Handheld quantum wireless for financial transactions

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bristol
Department Name: Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a cryptographic scheme which provides an unprecedented level of data security. It can be used to secure financial transactions over ATM machines and wireless payments. Our porject seeks to develop a free-space, handheld (credit-card size), steerable QKD system prototype to secure a real-world bank/payment transaction.
Our industrial lead, Cognizant Technology Solutions (a Fortune 500 company), has over 20 years of experience in digital finance transaction processing and information security. Cognizant brings to table extensive knowledge of processing logic involved in trade, cards, payments and other instruments. They also understand how to handle client confidential and PII (Personal) data securely using current encryption technologies. To give an indication of scale, they have 2,000 IT professionals in security practice and 100,000 in financial services globally. Out of this, 5,000 are based out of UK and Cognizant has the mechanism in place to build capability locally. University of Bristol is a pioneer in quantum communication, notably being the first to demonstrate free-space quantum transmission in 1990. (?) University of Oxford has a strong track record in optical wireless steering techniques, including inventing the current fastest indoor optical wireless system, as well as record setting QKD field trials.
This Consortium understands real-world banking transaction needs and has the knowledge in developing novel optical techniques to tailor make a practical handheld QKD system, completed with suitable hardware-to-user interface and a software stack for commercial deployment. We seek the opportunity to show the world that not only UK is leading QKD in academic research, we are also at the forefront of quantum technology development. Using real bank/payment transaction data, this project will demonstrate the world's first QKD usage in wireless financial application.

Planned Impact

Quantum Key Distribution including mobile QKD will have social and economic impact. Or more precisely it will prevent impacts from the numerous threats on our private data. This will empower the public, businesses and governments. This Consortium identified two main usage of wireless QKD: securing financial transactions and identity protection.
The economic impact, besides the sale of the QKD systems, will be to protect financial transactions such as direct transactions in shops or online payments. Losses due to fraud related to payments are already huge (£20M a day in the UK in 2016) and as mobile payments are bound to explode in the near future, the problem can only become more serious. [NFC fraud]
The social impact is the protection of other (non-financial) private data. Protection of our private life becomes increasingly difficult as we store more and more information locally or online (cloud). Currently these information are mostly in the form of pictures or conversations (e.g. email, instant messaging) related to our everyday life but in a near future it is very likely that we will have to store a lot of information related to our health too. Most of the medical instruments are currently connected on internet and an increasing number of point of care devices and personal devices (wearable, distributed sensors) will need to transmit sensitive data about our health condition. We will need to share those information on a strictly need-to-know basis with our GP, hospital or for research purposes but they will need to be protected from fraudulent uses.
Other social impact includes regulatory implemenation: Regulations, such as data privacy act, that require personally identifiable information (PII) to be protected to avoid legal liabilities. It is important to communicate that through extremely secure channels. Quantum wireless system could help achieving this goal.
Our Consortium does not expect the environment to be impacted by this project, as quantum wireless technology doesn't require any massive amount of material or energy nor does it use any dangerous element.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have further developed a hand held QKD system aimed at securing consumer financial transactions and involved industrial partner Cognizant (UK) and Oxford University (O'Brien group Engineering) to develop automated pointing and tracking to make the system truly hand held. We delivered a demonstration system to Cognizant and demonstrated this in London headquarters in april 2019.
Exploitation Route Industrial partner Cognizant (UK) is looking at business models and security systems that require this technology
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description The award is helping a company understand quantum communications focussing on handheld slutions
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software)
Impact Types Economic

 
Description AIRQKD
Amount £5,791,335 (GBP)
Funding ID 45364 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 06/2023
 
Description The EPSRC Quantum Communications Hub
Amount £23,961,861 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T001011/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2019 
End 11/2024
 
Description Cognizant 
Organisation Cognizant Technology Solutions
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We provide the hand held QKD system and our Oxford collaborators have developed a pointing and tracking system
Collaborator Contribution Cognizant provide a window on commercial security in networks and in financial transactions. They look to commercialisation of the eventual working technology
Impact Demonstration of a working QKD system to cognizant top level management planned for end of this project.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Oxford University 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration with Prof Dominic O'Briens team in Engineering on pointing a tracking technologies
Collaborator Contribution Developing handheld QKD system and pointing and tracking for space QKD. Developing detector technology for integrated quantum communications.
Impact So far we have demonstrated prototypes at 2 quantum technology showcases 2017/2018
Start Year 2017
 
Description York Quantum communications Quantum Technology Hub 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated quantum photonics for quantum communication. Hand held QKD for financial transactions. Demonstration of quantum networks in Bristol Entanglement networks Various contributions to annual quantum technology hubs
Collaborator Contribution Co-ordination of research and various quantum communications schemes and Cambridge and UK quantum networks.
Impact KETS quantum security spin-out Various publications in the list
Start Year 2014
 
