Developing Community-Led Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance: Building a One Health Approach in Low and Middle Income Countries

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: School of Medicine

Abstract

The One Health CE-AMR Challenge Cluster is an ambitious 12 month project, which brings together experts in the fields of Social Anthropology, Community Engagement, Health Economics, Participatory Arts for Development, Policy Development, Participatory Design for Global Health, Public-Health Epidemiology, Health Communications, Experimental Parasitology, Veterinary Science, Environmental Science and Zoology. Our aim is to investigate the potential of community engagement (CE) to address the global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) particularly within the context of low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). AMR is a major challenge, particularly acute in LMICs, including in our focal countries (Nepal, India, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ghana) due to a combination of factors, including growing populations, limited health infrastructure and the accessibility of antimicrobials without medical advice or prescription. We are especially interested in developing One Health approaches, which understand the need to address AMR holistically through an exploration of human and animal health, agriculture and the environment.

The Cluster will synthesise learning from within six constituent projects. We will explore best practice within these projects by addressing key research questions collaboratively across the project teams and with wider stakeholders within each country. Our learning will be synthesised into a handbook that will include: (a) guidance on unpacking the drivers that underpin the demand side of antimicrobial usage within specific communities in the Global South; (b) a methodological process for identifying relevant community stakeholders, as well as guidance on considering complexities around gender and intersectionality; (c) a set of behavioural objectives (specific practices that individuals and communities implement that will impact on AMR) that span the One Health spectrum, with specific attention to public health, animal production, and the WASH sector; (d) best practices around embedding CE into existing health, veterinary, agricultural, WASH and other systems; and (e) methodological process for identifying and influencing national and international stakeholders.

We will engage extensively with non-academic stakeholders who represent sectors important to addressing AMR from a One Health perspective in the national context. They will include representatives from the health, agriculture (including livestock and fisheries), and environment sectors, as well as local and national policymakers and development partners. Through two workshops per country, we will collaborate in the development of global-south led research projects that are informed by the particular social and political contexts at play in each setting - we will emphasise the importance of developing CE approaches that can work well within existing national systems and that, therefore, will be sustainable and appropriate to deliver at scale.

We anticipate the emergence of new national networks that focus on addressing AMR from a One Health perspective through community engagement. In some settings that we are working in (e.g. Bangladesh and Nepal), such networks are already developing and we anticipate that they will be strengthened through this focussed collaboration. In other settings, these networks will be new and potentially influential players in contributing to national planning to address AMR.

The overall ambition of this project is to contribute to decreasing the demand for antimicrobials and ensuring good usage of necessary antimicrobials in low and middle income countries. Whilst this project alone cannot solve these issues, by bringing together the expertise of multiple researchers and stakeholder networks, we hope to move towards this ambition. Throughout the project, we will liaise with policy makers, development partners and academics to highlight the potential of CE to address AMR.

Planned Impact

This research will benefit a wide range of stakeholders, including the research community, national and international policy makers, development partners, and individuals employed to work on the project's constituent parts.

Researchers in Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Vietnam, Ghana and beyond will benefit from our investigation into best practices within community engagement as a core strategy to tackle the implications of antimicrobial resistance from a One Health perspective. Knowledge will be shared with them particularly through the development of an open access handbook detailing best practice.

Policy-makers and development partners in Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Vietnam, Ghana and beyond will benefit from our work through our focus on examining how to embed the community engagement approaches into existing systems and community infrastructures. They will be equipped with information to enable them to make informed choices on how to deliver community engagement in order to address the drivers that underpin the demand side of antimicrobial usage at community level, and potentially addressing other health and development issues in the longer term.

Staff working on the project will build their capability to work across disciplines and in cross-sectoral partnerships, to co-design research proposals, and to build leadership skills. We anticipate building capacity particularly in terms of subject knowledge, which will position individuals and organisations as experts in applying One Health perspectives to addressing AMR through community engagement.

