The Active Building Centre

Lead Research Organisation: Swansea University
Department Name: School of Engineering

Abstract

The ABC will be one of two hubs funded through the Transforming Construction Industrial Challenge. ABC aims to: 'revolutionise the way the UK designs, constructs and operates buildings by realising the potential for the integration of advanced offsite manufacturing with state of the art digital design. This will include the incorporation and integration of energy generation, storage, and release technologies to create Active Buildings which substantially reduce both the operational costs of buildings and their demand on the UK energy infrastructure'.

Our Vision is to enable energy resilient communities that are powered by the sun, share energy with transport and other buildings, whilst realising value for the UK by overcoming barriers and developing new business models with global potential.

The Mission - ABC is a national centre of excellence and will catalyse a revolution in smart buildings and energy sharing. ABC will bring together energy, construction, government and research to create a dynamic ecosystem that identifies barriers and creates solutions for scale up and deployment of buildings and communities that are Active. ABC will prove scale, enable an industry and create the conditions for market adoption. Critical to this will be clustered demonstration facilities on a variety of building typologies and pipeline of several thousand buildings which are being considered by a diverse array of assembled supporting companies and organisations.

We have already demonstrated that we can use buildings that are manufactured using the principles of car making to rapidly construct facilities that have facades that generate heat and electricity from the sun and include elements and new materials that store this energy (both electricity and heat) until we need it. Critically this enables buildings to be powered (electrically) and heated without any gas connection. In addition, our initial demonstrations have shown that the buildings can generate allot more energy than they use. Our 'Active Classroom' has generated over 1.6 times the energy used in its first full year and putting that in perspective the spare power would have driven one of our EVs for over 26,500 miles. Our aim then is to transform the way we think of buildings as consumers of power and requiring more infrastructure the more we build to a solution both to the requirements of occupancy and energy decarbonisation. One million homes would in essence require one large nuclear powerplant, however adoption of the new Active concept essentially delivers the homes and the powerplant at the same time. This is vitally important as we transition to electric cars which will be a major element of where excess power from buildings can be fed and with advanced new communication systems the fact that a car is stationary and by a building for almost 95% of its life we have potential for a huge mobile storage reserve.

Construction also creates positive economic conditions. To frame the opportunity in relation to Active Homes, in a recent report by the UK Housebuilders Federation, the economic case for increasing home building is compelling. Each additional 10,000 units would support 43,000 jobs, increase economic output by £1.36bn, lead to £120m in tax recovery, £43.2m in local infrastructure and an increase in local economic spending by £320m. 10,000 Active homes would also add renewable energy capacity of ca 50MW including storage via EVs, thermal stores and internal batteries. Clearly this is only part of the story since there will also be tremendous value from non-residential buildings that will be showcased for education, factory and commercial properties as part of the delivery programme for ABC and these in many cases can form energy hubs for existing communities of more traditional buildings.

Planned Impact

The ABC's overriding objective is to prove scale, stimulate the market and enable an industry for Active Buildings. The proliferation of Active Buildings will positively disrupt the energy and construction sectors and will provide numerous benefits for UK industry, the economy, the environment and society at large. Critically our core build programme of nine buildings, intermediate phase 2 programme of over 1500 and pipeline of 5000 will show at sufficient scale what the value and impact can be characterised by the following areas.

Benefits to the Construction and Manufacturing Industries and links to the Core Innovation Hub
Our approach of integrating renewable energy technologies into the fabric of buildings lends itself to pre-fabricated, off site manufacture and our alignment and close links with the Core Innovation Hub will, together, change the way that buildings are specified, designed and built. Off-site construction will address low productivity and the demographic shifts in the construction market. By minimising on-site works, the manufacturing sector, with its higher productivity, will grow. Consequently, more buildings can be constructed more quickly, and the industry will become more attractive to school leavers and young people.

Benefits to the Economy
As well as an improvement in productivity, further economic benefits include job creation through enabling what is effectively a new industry and consequently new companies. Furthermore, reduced operating costs for commercial and public-sector owners / occupiers will result in increased profitability and better tax-payer value respectfully. There will also be growth in export opportunities for UK businesses based on our industry leadership;

Benefits to Society
Societal benefits will be derived primarily through lower consumer energy costs leading to a reduction of fuel poverty and hence improved health and wellbeing. This in turn has a positive economic effect through a reduction in working days lost to sickness absence. Increasing renewable energy sources improves air quality and ABC's energy storage and release focus will accelerate the adoption of electric vehicles too. Cleaner, reliable energy sources integrated into buildings will dramatically increase support to healthy ageing.

