina Skorupska (REA) and Darren Jones (Hitachi Energy). The purpose was to raise awareness of the potential of such technologies, in view of their recent cost reductions and performance improvements, particularly to large industry stakeholders. The online event was attended by 156 people and the YouTube recording has had 463 views (as of 14/03/2022). Known impacts so far: (1) Prof Markides was approached by CEO of RheEnergise to discuss shared interests; (2) Energy Institute are planning to write up the event for the EI's new magazine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JoMe-pmHqAY
 
Description Presentation at an (online) Stanford University Symposium, Decarbonizing the Grid series 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Richard Green presented at a Stanford University Symposium on 'Policies Facilitating Decarbonization of Supply', as part of their Decarbonizing the Grid workshop series. It was attended online by around 100 people from academia, industry and policy and has received several hundred subsequent views online. Alongside colleagues discussing US and China decarbonisation, Richard presented the IDLES work undertaken with Dr Iain Staffell on assigning British carbon emissions reductions to the various changes over the last decade.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trTwC8r6EUk
 
Description Presentation on cross-vector modelling of low-carbon energy systems in EERA Energy Systems Integration modelling workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Marko Aunedi participated in the EERA ESI modelling workshop in Delft, Netherlands in May 2019 among ~30 participants from other research organisations around Europe. He presented Imperial's research on cross-vector modelling of low-carbon energy systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation on whole-system benefits of smart EV fleets in the UK in EERA Energy Systems Integration technical workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Marko Aunedi presented preliminary outcomes of Imperial's research on whole-system benefits of smart EV fleets to an audience of ~30 in EERA ESI workshop in Stavanger, Norway in September 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Profile of IDLES Researcher in Imperial College internal newsletter and blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Profile of Marko Aunedi included in the Imperial College blog and internal newsletter, circulated to all staff and available on website. In the interview, he references his work in IDLES, his White Paper, webinar and podcast signposting our work to a much broader audience internally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://blogs.imperial.ac.uk/imperial-people/2022/02/14/dr-marko-aunedi-research-fellow-department-o...
 
Description Public lecture on the financing biogas by an IDLES industry partner 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An IDLES programme lecture was delivered online during September 2021 by invited speaker Michael Ware, who is a Director from the IDLES partner, Green Giraffe, a renewable energy finance advisory firm. The topic was "Making biogas work: a financial prospective".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO_kooffXnc
 
Description Quoted in media - Dr Iain Staffell 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact News articles where IDLES Project Lead Iain Staffell, or his work, is quoted; to provide exposure to Iain's work related to energy systems, emissions and markets; establishes him & Imperial College as a point of authority on these topics.

List:
The Times, 2021. EDF warning of plant closures limits Britain's nuclear options;
The Times, 2021. Imperial College report warns on threat to power grid's security;
i News, 2021. UK switch to renewable power threatened by freak weather, scientists warn;
The Guardian, 2021. UK businesses can unlock growth with green exports, says CBI;
The Telegraph, 2021. Wind slump risks blackouts as Britain goes green;
The Telegraph, 2021. Green energy drive puts Britain's resilience in doubt;
Engineering & Technology, 2021. Early phase-out of coal could save billions;
Australian Mining, 2021. Coal workforce must be retrained to avoid future job cuts;
Independent, 2020. Boxing Day sets new record for wind power generation in Britain;
Bloomberg, 2020. U.K. Power Grid Heads for Greenest Year as Renewables Grow;
Guardian, 2020. Storm Bella helps Great Britain set new record for wind power generation;
New York Times, 2020. "Reduced Demand for Electricity Leads to Power Giveaways."
Bloomberg, 2020. "Sunniest Spring Helps U.K. Hit a New Solar Record."
Daily Mail, 2020. "Renewables generated more than 40% of Britain's power in the first three months of the year - overtaking fossil fuels for the first time."
Independent, 2020. "Climate crisis: Renewable energy overtakes fossil fuels for first three months of the year." (Also ITV News, Sky News, Bloomberg, The Energyst)
Telegraph, 2020. "Lockdown sees electricity demand fall to lowest level since 1982." (also Evening Standard.)
Fortune, 2020. "A month of Sundays: Electricity use data reveals secrets of coronavirus lockdown lifestyle."
Time, 2020. "Electricity Data May Reveal How Coronavirus Lockdowns Affect Our Daily Routine."
Forbes, 2020. "Britain Hits Three Weeks Coal-Free Record."
The Independent, 2020. "UK cutting carbon from power grid 'almost twice as fast as any other major economy'.
The Guardian, 2020. "GB carbon emissions from electricity hit record low in lockdown - report."
i News, 2020. "Lockdown brings Britain cleanest ever power supply as carbon emissions fall by one third."
Bloomberg, 2020. "Britain Got its Cleanest Electricity Ever During Lockdown."
The Times, 2019. Electric cars 'always cleaner than petrol' (also in Business Green. Auto Express);
Daily Mail, 2019. Electric cars in the UK 'simply cannot be more polluting than a petrol or diesel equivalent' over their lifetime, says new in-depth study;
i News, 2019. Electric cars' lifetime CO2 emissions half that of petrol and diesel;
The Telegraph, 2019. Feeling the heat? The economy might wilt in the sunshine too;
The Times, 2019. Electricity imports at record high as new link allows cheaper deal;
Daily Express, 2019. EU Bombshell: How the bloc 'imposed the HIGHEST electricity and gas bills on Britain';
World Economic Forum, 2018. Ten charts show how the world is progressing on clean energy. (also in Carbon Brief.);
The Times, 2018. Onset of energy revolution 'creating two-tier economy'. (also in Irish News, The National, BusinessGreen, Utility Week, Edie.net);
Independent, 2018. Brexit added £2bn to UK energy bills in year after referendum. (also in Platts and Utility Week);
Metro, 2018. Green energy 'divide' puts London and Scots ahead;
The Guardian, 2018. UK renewable energy capacity surpasses fossil fuels for first time. (also in Reuters, Bloomberg, Business Green);
i News, 2018. More of UK's energy to come from renewable sources than fossil fuels within three years;
Daily Mail, 2018. UK's renewable energy capacity has overtaken fossil fuels like coal and gas for the first time;
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020,2021
 
