TRANSCEND: Transformative Science and Engineering for Nuclear Decommissioning

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Chemical and Process Engineering

Abstract

UK government is committed to nuclear energy having an important role in delivering a secure, low-carbon and affordable energy future, with their aspirations for new build power stations and life extension of the existing fleet described in policy documents. Successful delivery of this policy recognises the need for research and development, skills development and international collaboration as key enablers. A central component is the need to demonstrate our ability to safely manage and dispose of civil nuclear waste. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is responsible for the delivery of policy aims with respect to legacy waste, with Radioactive Waste Management charged with the delivery of a geological disposal facility and waste management solutions. EPSRC strategy is to maintain investment in nuclear fission research, recognising nuclear power as having an important role in the future low-carbon energy mix, with a strategic focus being research underpinning the decommissioning, immobilisation and management of nuclear waste. Central components of all these strategies are "a joined-up approach to nuclear R&D across government, industry and academia which...benefit(s) the UK economy" and, of benefit to UK industry, that establishes it "as a global leader in waste management and decommissioning" (see Case for Support).

The successful delivery of decommissioning, immobilisation and management of nuclear waste solutions also impacts on public acceptance of any new build programme. In relation to any geological disposal facility, there is a need to demonstrate an ability to safely manage and dispose of waste from legacy operations, with studies of public attitudes showing that acceptance of such a facility is directly linked to having viable routes for the safe clean-up and disposal of any waste.

These strategies rely on further research and development being delivered over the next 10-20 years. The work of the consortium is part of the response to this need, providing support to an internationally leading group of researchers in this key area. The work will contribute to the health of nuclear fission research, and through developments within specific disciplines, to areas beyond nuclear. It addresses key societal challenges in relation to productive and resilient nation outcomes through the development of next generation technologies and by ensuring effective and affordable solutions for waste treatment. It will also contribute to the building of public confidence in waste management solutions, and assist the acceptance of nuclear power, as well as contributing to UK economic success by maintaining our position as a world leader in waste management research, and in assisting industry to maintain its world leading position.

The consortium comprises key industry partners and leading academic researchers from 11 research intensive universities with significant expertise in nuclear research and development. The research proposed is multi-disciplinary and covers fundamental and applied topics, including 40 research projects clustered into 4 technical themes. The consortium is made up of established researchers from a diverse range of backgrounds, who are all leaders in their field, with a track-record of innovation and problem solving in the nuclear area. It also comprises many early career researchers who, as well as having relevant nuclear-related expertise, are included to provide them with invaluable experience of a large consortium project, and to further develop their profile and influence, as they mature into leaders in the field. The consortium builds upon and consolidates the work of the previous EPSRC-funded project DISTINCTIVE (Decommissioning, Immobilisation and Storage Solutions for Nuclear Waste Inventories, EP/L014041/1), bringing together researchers from a larger group of universities and increasing the multi-disciplinary nature of the group to extend and develop the academic skills base within the UK.

Planned Impact

Aside from academia, beneficiaries include site licence companies and their supply chains, government and associated bodies, policy makers and regulators, and the public. All will benefit through: the generation of increased knowledge of underlying science and engineering, and the creation of novel technologies and techniques, to address challenges in waste management, leading to more cost effective and safer routes to nuclear waste disposal; through the training and development of researchers, and potential industry employees, with the requisite skills, knowledge, expertise and appreciation of industry's challenges to support the sector; through the exploitation of research results leading to reductions in the cost of nuclear decommissioning, and strengthening of the competitiveness of the UK civil nuclear sector; and through the consortium's influence in informing national energy, environmental and industrial policies, regulatory regimes, and the public, and its contribution to delivering a low cost, clean and secure energy supply. The consortium's activities will therefore lead to social, environmental, safety, health and security benefits. Economic benefits will ensue through reductions in the financial burden of waste clean-up to UK taxpayers.

To achieve and maximise these impacts, we will pursue activities in five areas:

Relationships and networks - Establishing new, and building on existing, relationships and networks through: a project kick-off meeting for researchers and industry partners; two industry roadshows to promote the consortium, especially with potential new partners; annual research meetings to facilitate the sharing of knowledge; theme meetings enabling in-depth technical discussions; challenge-led meetings to allow the wider consortium to focus on specific industry challenges; strengthening international relationships though existing links and by forging new ones; and forging links to ongoing research through joint or consecutive meetings on areas of mutual interest.

Communication and dissemination - To inform a broad and diverse audience we will engage in: conferences and exhibitions to present our research findings at scientific conferences, including organising special sessions, and relevant stakeholder events; publish papers in high impact scientific journals as well as more industry-orientated magazines and journals; create and maintain a dedicated website; publish an annual newsletter; and create and manage dedicated project accounts on social media for uploading videos and related content.

Public, media and government engagement - Undertaking activities to generate discussion amongst members of the public, and engage media and government bodies, through: attendance at science festivals to discuss our research aims and how outputs will contribute to the safe recovery, treatment and storage of waste; a public outreach activity regarding the social and ethical dimensions of waste management; a documentary and short videos highlighting the challenges arising from the safe management of radioactive waste and how our work aims to address these; providing media interviews and press releases where appropriate; and directly engaging with government through secondments between our researchers and BEIS.