This study will directly benefit Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Vietnam and Ghana, all on the list of least developed countries on the DAC list of ODA countries. We will be synthesising best practice within community engagement to address AMR, supporting the development of innovative context-appropriate research agendas across five LMICs, and enabling the development or emergence of national networks dedicated to addressing AMR through a One Health perspective, utilising community engagement methodologies in those five LMICs. We would expect this learning to be relevant for multiple LMICs that have the required health system and service infrastructure to support community engagement interventions, in which case it could eventually benefit many more countries on the DAC list.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title COSTAR introductory video 
Description In 2021 the COSTAR project was launched online through an existing CE4AMR event, This short video was produced by key project partners to explain COSTAR, the collaborations that led to it's formation, COSTAR's aims in Bangladesh and Nepal, and it's relevance within the wider AMR research landscape 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact The video gained a lot of attention and the original launch event and was the focus of Q&A sessions 
URL https://vimeo.com/user164091354/review/668178374/f2258f8c68
 
Description The activities during this award have allowed our co-investigators to reflect upon these areas of learning:

The context in which Community Engagement (CE) approaches are currently being utilized to tackle AMR.
The barriers and challenges to applying CE methods to AMR research.
The gaps in AMR research which could benefit from CE interventions.

We now clearly understand that community engagement methods are mainly used to address the issue of AMR in terms of human health and rarely consider animal and environmental health. This is important because AMR is a global challenge that does not respect species or geographic boundaries, a resistant infection can move between humans and animals, and across countries. This gap in research is better understood when we consider the barriers to implementing CE in the AMR sphere. Many people confuse CE with other methods such as education and awareness raising initiatives. Whilst useful to encourage learning on the topic of AMR we know that these methods don't actually change behaviours relating to AMR. CE can create meaningful behaviour change but it is currently viewed as a "soft" approach and so not many research groups use it. We hope to develop more coherent methods of communicating the need for CE and ways to evaluate and measure its success as this project progresses. We hope that through this process more research groups will use CE to tackle many different aspects of the AMR problem.
Exploitation Route We hope that they can be appreciated by researchers and practitioners external to the grant in order to better inform their ways of working, particularly appreciating the scope of CE methods to tackle AMR.

This is already happening at National level in each of our 5 focal countries (Ghana, India, Vietnam, Nepal and Bangladesh) where National Stakeholder Workshops are discussing these findings and applying them to National AMR priorities.

In terms of our work, these learnings will now be used to develop a series of research proposals which will look to explore some of the research gaps highlighted from our initial synthesis work.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/news/ce4amr-one-health-approach-our-learnings-so-far/
 
Description The knowledge synthesis from the first six months of the project has had a broad non-academic impact. The original synthesis was shared in a webinar (see Engagement Activity entry for Sept 3rd 2020) to which International Community Engagement stakeholders were invited. This allowed us to cross-check our learnings with other experts in the CE field. These findings were then shared at National level in each country (India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam and Ghana) with a focus on engaging with AMR stakeholders across the One Health Sphere (Animal - Human - Environment). The impact here has been a greater appreciation of the value of the CE approach to tackle National AMR priorities from the perspective of policy makers and cross-sector AMR experts. A good amount of local press followed the Bangladesh event meaning the general public could also access these learnings. In November 2019, we held a global Call to Action on Community Engagement and AMR. Key speakers included the Vice Chancellor of the University of Leeds and the lead for community engagement at the World Health Organisation.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Research England grant
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Leeds 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2022 
End 08/2022
 
Description Bangladesh National Stakeholder Workshop associated press 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact In line with the National Stakeholder Workshop in Bangladesh (26th December 2020) co-investigators shared details with local press which resulted in a number of online and print articles detailing the need for action on AMR at National level
Links in addition to that provided below
https://dailyasianage.com/ep/2020/12/24/?page=12
https://bangladeshpost.net/epaper?page=3
https://dailyasianage.com/news/250514/indiscriminate-use--of-antibiotics-poses-high-health-risks
https://dailyasianage.com/ep/2020/12/24/?page=12