Decarbonisation
Decarbonisation of the UK's energy is needed to meet the UKs commitments to decarbonisation as agreed in the Kyoto and Paris agreements. In the UK, buildings are responsible for around 40 % of the total energy consumed and are therefore also responsible for high levels of carbon dioxide emissions. ABC's approach means that Buildings become part of the solution not part of the problem.

ABC's work is not just about renewable electricity for buildings. Buildings can produce and store electricity not only for the building itself but also to "fuel" electric vehicles enabling further decarbonisation. Even more significant is that active buildings can generate, store and releases solar heat energy too. Heating, through the burning of fossil fuels, contributes immensely to carbon dioxide emissions, is costly and only has a finite future, So the work of ABC will go some way to alleviate this situation

Whilst ABC's remit does not include retrofit we recognise that, the social, economic and environmental benefits can only be maximised by addressing the retrofit challenge. It is estimated that around 70-80% of the UK's building stock that will exist in 2050 is already built. So, whilst new Active Buildings will provide significant benefits as described, a bigger prize is available if the retrofit challenge can be overcome. ABC will have a dedicated workstream to address this challenge, which again will lead to the creation of new jobs, export opportunities and growth in the construction sectors whilst further addressing the energy trilemma. It sis expected that work on retrofit will be a substantial component of the sustainability plan for ABC.

People

ORCID iD

David Worsley (Principal Investigator)
David Coley (Co-Investigator)
Eric Colin Kerrigan (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3967-1544
Ian Allan Wilson (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4083-597X
Yulong Ding (Co-Investigator)
Philip Charles Eames (Co-Investigator)
Aad Van Moorsel (Co-Investigator)
Stephen Allen (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0148-6466
Vanessa Burholt (Co-Investigator)
Nicholas Pidgeon (Co-Investigator)
Goran Strbac (Co-Investigator)
Rabah Boukhanouf (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5460-2715
Paul Jones (Co-Investigator)
Kevin Lomas (Co-Investigator)
John Andrew Clark (Co-Investigator)
Matt Jones (Co-Investigator)
Nick Jenkins (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3082-6260
Charalampos Patsios (Co-Investigator)
Ian Walker (Co-Investigator)
Tadj Oreszczyn (Co-Investigator)
Charles Morisset (Co-Investigator)
Jianzhong Wu (Co-Investigator)
Ahsan Khan (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7701-648X
Daniel Coca (Co-Investigator)
Damian Giaouris (Co-Investigator)
Mark Gillott (Co-Investigator)
Karen Henwood (Co-Investigator)
Danielle Densley Tingley (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2477-7629
Martin Mayfield (Co-Investigator)
David Allinson (Co-Investigator)
Gareth Stratton (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5618-0803
Lucelia Taranto Rodrigues (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0038-6578
Sara Louise Walker (Co-Investigator)
John Michael Walls (Co-Investigator)
Richard John Green (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8671-8966
Janet Bell (Co-Investigator)
Nilay Shah (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8906-6844
Paola Falugi (Researcher)
Danny Pudjianto (Researcher)
Spyros Giannelos (Researcher) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5299-9408

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Zoya Pourmirza-Podcast 
Description Podcast on Energy for at all through Newcastle University " 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Engagement and plans for future related activity 
URL http://soundcloud.com/user-634032444/integrated-energy-for-all-writerinthelab-podcast-newcastle-univ...
 
Description Whilst it is still too early in the lifetime of the grant to see any immediate impacts, the following objectives remain current and steps are being made to achieve the overall goalof delivering the zero carbon agenda: The strategic objectives of the Active Building Centre (ABC) are: (1) To create and mobilise appropriate vehicles and processes at the ABC Hub to move quickly to deliver the ISCF and other associated activity (2) To nucleate and grow an ecosystem of industry, government and research excellence to fulfill the ISCF (ABC) objectives set (3) Identified in the grand challenge including 2050 decarbonisation targets create the foundations from which to allow aggregation at national / city scale and reduction in grid stress and infrastructure investment (4) To create a platform for sustainable funding for additional research and commercial activity, create the platform for investment opportunities to be realised and internationalisation opportunities to be achieved (5) To develop routes to market for deployment of technologies, systems, and services associated with Active buildings (6) To create a culture and environment to develop people, increase innovation and accelerate impact (7) To work with the market to create capacity and capability to scale approaches for mass uptake
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Education,Energy,Environment,Transport
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description ABC presentation as a regional opportunity to Sheffield City Region Mayor (Prof Martin Mayfield, University of Sheffield)
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Buildings Mission 2030: Green Construction Board report- Jonathan Williams
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
 