Training and development - We will equip our researchers with the requisite skills to work within the nuclear sector by: providing them with the opportunity to have at least one placement in industry; providing industry mentors that they will meet with on a regular basis; and through summer schools to cover the development and writing of research proposals, and provide training in public, media, industry and government engagement.

Knowledge transfer and commercialisation - IP arising from our research will be appropriately protected and suitable commercialisation strategies developed for exploitation through existing institutional arrangements.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Research on the project is split into four technical themes: Integrated Waste Management; Site Decommissioning and Remediation; Spent Fuels; and Nuclear Materials. The current position on each is outlined below.

Integrated Waste Management: Recruitment for this theme is almost complete, with all PDRAs now in place and 9 PhD students. There are three more PhD positions vacant (Leeds, Sheffield, Strathclyde), to which recruitment is ongoing. The theme is split into three work packages: Effluent decontamination; Pond and silo sludge behaviour; and Wasteforms. Effluent decontamination - A PDRA at Imperial College was recently hired and started their project (Nanotechnology for effluent treatment and radionuclide assay) in January 2020. At the University of Birmingham, Antony Nearchou (PDRA, New ion exchange materials and methods) has been in post since September 2019. He has started to follow up research from DISTINCTIVE on new metal-doped tin silicate umbite ion exchange materials. Two notable results are an optimisation of the synthetic procedure to produce materials in much shorter times at lower temperatures, which should facilitate scale-up processes, and confirmation of ion exchange testing showing good uptake of Cs+ ions even in the presence of cations that would normally significantly impede clean-up. Hannah Parish (PhD, In-situ ion exchange studies of zeolites) started in October 2018. She has made significant progress in data analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data collected on Diamond Light Source beamline I11 of Cs+ uptake into two forms of zeolite clinoptilolite. These provide evidence for the first time of how different Na+/K+ sites in the zeolites exchange as a function of time and this will feed into the development of a mechanistic understanding of the system. More beamtime has been awarded and is scheduled in July and September 2020. James Reed (PhD, Scoping studies of new ion exchange materials for likely Sellafield effluent) started in October 2019. He has started to explore the effects that desilication and/or dealumination have on zeolite clinoptilolite with a view that adding mesoporosity into the particles may significantly improve the kinetics of their Cs+ uptake without degradation of the material handling properties. Pond and silo sludge behaviour - In order to explore behavioural modification techniques capable of manipulating and improving flow conditions within nuclear waste transport systems (Lee Mortimer, PDRA, Particle-laden flow characterisation and prediction), high fidelity multiphase CFD techniques have been developed, implemented and performed on multiple time and length scales. So far, the immersed boundaries method has been used to probe the fundamental dynamics underpinning particle-particle interaction, examining the effect of modifying ionic strength, Hamaker constant, restitution coefficient, temperature and electric double layer potential. These modifications will be tested on a bulk scale using a Lagrangian particle tracking method (Bisrate Wolde, PhD, Simulation of behavioural modification effects in suspension waste pipe flows). This is capable of simulating high volume fractions of particles interacting within a pipe flow, which has so far been developed and validated. Finally, the finitely extensible non-linear elastic bead-spring technique, capable of simulating polymer-laden turbulent flows, has been implemented and validated. Preliminary results have explored the effect of polymer stretch on turbulence modulation and particle dispersion, and to model flocculation a polymer-particle adsorbtion model is now also being developed. This technique will be applied to examine the impact of polymer addition to particle-laden flows to reduce particle agglomeration and improve flowability. At Manchester University / Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Mel O'Leary (PDRA, Radiation induced changes in effluents/sludges) has been in post since February 2019. Mel's early work was presented as an invited paper "Radiolytic Hydrogen Production in Oxide and Hydroxide Sludges" at the Miller Radiation Chemistry Conference, a major international conference. He has taken the research further through two successful runs at Diamond and one at DCF. One paper "Observation of Hydrogen Formation from Initiation to Bubble Formation in Aluminium Oxide and Magnesium Hydroxide Nano-powder Sludges with Consistent Predictive Model" is currently in preparation. PhD student, Ella Schaefer, started her project (Modelling nanoscale radiation physics/chemistry processes in sludges) in October 2019. Ella has been learning various "tools of the trade", in particular learning to undertake kinetic Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. She now has a working model which has been validated against known gold nanoparticle energy transfer results. She is now applying the same model to Al2O2 and Mg(OH)2 to provide theoretical comparison with the results measured by Mel O'Leary. There remains one PhD position to fill in this work package (Advances characterisation of waste pipe flows with polymeric behavioural modifiers). Wasteforms - Projects in this work package are all performed by PhD students, and can be broadly split into those which focus on glass wasteforms, and those with a focus on cementitious matrices. For cementitious materials, at Imperial College, Mercedes Chinery Baxter started her PhD (Durability of magnesium silicate cements made from brucite) in October 2019. The PhD projects at Sheffield University (Encapsulation of orphan wastes using magnesium phosphate cements) and Strathclyde University (Novel approaches to the encapsulation of low level waste) are currently recruiting for an October 2020 start. For glass, a "tripod" of PhD studies focused on the thermal treatment of nuclear wastes has been established, with two projects at the University of Sheffield (Characterisation of thermal treatment projects & Understanding glass melt chemistry in the thermal treatment of nuclear waste) and one at Sheffield Hallam University (Process monitoring of thermal treatment of nuclear wastes). In the first project, Dan Parkes was recruited to start in January 2020. In the second, Lucas-Jay Woodbridge started in October 2019, and has since been formulating titanosilicate glass compositions for the immobilisation of ionsiv ion exchange resin, with a specific focus on the immobilisation of Cs. In the third project, performed by Alex Stone, initial scoping experiments have been performed and equipment for glass-melt off-gas capture and analysis has been sourced/acquired. In all projects, discussions with academic partners, NNL, Sellafield Ltd on appropriate waste streams to study are nearing completion, and preparations for benchmarking experiments have begun. At the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Tamas Zagyva began his PhD in October 2019 (Radiation effects on wasteforms) and progress has been made in synthesising samples of Ca/Zn base glass that also include Mo in sufficient quantities to cause crystallisation. Microscopic analysis of samples from the VTR are underway to ascertain powellite crystallite size, and to identify other crystalline materials. EXAFS data have been collected to investigate the local chemistry of the Mo, and other elements, in both phases of these samples.