https://chandrabatinews.com/%e0%a6%9c%e0%a6%be%e0%a6%a4%e0%a7%80%e0%a7%9f/%e0%a6%85%e0%a7%8d%e0%a6%af%e0%a6%be%e0%a6%a8%e0%a7%8d%e0%a6%9f%e0%a6%bf%e0%a6%ac%e0%a6%be%e0%a7%9f%e0%a7%8b%e0%a6%9f%e0%a6%bf%e0%a6%95%e0%a7%87%e0%a6%b0-%e0%a6%85%e0%a6%95%e0%a6%be%e0%a6%b0%e0%a7%8d/?fbclid=IwAR2NDwius4DYbec-jrA9-GfoG_9xZ3qjPl9qGjX_8rjMRWMk95fCkKdr3_
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://dailyasianage.com/ep/2020/12/24/?page=12
 
Description BioInfect Conference 2022: Invited Speakers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On March 9th Members of the CE4AMR network were invited to present their work at the BioNow conference which focused on AMR for year of 2022. The conference requested our specific attendance in order to share our work on community/patient engagement in the AMR space. Speakers were Paul Cooke, Nichola Jones and Jessica Mitchell who represented several research projects within the CE4AMR portfolio (EP/T02335X/1, AH/T007915/1, AH/R005869/1, ES/P004075/1, MR/T029676/1)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://bionow.co.uk/event/BIONOW120/2022-bioinfect-conference
 
Description Blog on Poultry Hub (Grant partner) website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Short blog outlining the scope of the collaboration with a focus on the One Health Poultry Hub aims. Poultry Hub are a veterinary collective so Community Engagement approaches are new to both their research teams, network members and wider audiences. This blog aimed to show the need for CE in veterinary health and particularly in understanding AMR drivers and spread
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.onehealthpoultry.org/blog-posts/community-engagement-and-the-challenge-of-antimicrobial-...
 
Description Blog post: Our learnings so far... share on project webspace and twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This blog post shares the cluster project' current learnings regarding the scope of CE to address AMR. Although these learnings will be synthesized into formal outputs including an academic paper and practitioner handbook, the blog is a useful way to engage new audiences with the topic of AMR and use of the CE approach. It is intended to prime specialist audiences on the outputs to be developed from the grant whilst also explaining the rationale of the project to academics, students, practitioners and the public who may not see the connection between participatory approaches and the biological problem of AMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/news/ce4amr-one-health-approach-our-learnings-so-far/
 
Description Blog: National Stakeholder workshop Bangladesh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this blog The ARK foundation team tell us more about their National Stakeholder workshop in Dakar which ran in 2020 and engaged around 30 participants. This event draws on learnings from the previous projects (Community Dialogues for preventing and controlling antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh)

The blog is accessible via the CE4AMR webpage and has been shared on CE4AMR twitter which has over 1000 followers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/national-stakeholder-workshopbangladesh/
 
Description Blog: National Stakeholder workshop India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this blog Professor Rajib Dasgupta tells us more about their National Stakeholder workshop in India which ran in 2020 and engaged around 30 participants. The blog is accessible via the CE4AMR webpage and has been shared on CE4AMR twitter which has over 1000 followers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/national-stakeholder-workshops-india/
 
Description Blog: National Stakeholder workshop Nepal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this blog the HERD International Team tell us more about their National Stakeholder workshops in Kathmandu which ran in 2020 and engaged around 30 participants. This event also links to the CARAN project (Sourcing Community solutions to antibiotic resistance in Nepal) as it is this project from which many of the learnings are being shared.