Description Dr Sara Walker (Newcastle) participation in EPSRC review on decarbonising heating and cooling (online)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Dr Sara Walker, appointed to UKERC Research Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Title A tool for rapid synthesis of residential electrified heating profiles - RJ 
Description Dr Richard Johnson from the University of Sheffield has developed a tool for rapid synthesis of residential electrified heating profiles, methods for assessing the economic and environmental implications of rooftop PV trading algorithms on the array owner and local power network. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact N/A 
 
Title Building Performance Dataset-DB 
Description Desmond Brennan (Swansea University) compiled building performance datasets into a single database. The database currently includes 32 buildings that fall under the definition of Active Buildings - more buildings will be added over the coming year. Both raw datasets, and processed data are stored in the database. Processed data includes filtered/cleaned data averaged into 30 min periods, a format used by building physicists. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Front end access tools are currently in development and will be shared with the academic community when complete, allowing users to preview and download stored datasets remotely. 
 
Title Data imputation methods under development by Dr Mehdi Pazhoohesh, Newcastle University 
Description Deploying machine learning and Artificial Intelligence techniques to deal with partial data sets and missing data imputation under big data analytics of building energy 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact N/A 
 
Title Electric heating model database - RJ 
Description Dr Richard Johnson (University of Sheffield) has taken the electric heating model and used it for a database of weather and user behavior information that has been collated and generated using various sources and modelling methodologies. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact N/A 
 
Description CIBSE North East technical seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CIBSE North East acts a local link between the regional membership, other building professional, academic institutes and the public. The overarching aim of CIBSE North East is the advancement of engineering through the provision of an accessible local network of professional engineers.
Dr Sara Walker and Dr Mohammad Royapoor from Newcastle University were invited speakers, presenting to approx 50 delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description A Comparative Assessment of Imputation Techniques for Missing Data Treatment in Building Energy Analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar hosted by Dr. Mehdi Pazhoohesh, Newcastle University on A Comparative Assessment of Imputation Techniques for Missing Data Treatment in Building Energy Analysis
at the Alan Turing Institute, British Library on 29th January 2020. The primary audience was John Moriarty , Professor of Mathematics - Queen Mary University of London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Constructing Excellence - 2020 Focus - A clear path for sector transformation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Subsequently, there was a request from Construction Ireland to give a similar talk to the 'Construction in UK and Ireland - 2020 & Beyond' conference in Dublin. The conference is jointly hosted by Enterprise Ireland, Constructing Excellence Clubs - Oxford/Cambridge Corridor and London & South East
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Futurebuild-Mark Gilliott 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Futurebuild - London - February 2019 - had a stand and discussed ABC related research with approx. 70 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Futurum Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Nick Pidgeon presented an invited keynote talk at Futurum Seminar, Trondheim, June 2019. Seminar organised by the Zero Energy Network project - key networks in Scandinaviaa, and experience of active building projects there.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited speaker at the Cleveland Instituion of Engineers, Sunderland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited speaker at the Annual Dinner of the Cleveland Institution of Engineers, Sunderland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Jonathan Williams-ABC Japan visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Williams took part in a 5 day visit to Japan. Various presentations to different businesses and representatives of the Japanese Housing Ministry. Inward investment with Welsh Government was a key driver of this trip.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description MIT AEAB conference 2019 - Boston, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Richard Johnson (University of Sheffield) presented conference paper 'Practical Routes for the Integration of Rooftop PV in the UK, and their Economic and Environmental Costs' in May 2019, presentation attended by about 50, paper available to about 250 (proceedings not yet publicly available). Located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://applied-energy.org/aeab2019/general
 
Description Materials Research Exchange (MRE) 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact https://www.swansea.ac.uk/engineering/materials-at-swansea/

Attendance and participation in the MRE 2020 Event organised by the KTN in London. The intended purpose was to demonstrate critical mass in Materials led research at Swansea University. Bringing together all similarly related projects at Swansea under one umbrella.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ktn-uk.co.uk/events/live-materials-research-exchange-2020
 
Description Nordic Zero Energy Buildings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kate O'Sullivan attended 1st Nordic Zero Energy Buildings conference, Trondheim, 6-8th November 2019 - multiple literatures and international case studies collected.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at Green Homes Alliance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Williams presented to 30 practitioners on ABC at the Green Homes Alliance event, held at the Design Commission for Wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://goodhomes.org.uk/events/vanguard-campaign-event-cardiff
 