Site Decommissioning and Remediation: The first year of the project was focused on recruitment of researchers to this theme, with only 1 PhD researcher (Lancaster) beginning in the academic year 2018-19. All other PDRAs and PhDs associated within this theme started in the period Sept-Nov 2019 (2PDRAs and 2PhDs). Dr Pagano (PDRA, Strathclyde) has begun experiments to characterise the diffusion coefficient of colloidal silica grout. A meeting was held at Strathclyde with partners from the University of Southampton in January 2020 to kick-start collaboration work between work on colloidal silica grout and electro-kinetic remediation. Some feasibility tests are now being set-up at the University of Southampton by Dr Purkis (PDRA, Southampton). Strathclyde researchers visited Prof Tom Scott at the University of Bristol and have made plans for the secondment of PDRA Pagano to Bristol for 3 months in the summer of 2020 to investigate in-situ vitrification of colloidal silica grouted contaminated soil and to investigate repair strategies for degraded cementitious waste packages. PhD students (Karampoumiotis, Lee-Brewin and Elisio) are all completing their literature review. Researchers at Strathclyde have had the following paper accepted (subject to revisions): Pieter Bots, Joanna C. Renshaw, Timothy E. Payne, M. Josick Comarmond, Alexandra E.P. Schellenger, Matteo Pedrotti, Eleonora Calì and Rebecca J. Lunn, (2020). Environmental Science:Nano. This research was part of a project funded by Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation investigating colloidal silica for deployment at their Little Forest Legacy Site, Sydney, Australia. This work is of direct relevance to that being carried out in this theme.

Spent Fuels: The management of spent nuclear fuel is a major ongoing concern for the UK owing to the cessation of reprocessing operations at Sellafield and the large, complex inventory arising from Magnox, AGR, PWR and prototype reactors. Retrieval and relocation operations for legacy fuels are imminent and therefore, any models that enhance our understanding of fuel evolution will help mitigate the risks associated with fuel storage and disposal. The TRANSCEND activity in this theme is addressing key issues in spent nuclear fuel degradation, handling and processing both for ongoing interim storage and final consignment to a geological disposal facility. Work within this Theme is being conducted under the intercalated research strands of: In-situ measurement and inspection; Experimental corrosion tests; and Predictive modelling of spent nuclear fuel. Recruitment of PDRAs and associated PhD students has gone well across each of these areas and research, in collaboration with nuclear industry partners is already showing early results and impact. For example, the work conducted in Bristol on uranium corrosion in simulated Magnox sludges has been published and associated work has also informed the safety case for pond retrievals of waste skips containing uranium fuel bars. A tangential emerging activity has seen the collection of a tiny fragment of nuclear fuel from a site near Chornobyl. This material is being arranged for shipment back to the UK for analysis to understand the disposition of the fuel particle after 33 years exposed to the environment. This will inform expectations for UK fuel behaviour under similar conditions as well as providing valuable data of spent fuel composition and microstructure. The University of Surrey with Bristol has also made significant progress in developing a spectral database for Raman and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of different nuclear-relevant material types. This database will be shared before the end of the project as an open-access resource, useful for nuclear inspections and decommissioning.