The blog is accessible via the CE4AMR webpage and has been shared on CE4AMR twitter which has over 1000 followers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/national-stakeholder-meeting-nepal/
 
Description Blog: National stakeholder workshop Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In this blog Professor Collins Stephen Ahorlu and Dr Emmanuel Tsekleves tell us more about their National Stakeholder workshop in Ghana which ran in 2020 and engaged around 30 participants. The blog is accessible via the CE4AMR webpage and has been shared on CE4AMR twitter which has over 1000 followers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/national-stakeholder-workshop-ghana/
 
Description Blog: One Health EJP presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In June 2021 two of CE4AMR's Early Career Researcher's presented the findings of our GCRF funded challenge cluster project at the OneHealth EJP 2021. This hybrid conference, based physically in Copenhagen, brought together participants from all over Europe and beyond - some presenting in Copenhagen and some virtually. Dr Jessica Mitchell (University of Leeds) and Dr Mariana Fonseca-Braga (University of Lancaster) presented online from their homes, as has become the norm for members of the our cluster known as CE4AMR: The One Health Approach. This blog summarised the presentation and share a link to the recording of the full presentation here: https://vimeo.com/579469906
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/onehealth-ejp-our-presentation-on-the-value-of-ce-in-amr-research/
 
Description Call-to-Action on the use of Community Engagement approaches to tackle Antimicrobial Resistance. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact In November 2021 an online webinar was held to share the findings of this project which included our handbook, publication and call to action. over 200 people registered for the webinar and 80 attended live with others watching the recording. All outputs are now shared on the website for other interactions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/news/call-to-action/
 
Description Creating a project webspace 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A web space was created on the existing CE4AMR website to host news and updates on the cluster project. This was also shared on twitter to reach a wider audience. The primary focus of the webspace is to explain the project aims, share outcomes, outputs and findings. There are future blogs and engagement activities planned for the webspace to showcase the clusters work, in particular the findings of the National Stakeholder Workshops
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ce4amr.leeds.ac.uk/home/ce4amr-the-one-health-approach/
 
Description Dr Dasgupta press article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact National newspaper article in India written by Project Co-I Dr Rajib Dasgupta in which this project is references as an example of much needed one health collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/why-india-needs-a-one-health-vision-7261541/https:/indiane...
 
Description GCRF Challenge Cluster newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Project newsletters are circulated to co-investigators every two months. In 2020 these months were August, October and December. Newsletters allow the project teams to introduce themselves share publications and success stories and discuss learnings from previous failures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description National Stakeholder Workshop: Bangladesh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On December 26th 2020 co-investigators in Bangladesh delivered a full day workshop to discuss the National Priorities on AMR and how CE could support efforts to tackle these. Delegates included academics, policy makers, practitioners and experts from across the one health sphere (human, animal and environmental health). A final report was created and shared internally with the Cluster team. A public facing blog detailing the event is forthcoming
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://dailyasianage.com/news/250514/indiscriminate-use--of-antibiotics-poses-high-health-risks
 
Description National Stakeholder Workshop: Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact On December 15th 2020 co-investigators in Ghana delivered a full day workshop to discuss the National Priorities on AMR and how CE could support efforts to tackle these. Delegates included academics, policy makers, practitioners and experts from across the one health sphere (human, animal and environmental health). A final report was created and shared internally with the Cluster team. A public facing blog detailing the event is forthcoming
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description National Stakeholder Workshop: Gujarat India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In early January 2021 a second workshop was delivered in India, this time in the Gujarat region. Here National AMR priorities were discussed and the scope for community engagement to impact on these areas was reflected upon. The team fed back their learnings from this project in a detailed report and will present their findings at an online workshop in March
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description National Stakeholder Workshop: India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact On January 15th 2021 co-investigators in India delivered a full day workshop to discuss the National Priorities on AMR and how CE could support efforts to tackle these. Delegates included academics, policy makers, practitioners and experts from across the one health sphere (human, animal and environmental health). A final report was created and shared internally with the Cluster team. A public facing blog detailing the event is forthcoming
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description National Stakeholder Workshop: Nepal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Over the final week of December in 2020 the HERD International team ran a series of face-to-face meetings in place of a National Stakeholder Workshop (due to COVID-19). Here the team discussed the National AMR priorities in Nepal and the potential for Community Engagement approaches to be utilized in this space. Discussions built upon previous relationships that the HERD team build with policy-level partners through the CARAN project (Community solutions to Antibiotic ResistAnce in Nepal). The findings of the meetings will be shared with the cluster team in a report and presented in a webinar in March.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description One Health EJP conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In June 2021 two of CE4AMR's Early Career Researcher's presented the findings of our GCRF funded challenge cluster project at the OneHealth EJP 2021. This hybrid conference, based physically in Copenhagen, brought together participants from all over Europe and beyond - some presenting in Copenhagen and some virtually. Dr Jessica Mitchell (University of Leeds) and Dr Mariana Fonseca-Braga (University of Lancaster) presented online from their homes, as has become the norm for members of the our cluster known as CE4AMR: The One Health Approach. You may watch a recording of the full presentation here: https://vimeo.com/579469906
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ohejp2021.com/programme-1
 