Description Research Highlight by Paul Sapin - "Technology options for a low-carbon energy system - how to make the best choice?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researcher Paul Sapin wrote the "Research Highlight: Technology options for a low-carbon energy system - how to make the best choice?" for the IDLES website. The EnergyPost.eu also requested to republish it on their website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://energyfutureslab.blog/2020/09/23/research-highlight-technology-options-for-a-low-carbon-ener...
 
Description School Visit to campus - STEM Potential 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 2 x Lunchtime participation at STEM Potential, an Imperial College outreach programme for Year 10 school pupils (90 min each), where the 'Wattown' demonstrator was shown. The purpose was to engage and inform the pupils about energy, renewable energy, storage options and integration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Science in the City talk to employees of Bank of America Merrill Lynch 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact About 30 employees of BAML attended the talk given by Marko Aunedi on the role of smart energy technologies in a low carbon future. The presentation included recent research from Imperial team, sparking a number of questions and interest for follow-up activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Science in the City talk to employees of Eden Tree Investment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact About 20 employees of Eden Tree Investment (a company focusing on ethical green investment) attended the talk given by Marko Aunedi on the role of smart grids and flexible solutions in a low-carbon energy evolution. The presentation described the recent research from Imperial team, and was followed a number of questions and interest for follow-up activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Science in the City talk to employees of Hermes Investment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact About 10 employees of Hermes Investment attended the talk given by Marko Aunedi on the role of smart energy technologies in a low carbon future. The talk presented the recent research in low-carbon energy systems, initiating a number of questions and a debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Seminars on work from Project 6 - "what has driven Britain's decarbonisation" - Prof Richard Green 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Richard Green has delivered seminars on the work from WP 6.1. at Paris Dauphine University, The University of Bergen, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh and LSE, reaching roughly 30 people in each case.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Two Documentary interviews Prof Christos Markides 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Christos Markides interviewed for two episodes of the Discovery Channel programme, 'Disasters Engineered'. 1) Experts examine how the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and the Bhopal gas tragedy happened. What were the consequences and how could they have been avoided?" (January 2020); and 2) Focusing on nuclear energy and Fukushima (June 2020)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.discoveryuk.com/series/disasters-engineered/
 
Description Website for PowBal project, within IDLES Project 3 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The website shows development of the Powbal smart plug trial. What matters is increasingly not how much energy you consume, but when. Currently Powbal is in trial mode. We are running smart plug experiments with students and staff from Imperial College, LSE and University of Oxford. The website displays live the number of smart plugs that are in "demand-responsive" mode and power consumption. The site also provides an email point of contact and Twitter details for those interested in finding out more about the trial.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://powbal.rcs.ic.ac.uk/
 
Description Workshop presentation in South Korea 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation by Dr Marko Aunedi to research and consultancy companies, in the workshop "Potential of Flexibility: today and beyond" organised in Seoul, South Korea. Purpose - Share UK's experiences in research into the role of flexibility in low-carbon energy systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019