Nuclear Materials: In terms of the "Surface Chemistry of Plutonium Dioxide under Conditions Relevant to Interim Storage", the absorption of water onto the surfaces of ceria, thoria and urania films made via both nitrate and oxalate precipitation methods has been studied using piezoelectric crystal nanogravimetry - allowing for calculation of enthalpies of adsorption. All enthalpy values are in the range predicted for the adsorption of water onto PuO2, confirming this method allows for the investigation of water absorption onto PuO2 using microgram samples. This method is currently in the process of being transferred into NNL's Central Lab for the purpose of making direct measurements of the enthalpy of water adsorption onto PuO2. These measurements are expected to take place in late spring / early summer 2020. Contact angle measurements of sessile water droplets on ceria and thoria surfaces have also been performed in order to determine the wettability of these materials. Significant differences were observed for the initial contact angles on CeO2 and ThO2 (56° and 27° respectively), indicating the differing hydrophilicity of the metal oxides. Samples of the same oxides calcined at different temperatures also showed differences in contact angle, presumably due to physical changes that reduce surface roughness during calcination at higher temperatures. The significantly higher enthalpy of water absorption for thoria over ceria, and the correspondingly smaller water droplet contact angles indicates a high variation in water-absorbing properties of commonly used PuO2 analogues, further emphasizing the need for studies on active PuO2 samples. Again, these are expected to begin in NNL's Central Lab in late spring/early summer 2020. For "Atomistic simulation of Am incorporation into PuO2", a working density functional theory simulation has been set up for PuO2, including non-colinear magnetism and the spin-orbit interaction. Currently, the formation energies for the intrinsic defect species VO, Oi, VPu and Pui are being calculated. Further to this, the vibrational entropies that will be added to the defect formation energies to give free energies for the calculation of defect concentrations have been determined. The DefAP code has also been modified to incorporate oxygen as a real rather than ideal gas. To enable the necessary simulations a license for the VASP code has been acquired, as well as being awarded simulation time on EPSRC's Archer supercomputer. For "Quantum chemical modelling of PuO2 surface chemistry", the LSDA+U approaches have been benchmarked for ThO2 and it has been established that the J parameter plays an important role in determining the electronic properties of ThO2. This will guide our further work on PuO2. The reactions of water on ThO2 (111) were studied. The bare (111) surface spontaneously promotes water splitting. Further reaction of 2nd water, H+, OH- ion and *H radical have also been studied. In terms of "Gas generation from the radiolysis of water on uranium oxides and ThO2", following a meeting with key players from Sellafield and NNL, it has been agreed to adopt can-open as the interfacing standard and 1/4" Swagelok as a "plumbing" standard. Chris Anderson, the PhD student involved, has since been developing a low-cost "repeating sample unit" where humidity, temperature (and perhaps pressure) can be logged aligned with these standards and strenuous pressure requirements. Furthermore these units will be able to be multiplexed across actuators and more sophisticated sensors to perform a range of experiments automatically. For "Computational modelling of PuO2: Ageing and storage phenomena", researchers that simulated pure PuO2 surfaces using METADISE, finding the 111 surface to be the most stable. This is in agreement with the literature and other fluorite structures such as UO2. The simulation of defective surfaces has also begun. For "Plutonium immobilisation in advanced ceramic wasteforms", a series of zirconolite ceramics with stoichiometry Ca1-xCexZrTi2-2xAl2xO7 (where x = 0 - 0.35), considered as a host phase for the immobilisation of stockpiled UK plutonium, have been prepared from a mixture of oxide precursors by sintering in air at 1450 °C. Ce was utilised as a structural simulant for Pu and Al added to provide charge compensation. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystallisation of the 2M polytype in all compositions, accompanied by various secondary phases contingent on the level of doping, which was consistent with microstructural analysis. The composition and weight fraction of accompanying secondary phases were dependent on the level of targeted cerium incorporation. Perovskite was present (albeit at low concentrations) for compositions for which x = 0.15, after which further cerium incorporation appeared to stabilise hibonite and alumina as accessory phases, the relative weight fraction of which tends to increase with raised levels of Ce-doping. It was hypothesised that between x = 0.15 - 0.2, the solubility limit of the Ca2+ site was reached, allowing excess Ce/Al to react with perovskite to form hibonite and residual Al2O3. The loading of CeO2 was found to be 9.27 wt.% in Ca0.80Ce0.20ZrTi1.60Al0.40O7 with a comparatively high zirconolite yield of 94.7 wt.%. In terms of "Disposability of waste forms for plutonium immobilisation and efficacy of surrogates" Clemence Gausse started her postdoctoral research position in November 2019 and has since been preparing a large batch of Ce-containing zirconolite glass ceramic by HIP for use in durability experiments. She has also been performing a small suite of dissolution experiments on zirconolite full ceramics, comparing dissolution rates of Ce-containing zirconolite produced by cold press and sinter and by HIP; dissolution has been performed in both acidic and simulant groundwater media. Lastly, student recruitment is still ongoing for the project "The recombination of hydrogen and oxygen on metal oxide surfaces".
Exploitation Route Outputs from the work undertaken by the consortium have been/are being taken up by key industry partners AWE, Cavendish Nuclear, LLW Repository Ltd, NNL, NDA, Radioactive Waste Management, Sellafield Ltd and TÜV SÜD Nuclear Technologies, as well as a wider range of industries involved in nuclear waste management and decommissioning.
Sectors Chemicals,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Security and Diplomacy