Description Presentation at ISCF Transforming Construction Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Williams presented to some 80-90 practitioners at ISCF Transforming Construction: Opportunities in 2019, held at CSIC, Glasgow.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.cs-ic.org/featured-past-events/iscf-transforming-construction-opportunities-in-2019/
 
Description Presentation at Solar Trade Association Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Williams presented on ABC to some 35 practitioners at the Solar Trade Association Scotland event, Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.solar-trade.org.uk/sta-events/setting-sights-on-scottish-solar-2019/
 
Description Presentation at Sunrise Project Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Williams presented to 50 academics on ABC at the Sunrise Project Symposium at IISc Bengaluru (Sunrise is funded by GCRF/EPSRC).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.sunrisenetwork.org/
 
Description Presentation at Transforming Construction/Innovate UK information day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Williams presented to some 50 practitioners on ABC at the Transforming Construction / Innovate UK information day on the Transforming Construction R&D and Demo round 2 funding calls - Glasgow
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ktn-uk.co.uk/news/overview-webinar-iscf-transforming-construction-crd-demonstrators-round-2
 
Description Presentation at UKERC Cybersecurity Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Zoya Pourmirza presented "Cybersecurity in a net zero energy system: what do we need to know? " at the UKERC conference in London on 5th December 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at UKGBC Foreground Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jonathan Williams presented to some 50 practitioners on ABC at UKGBC Foreground event, Manchester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ukgbc.org/ukgbc-work/foreground/
 
Description RIBA President's Awards for Research 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Practitioners, academics and researchers attended the RIBA President's Awards for Research, which took place in London on the 3rd of December 2019. This ceremony is a yearly event that aims to promote and celebrate the best of research in the field of architecture and the built environment, with this year's annual theme focusing on "Building in Quality". Prof David Coley was shortlisted in the "Design and Technical" category, drawing attention to the critical importance of shifting to buildings that do not harm the environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.architecture.com/-/media/files/Awards/2019/Presidents-Awards-for-Research-2019-book-of-a...
 
Description Seminar at the Alan Turing Institute on data imputation techniques for building sensor data 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Mehdi Pazhoohesh, Newcastle University led a seminar at the Alan Turing Institute on data imputation techniques for building sensor data to a audience of around 50 professional practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description SmartSheffield Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact John Clark presented to around 30 attendees at SmartSheffield on Monday, 13 January (Cybersecurity theme). The event was held at the University of Sheffield and had an audience interested in the Smart City topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Solar and Storage Live-Mark Gilliott 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Solar and Storage Live - Birmingham - September 2019 - Mark Gilliott presented ABC project to approx. 35 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Steering Group Event-Active Home Neath 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Deborah Morgan held a steering group event at a Active home in Neath for WP9 in Dec. This was attended by around 15 older adults who are interested in the WP9 healthy ageing project,some of whom have technical background, others who are interested in the potential of Active homes to improve health and Wellbeing. The event gathered information on what older adults want for an Active home, features they liked and disliked and potential research questions for the study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Wales Zero Carbon Buildings Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Nick Pidgeon and Karen Henwood attended the Wales Zero Carbon Buildings Conference, Cardiff, July 2019 - various Wales Social Housing initiatives and networking with all RSL's across Wales
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Westminster Energy, Environment & Transport Forum Policy Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Westminster Energy, Environment & Transport Forum organises senior-level conferences on public policy relating to energy; transport and the environment. It has no policy agenda of its own other than to improve the quality of debate on public policy developments and so create opportunities for informed discussion.
Dr Sara Walker, Newcastle University was an invited speaker at this event, presenting to an audience of around 60 attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.westminsterforumprojects.co.uk/conferences/westminster-energy-environment-and-transport-...
 
Description Young Professional Panel member at OFGEM Energy Futures Conference 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Young Professional Panel member at OFGEM Energy Futures Conference 23/1/20 at Tata Port Talbot.
Attendance was 150.
Discussion around Active Buildings decarbonising the UK. How Ofgem can link with ABC.
Audience was mainly industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description invited participant CDBB: National Digital Twin Day London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk given on Active Buildings and the wider supply chain implications. Following the talk, there has been considerable interest and further requests to present on the subject across the UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description invited speaker at 14th International Conference on Advanced Sustainable Building Skins, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact invited to speak at the 14th International Conference on Advanced Sustainable Building Skins, Switzerland on the subject of Active Buildings. Done in conjunction with BIPVco, a Swansea University integrated PV spin-out
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019