Description Poultry Hub blog for World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Fiona Tomley, director of the One Health Poultry Hub and Co-I on this project explains the need for a One Health approach to world antimicrobial awareness week and cites this project as a key example of creating such partnerships and approaches.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.onehealthpoultry.org/blog-posts/behaviour-and-antimicrobial-resistance/
 
Description Presentation: AMR@Leeds webinar series Jan 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Rebecca King and Professor Paul Cooke presented their combined reserach regarding the use of community engagement in AMR at the AMR@Leeds monthly webinar series in Jan 2021. The presentation discussed this challenge cluster plus two previous projects which are both involved within the cluster (Community Dialogues to address antibiotic resistnace in Bangladesh and Community level solutions to antibiotic resistance in Nepal). Over 40 people attended the live webinar with around 80 registered and able to watch the recording
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.leeds.ac.uk/AMR
 
Description Presentation: Sonar-Global 3rd AMR Hub Meeting - Social Dimensions of Antibiotic Resistance in Asia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Team members Dr Jessica Mitchell and Professor Paul Cooke presented summary of this project's findings on September 14th at the SONAR Global 3rd AMR Hub Meeting - Social Dimensions of Antibiotic Resistance in Asia: a One Health Perspective. The presentation also included background details of the cluster project's formation and so links to two other projects (Community arts against antibiotic resistance, and Community Dialogues for preventing antibiotic resistance)

This was an interactive meeting, consisting of a series of short presentations (two sessions over two days) followed by an optional one-hour online brainstorming session (on Day 2 after the main meeting) with a focus on identifying research gaps, prioritizing a research agenda, and brainstorming ideas for potential future funding applications. At its peak, it had 80 participants from all over the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.sonar-global.eu/sonar-global-3rd-amr-hub-meeting/
 
Description Webinar: Answering the Research Questions 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact On September 3rd 2020 the Leeds-based team hosted a webinar to reflect upon Co-Investigators answers to our 6 research questions. Each project team had taken a month to discuss the research questions with key stakeholders and submit their answers. The webinar brought together a synthesis of these answers and also invited external experts from funding organizations, LMIC universities and the WHO. Answers were reflected upon and discussed within the group and will lead to a position paper and handbook detailing the current scope of CE interventions to tackle AMR.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Webinar: Creating our Research Questions 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact On August 6th 2020 the co-investigators of this grant came together to discuss and refine a series of research questions which would guide our progress in this project. Although broad research questions were identified at Grant-writing stage we wanted to reflect on this to ensure we were capturing information relevant to AMR across the One Health sphere and also ensure that our collective understanding of Community Engagement was represented in our research questions. Ahead of this workshop Co-Is were asked to annotate existing research questions and this feedback was synthesized to create a final set of questions which were discussed and further refined in the webinar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Webinar: National Priorities on AMR #1 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact On February 3rd 2021 the teams from Bangladesh and Ghana presented the finings of their National Stakeholder Workshops to the rest of the team. Areas discussed included National AMR priorities, the current understanding of One Health in relation to AMR, the current appetite, understanding and usage of CE approaches in country, the scope of CE to address some of the outstanding AMR issues. These areas were debated with the wider group and next month we will hear from the other stakeholder workshops to flesh out this understanding. These learnings will then support the development of Global-south led research proposals to tackle AMR in each setting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021