URL https://transcendconsortium.org/
 
Description Aside from academia, beneficiaries of the work of the consortium include nuclear site licence companies and their supply chains, government and associated bodies, policy makers and regulators, and the general public. The consortium is undertaking, and has planned, activities of relevance to all these groups, some of which are outlined below. A kick-off meeting of the consortium was held at the beginning of the project at the National Railway Museum in York, with over 50 attendees. The meeting covered details of planned research within the various technical themes being considered, as well as planned impact activities. Industry partners also presented details of their involvement with the consortium, with discussions held on the content of projects and plans going forward. The TRANSCEND team also took to the road at the beginning of the project to raise awareness of the consortium amongst the nuclear community. The 1st Industry Roadshow was held at Birchwood Park on 11th December 2018 and the 2nd at The Mercure in Bristol on 14th January 2019. Nearly 90 delegates attended from organisations across the nuclear sector to gain an overview of the research programme and to learn how it will help to address key challenges facing the industry. Both days provided fruitful exchanges between the academics leading the research and industry stakeholders. The consortium website (transcendconsortium.org) was launched in March 2019, and will act as a repository for programme and project information, documents and presentations from meetings, press releases and employment opportunities. A social media account (@Transcend_epsrc) was also launched the same month to keep stakeholders aware of recent and upcoming activities. The consortiums first newsletter, summarising progress made by the consortium in a digestible form was launched in early 2020. The consortium held its first annual meeting at the Apex City hotel in Bath on the 3rd and 4th April 2019. Over 100 representatives from academia, industry and government bodies gathered to learn about the latest research findings. Sixteen technical presentations covered the four research themes, with keynote presentations delivered by Charlie Scales (National Nuclear Laboratory), Trevor Chambers (Imperial College London), David Shoesmith (University of Western Ontario, Canada) and Helen Steele (Sellafield Ltd). The oral presentations and posters displayed throughout the meeting generated a great deal of stimulating and thought provoking discussion during networking breaks. During the final session of the meeting the audience learnt about linked programmes covering accident tolerant fuels, robotics and sensors for extreme environments. Associated with the annual meeting in 2019 was our first International Advisory Group meeting, with this group tasked with providing strategic leadership for the project, advising on the education and research strategies of the consortium, ensuring industrial relevance of the research programme, informing on the socio-economic and environmental impact of research activities, and promoting and strengthening links to industrial and international communities. At the present time, this group is made up of all academic investigators, as well as a total of 28 representatives from stakeholder groups from governance, regulatory bodies and industry, with particularly good links to the US. The 2nd annual meeting will be held at The Majestic Hotel in Harrogate on 31st March and 1st April 2020, with an International Advisory Group meeting to be held on 2nd April. The first set of technical theme meetings were held at Lancaster University Conference Centre on the 11th and 12th November 2019. On day one, a combined agenda from the Integrated Waste Management and Site Decommissioning & Remediation themes included talks from experienced post-doctoral researchers, flash presentations from PhD researchers as well as presentations from NNL staff on industry relevance. Day two contained parallel sessions from the Spent Fuels and Nuclear Materials themes covering similar activities. The thirty-six posters on show provided plenty of opportunities for researchers to engage directly with industry and other academic colleagues. Discussions with BEIS were held during the project formulation stage and it was agreed that the secondment of subject matter experts into BEIS would be of significant benefit, allowing research findings to provide input to relevant select committees and expert working groups, as well as providing an opportunity for our researchers to gain policy experience. Two of our research investigators, Laura Leay and David Read, started such secondments in May and June of 2019. Laura's secondment was as an expert advisor to radioactive waste policy in the Nuclear Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste team. Her knowledge of analytical techniques has been used to inform policy making, specifically in updating guidelines on recovery in the event of a release of radioactivity into a public space. The project is a collaboration between BEIS, Defra, Public Health England and the Environment Agency. David's placement concerned risk-based disposability, and he joined a team at BEIS working on aspects of the Nuclear Sector Deal, specifically nuclear decommissioning, waste management and geological disposal, working on a risk-based approach to inform radioactive waste management policy. The consortium has its own dedicated session at WM2020, the leading international conference for the management of radioactive waste and related topics. The session, to be held on Wednesday 11th March 2020, consists of an overview presentation, specific presentations on work within our four technical themes, and an industrial perspective on the collaboration. A final presentation will describe the development of an in-situ sludge monitoring system now being deployed on plant as an example of impact of previous and ongoing research. We have also commissioned a public outreach activity regarding the social and ethical dimensions of waste management, based on workshops and interviews at events to be organised and attended by consortium members. This activity is being led by Liz Thomas of the Institute for Cultural Practices at the University of Manchester, and will be based on a game playing route to providing public understanding of research and development needs, opportunities and solutions. This will be rolled-out at future consortium events and at functions attended by members of the public. The Impact Committee of TRANSCEND has also invited proposals from our researchers for ad-hoc impact activities using flexi-funds allocated to the consortium. These funds can be used to support a whole range of potential ideas: from physical displays to the development of online resources, and from festival outreach to Royal Society events. Upcoming later this year are a Public Engagement summer school for our PDRAs, PhDs and early career researchers to cover training in public, media, industry and government engagement. Sessions covering IP and technology development, research ethics, plus equality and diversity, will also be covered. A documentary and short videos highlighting challenges arising from the safe management and storage of radioactive waste and how TRANSCEND is aiming to address these are also planned, as is attendance by researchers at a science festival to discuss our research aims and how outputs will contribute to the safe recovery, treatment and storage of waste. This will also provide an ideal opportunity to trail our public outreach activity noted above.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description National Policy Statement for Geological Disposal Infrastructure
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact An evidence submission was made on the House of Commons Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee Inquiry on the Draft National Policy Statement for Geological Disposal Infrastructure, by Prof. Neil Hyatt, which highlighted the need to make more explicit assumptions on the waste inventory to be disposed of, and treatment options, since these are critical for public acceptance and the primary drivers of GDF costs and timescales. The advice, informed by expertise developed through EPSRC sponsored research, was cited by the Select Committee in making Recommendation 2 in the report, which states "For transparency purposes, the Government should clarify in the NPS the level of radioactivity that, to its knowledge, waste from the 16 to 18 gigawatt electrical new nuclear build programme would add to the total volume of radioactivity in the GDI and how that will impact the infrastructure requirements of the facility. The Government should also provide details in the NPS on the level of radioactivity from new nuclear build waste as a proportion of the total level of radioactivity in the GDI". http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/business-energy-and-industrial-strategy-committee/draft-national-policy-statement-for-geological-disposal-infrastructure/written/85497.html https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmbeis/1092/1092.pdf In its response to accepting this recommendation, HM Government stated: The Government is grateful for the Committee's recommendation, and in response has now added several references in the NPS to sections within the 'Implementing Geological Disposal - Working with Communities' document. With regards to the host community, the detail on the process for establishing and communicating the inventory is set out within the new paragraphs 6.54 and 6.55 of the published 'Implementing Geological Disposal - Working with Communities' policy document published in December 2018. https://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/business-energy-and-industrial-strategy/Government-response-to-the-BEIS-Committee-Report-on-the-draft-National-Policy-Statement-for-Geological-Disposal-Infrastructure.pdf The National Policy Statement for Geological Disposal Infrastructure incorporating the above changes in response to the evidence provdied by Prof. Hyatt was designated in August 2019, and is now the policy of HM Government. The National Policy Statement will be used as the primary basis for the examination by the Examining Authority, and for decisions by the Secretary of State, in considering development consent applications for geological disposal infrastructure that fall within the definition of a NSIP as set out in section 14(1)(q) and section 30A of the Planning Act 2008 ('the Planning Act'). https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-statement/Commons/2019-10-17/HCWS18/ https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-policy-statement-for-geological-disposal-infrastructure
URL https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/business-energy-industri...
 