Description 1-4 September Photon 2020 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Photon 2020 is the major Optics and Photonics conference organised by the Institute of Physics in the UK and the tenth in the biennial series that started in 2002.
Photon participants will have the opportunity to visit exhibitions on the latest in optics and photonics technology, attend lectures from experts in the field, and get up to date with cutting-edge research.
Talks presented by David Lowndes:
Title:"Low cost, short range quantum key distribution"
Authors: David Lowndes - University of Bristol; Stefan Frick - University of Innsbruck; Andy Hart - University of Bristol; John Rarity - University of Bristol
Title: "The Quantum Research Cubesat (QUARC)"
Authors: David Lowndes - University of Bristol; Elliott Hastings - University of Bristol; Siddarth Joshi - University of Bristol; John Rarity - University of Bristol; Peide Zhang - University of Bristol; Ashwin Arulselvan - University of Strathclyde; Marilena Di Carlo - University of Strathclyde; Christopher Gibson - University of Strathclyde; Christopher Lowe - University of Strathclyde; Malcolm Macdonald - University of Strathclyde; Luca Mazzarella - University of Strathclyde; Daniel Oi - University of Strathclyde; Steve Owens - University of Strathclyde; Mateusz Polnik - University of Strathclyde; Annalisa Riccardi - University of Strathclyde; Jasminder Sidhu - University of Strathclyde; Colin Aitken - Craft Prospect; Cassandra Mercury - Craft Prospect; Sonali Mohapatra - Craft Prospect

Poster session from the following UoB students:
"Near- to mid-infrared emission using GaAs1-xBix/GaAs1-yNy type-II superlattice structures" - Zoe Davidson, University of Bristol, UK
"Shrinking of direct laser written 3D polymeric diamond lattice structures by thermal annealing to move bandgap into the visible range" - Yu-Shao Chen, University of Bristol, UK
"Enhancement of single photon emission efficiency from aperture enhanced Tamm plasmon structures"- Huili Hou, University of Bristol, UK
"Cube Satellite based Quantum Communication" - Elliott Hastings, University of Bristol, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.iopconferences.org/iop/frontend/reg/thome.csp?pageID=767801&eventID=1255
 
Description BQIT (Bristol Quantum Information Technologies) Workshop 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is the annual quantum information workshop organised by Bristol, chared again this year by Prof John Rarity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.flickr.com/photos/cqpbristol/sets/72157694318687751
 
Description BQIT2019 1-3April 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 150 attendees to BQIT 2019. Promoted research in Bristol and created new relationships with external parties
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.bristol.ac.uk/physics/research/quantum/conferences/bqit-workshop/
 
Description CLEO Europe 23-27 June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International Conference with 500 plus attendees. John Rarity chaired sessions on Quantum Information Processing and Nanoclassical Light. Conference raised discussions on Quantum related activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description EPIC World Industrial Quantum Photonics TEchnology Summit at ICFO 5-6 June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Conference in Barcelona on Quantum Photonics 5 June 2019. JR invited to be a keynote speaker. Raised profile of quantum Photonics internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Handheld QKD - Bristol-Oxford-Cognizant - Collaboration extension workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 100 attendees
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description National Quantum Technologies Showcase 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Showcase of quantum technologies. We have exhibited: Hand held quantum key distributions Chip-scalequantum key distribution Quantum light sources for sub-shot noise measurement Quantum pair photn sources for rangefinging Remote gas sensing using single photon detection Quantum network technologies
What do you consider was the most significant outcome/impact of this activity?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
URL http://uknqt.epsrc.ac.uk/news-and-events/events/
 
Description QCRYPT 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor John Rarity FRS was on the programme committee

Two UoB students took part in the poster session:

Friederike title:
Advances towards a Trojan Horse Attack on Chip Scale QKD - Friederike Jöhlinger1,2, Henry Semenenko1,2, Djeylan Aktas2, Phil Sibson3, Chris Erven2,3, John Rarity2
Abstract: "Integrated optics o?er a way for quantum key distribution (QKD) to become mainstream, due to its small size, excellent optical stability and the infrastructure for mass production available from standard telecom technology. However, there has been very little research into the security of chip-scale QKD systems, so far. In this poster the potential for a Trojan Horse Attack (THA) on an indium phosphide transmitter chip [1] is discussed. In a THA, Eve sends her own light into the QKD system and gains information about the state of the system and hence about the key from analysing the backscattered light. This attack has been successfully demonstrated on QKD systems using ?bre optic components [2]. Here we will discuss how the attack can be adapted to a chip-scale system, includingan analysis of re?ections in the chip."

Peide Zhang title: Timing and Noise Tolerant Absolute Pulse Numbering for CubeSat QKD - Zhang, P.1, Hastings, E.1, Lowndes, D.1, Joshi, S,1, Rarity, J.1, Oi, D.2, Mercury, C.3, Sidhu, J.2, Greenland, S.3, Mazzarella, L.4, McNeil, D.3, Mohapatra, S3.
Abstract: Space-based quantum key distribution (QKD) overcomes the limits of distance between terrestrial users caused by losses in optical fibre [1]. To further promote the commercial application, we present our CubeSat payload design which has a more economically viable key-rate [2]. The system is designed for polarisation based BB84/Decoy-State protocol with 100Mhz key transmission rate. In order to avoid the light pollution near the metropolitan centres and provide flexibility, we present our progress towards a mobile OGS which will be able to act as a receiver for the quantum signal. The payload is only2Uinstalled in a 6U Cube Satellite.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://2020.qcrypt.net
 
Description Quantum Graphic Novel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We wrote a graphic novel chapter detailing in an entertaining way the development of secure communications from ancient times until today where we research quantum secured communications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://www.bristol.ac.uk/physics/research/quantum/engagement/light-keys/
 
Description Quantum Technology showcase November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Showcase of quantum technologies.
We have exhibited:
Hand held quantum key distributions
Chip-scalequantum key distribution
Quantum light sources for sub-shot noise measurement
Quantum pair photn sources for rangefinging
Remote gas sensing using single photon detection
Quantum network technologies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
URL http://uknqt.epsrc.ac.uk/news-and-events/events/