Description Advanced Nuclear Fuels Programme
Amount £750,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NNL/NIP/003 
Organisation Government of the UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 03/2021
 
Description High Resolution Powder Diffraction Studies of the In-situ Ion Exchange of Zeolite Clinoptilolite
Amount £30,144 (GBP)
Funding ID CY22141 
Organisation Diamond Light Source 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 09/2019
 
Description In-situ Ion Exchange Diffraction Studies of Zeolite Chabazite
Amount £30,144 (GBP)
Funding ID CY26242 
Organisation Diamond Light Source 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2020 
End 09/2020
 
Description In-situ Ion Exchange Studies of 3D Printed Zeolite Monoliths
Amount £30,144 (GBP)
Funding ID CY22555 
Organisation Diamond Light Source 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 09/2019
 
Description In-situ ion exchange studies of the titano-silicate ETS-10
Amount £60,288 (GBP)
Funding ID CY22443 
Organisation Diamond Light Source 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 09/2019
 
Description Isolation of 14C species from spent ion exchange resins and their stabilisation
Amount £386,163 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S032959/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 08/2022
 
Description Studies of Metamict and Crystalline Betafites
Amount £15,072 (GBP)
Funding ID CY24586 
Organisation Diamond Light Source 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description TEM studies of magnetised zeolites
Amount £10,048 (GBP)
Funding ID MG23870 
Organisation Diamond Light Source 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description TEM studies of magnetised zeolites
Amount £10,048 (GBP)
Funding ID MG26426 
Organisation Diamond Light Source 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2020 
End 09/2020
 
Description THERAMIN
Amount € 3,972,539 (EUR)
Funding ID 755480 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description TRANSCEND: Transformative Science and Engineering for Nuclear Decommissioning
Amount £4,587,420 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S01019X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description UTGARD Lab Phase II: A SIMFUEL Fabrication & Characterisation Facility
Amount £752,056 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T011416/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 03/2024
 
Description US DoE - SHU Collaboration 
Organisation U.S. Department of Energy
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Link between SHU and US DoE facilitated by 3 PhD students (jointly-funded by both US DoE and SHU, and all 3 students are affiliate members of TRANSCEND), on immobilisation of HLW and LILW from the US Hanford Site. The 3 affiliated students (James Eales, Jessica Rigby, Katrina Love) all spent summer 2019 undertaking secondments/internships at PNNL, USA. Intellectual expertise and training are being provided to the students by both SHU and US DoE and its representatives.
Collaborator Contribution US DoE is providing joint funding (with SHU) for the 3 PhD students. US expertise from colleagues across several National Laboratories and Universities is providing additional intellectual and training input and opportunities.
Impact No peer-reviewed outputs to date, the students have just entered the 2nd years of their PhD's. However, the 3 students all presented their research at the Society of Glass Technology Annual Meeting in Cambridge, UK, in September 2019.
Start Year 2018
 
Description 1st Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The consortium held its first annual meeting at the
Apex City hotel in Bath on the 3rd and 4th April 2019.
Over 100 representatives from academia, industry
and government bodies gathered to learn about the
latest research findings since the programme started
in October 2018.
Sixteen technical presentations covered the 4 themes:
Integrated Waste Management; Site Decommissioning
& Remediation; Spent Fuels; Nuclear Materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 1st Industry Roadshow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The 1st Industry Roadshow was held at Birchwood Park in Warrington on 11th December 2018. Delegates registered from organisations across the nuclear sector to gain an overview of the research programme and to learn how it will help to address key challenges facing the industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2nd Industry Roadshow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The 2nd Industry Roadshow took place at The Mercure in Bristol on 14th January 2019. Delegates registered from organisations across the nuclear sector to gain an overview of the research programme and to learn how it will help to address key challenges facing the industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description A long term solution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Claire Corkhill was invited by RWM Ltd to present a short video explaining the benefits of geological disposal of radiaoctive wastes, in recognition of her expertise developed through several EPSRC research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoPSaWV-tQU
 
Description An article on the university of Manchester's policy blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A ~1500 word blog piece was written, with a target audience of policy makers, that asks for policy makes to take some form of action. In this case the call to action was to form a social contract so that policy makers and the public could agree a way to manage radioactive waste
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://blog.policy.manchester.ac.uk/energy_environment/2020/01/managing-radioactive-waste/
 
Description Attendance at GLOBAL / TOPFUEL Conference, Seattle 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attending at GLOBAL / TOPFUEL Conference in Seattle. Made a total of 8 presentations to a mixed industry / academic audience. Conference papers arising from those presentations are listed in the publications section
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://globaltopfuel.ans.org/
 
Description Interview with Chemical & Engineering News: What caused a plume of radioactive ruthenium in Europe in 2017? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof. Neil Hyatt was interviewed for Chemical & Engineering News on trace radiation detected across northern Europe, based on expertise in radioactive waste management developed in EPSRC sponsored research on nuclear fuel reprocessing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cen.acs.org/safety/industrial-safety/caused-plume-radioactive-ruthenium-Europe/97/web/2019/0...
 
Description Letter to the Guardian: Strategies for nuclear weapons and waste 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof. Neil Hyatt published a letter in The Guardian newspaper in response to an earlier article on radioactive waste, highlighting the need for a sustainable and definite end solution, informed by EPSRC sponsored research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/07/strategies-for-nuclear-weapons-and-waste
 
Description Lloyds Register Foundation Conference - All Centre Meeting Oct 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact meeting of the Lloyd's Register Foundation Centre for the Safety of Nuclear Energy - included presentations from participants in TRANSCEND, ATLANTIC, TRIBECA Spent Fuel project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Meeting with NNL & RWM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact meeting with NNL and RWM to discuss new PhD studentship
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Meeting with Sellafield Oct 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact meeting with geoff randall, sellafield, to discuss potential formation of decommissioning centre for excellence
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NNIP Phase 2 Meeting - Dec 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Progress meeting, NNIP Phase 2 work. Work linked to TRANSCEND (MOx fuel fabrication) and ATLANTIC (Accident Tolerant Fuel Work). HMG funding Dept BEIS present
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NNIP Phase 2 meeting at Lancaster Nov 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact meeting to discuss progress on National Nuclear Innovation Programme work - linked to TRANSCEND & ATLANTIC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NNL visit to review RWM work 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact meeting with dave hambley, NNL to discuss progress on RWM/TRANSCEND work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description National Nuclear Innovation Programme Phase 2 kick off meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact kick off meeting of phase 2 of the national nuclear innovation programme work (sponsored by BEIS) with links to TRANSCEND (MOx fuel fabrication) and ATLANTIC (Accident Tolerant Fuel Work Package)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Plutonium Projects Meeting - NNL Sellafield June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact meeting with NNL and sellafield to review progress on plutonium research projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presenation at the International workshop on Theory Frontiers in Actinide Sciences: Chemistry and Materials, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research presentation to field experts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation at NWDRF meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation at NWDRF meeting (by Jamie Purkis, TRANSCEND postdoc), on electrokinetic remediation technologies being developed under TRANSCEND, which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, and led to requests about (further) participation or involvement and plans made for future related activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation to Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kyiv. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kyiv, and local spin-out companies (who have worked extensively on nuclear contamination issues in the Ukraine), leading to discussion of related R&D projects implementing TRANSCEND and other technologies to land and water contamination issues in the Ukraine. Cundy was invited as an international expert on an ongoing INNOVATE UK project, led by ANAMAD Ltd (UK).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation to meeting of Hampshire Contaminated (local authority) Land Liaison Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to meeting of Hampshire Contaminated (local authority) Land Liaison Group (Basingstoke and Deane Council), leading to subsequent discussion on wider application of remediation techniques (including electrokinetic remediation) to current land contamination issues in the southern region of the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation to regional meeting (Solent group) of the Geological Society (London). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation to Geological Society (London) regional group discussing development of new land remediation technologies, including the work currently undertaken in TRANSCEND.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Research presentation at Transcend Theme meeting - Lancaster 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on background for TRANSCEND project at theme meeting at Lancaster
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Royal Society Workshop on Nuclear Co-Generation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Prof. Neil Hyatt was invited to participate in the Royal Society meeting on Nuclear Co-generation in recognition of his expertise in radioactive waste management developed through several EPSRC research projects, outcomes from which were highlighted in discussion contribution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Sellafield Decommissioning Centre Meet, Manchester Nov 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting to discuss potential formation of Decommissioning Centre for Excellence
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Synchrotron and Neutron Diffraction Studies of Nanoporous Solids 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk and participation in a Czech-UK Workshop on Nanomaterials
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description TRANSCEND Annual Meeting - Bath 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Annual Meeting of the TRANSCEND Consortium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://transcendconsortium.org/events/1st-annual-meeting-bath-3rd-4th-april-2019/
 
Description TRANSCEND Kickoff meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Over 50 attendees gathered for the TRANSCEND kick-off meeting held on Wednesday 12th September 2018 at the National Railway Museum in York. The first part of the day was devoted to the research programme. Mike Fairweather (PI of TRANSCEND) opened the meeting by presenting a general overview of the TRANSCEND project. Presentations from each Theme Leader giving more detail on the planned research within their respective themes then followed. The morning was rounded off with a presentation by Joanna Renshaw outlining some of the proposed impact activities. Early afternoon saw the industry partners presenting details on their involvement with the project. The final part of the day was devoted to general discussions on projects and plans going forward.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description TRANSCEND Theme Meeting - Lancaster Nov 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact TRANSCEND Plutonium Theme Meeting at Lancaster. Attended by NNL, Sellafield, NDA, RWM
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://transcendconsortium.org/events/transcend-theme-meetings/
 
Description TUC Congress: Panel Debate on Nuclear Decommissioning 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Claire Corkhill was invited to participate in an Expert Panel Debate on Nuclear Decommissioning at the TUC Congress, in recognition of her expertise developed through several EPSRC research projects, outcomes of which were highlighted in the opening remarks and panel debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk at Integrated Waste Management conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr. Samuel Murphy presented an overview of the TRANSCEND project at the Nuclear Institute sponsored Integrated Waste Management conference. The aim of the talk was to inform the industry about the work being undertaken as part of TRANSCEND but also to engage industry with the academic community. As a consequence of the talk a number of participants applied to attend the following TRANSCEND theme meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Theme meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The first set of Theme Meetings for TRANSCEND were held at Lancaster University Conference Centre on the 11th & 12th November 2019 providing an update of the research being undertaken Presentations from experienced researchers, PhD students and industry champions and the posters on show provided plenty of opportunities for researchers to engage directly with industry and other academic colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Transcend Roadshow - Birchwood Park 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A workshop for industry professionals to present the activities of the Transcend grant to increase industry engagement with the research of the grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Transcend Roadshow - Hotel Mercure Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A set of presentations aimed at the nuclear industry describing the research to be carried out in Transcend with the aim to increase industry engagement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description UK - Japan meeting and workshop in civil nuclear decommissioning 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was an invited participant in a workshop to scope future research areas for joint UK - Japan civil nuclear decommissioning activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Visit and Presentation to NWDRF Conference - 'Development of modular, intensified ion exchange processes for nuclear effluent treatment' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Attended the Nuclear Waste and Decommissioning Research Frontiers (NWDRF) Conference to give a presentation around TRANSCEND research perspectives and to meet with other TRANSCEND researchers, as well as significant industry figures. Outcomes of presentation were significant new industrial links and potential research collaborations with the University of Birmingham
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Visit by Japan Chemical Analysis Centre, and Nuclear Regulation Authority (Japan). 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Visit by Japan Chemical Analysis Centre, and Nuclear Regulation Authority (Japan) to the National Oceanography Centre (Southampton). This involved a presentation of the TRANSCEND project work, and discussions of further related research in decommissioning, in-situ characterisation and analytical intercomparison.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Visit from from the Japanese Citizens' Nuclear Information Center 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The JUNO network facilitated a visit by a delegation from the Japanese Citizens' Nuclear Information Center to the University of Sheffield on 13 September 2019. The purpose of the visit was to understand current UK - Japan collaborative R&D and the latest developments in technology to immobilise and dispose of the UK plutonium stockpile, in particular the hot isostatic pressing approach developed by the Sheffield team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/energy/immobilising-japans-plutonium