Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies (LLAKES)

Lead Research Organisation: Institute of Education
Department Name: Lifelong and Comparative Education

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We provide examples of key research findings from three of the thirteen funded projects.

Project 1.2: Analysis of Macro-Social Data on Educational Inequality, Income Inequality, Social Cohesion and Competitiveness (Led by: Germ Janmaat and Andy Green with Christine Han)

The aim of this project was to analyse the relationships between educational inequality, income inequality, social cohesion and economic competitiveness, controlling for labour market and welfare system effects.

The research identified distinctive 'regimes' of social cohesion in 'liberal', 'social market', 'social democratic' and, to a lesser extent, East Asian groups of countries. Whereas social cohesion in the social democratic and social market states has been strongly institutionally embedded and associated with widely shared sets of values, in the UK, the US, and other liberal states, it has relied more on active civil society and core beliefs in individual freedoms and opportunities and rewards based on merit. Increasing inequality and declining mobility is eroding these core beliefs and causing social and political trust to atrophy (Green, A. and Janmaat, J-G (2011) Regimes of Social Cohesion: Societies and the Crisis of Globalisation. Palgrave). Analysis of the long term trends in measures of trust show the steepest declines since 1959 in the UK and the US. Levels of support for democracy and gradual reform amongst lower income groups were lower in liberal countries than in other groups of countries. The gap in levels of support for democracy among lower and higher income groups was stable in other groups of countries, but growing within the liberal group. In a context of diminishing job opportunities, particularly for young people, relatively high levels of inequality in education may exacerbate the long-term trend away from the core beliefs that underpin social cohesion in the UK.

Phase One Project 1.4 on 'School Ethnic Mix and Social Attitudes' (led by Janmaat) analysed whether the degree of comprehensivisation (mixed ability classes rather than grouping by ability) effects social and ethnic segregation and disparities of civic competences, and whether systems with high levels of segregation would have lower levels of tolerance, trust and participation. The project made use of survey data from the IEA Civic Education Study and the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study to analyse these relationships both cross-nationally and nationally for England. It produced a range of outputs (including: Janmaat, J.G. (2014). 'Do Ethnically Mixed Classrooms Promote Inclusive Attitudes Towards Immigrants Everywhere? A Study Among Native Adolescents in 14 Western Countries', European Sociological Review, Vol. 30, No 6). The project led to a number of important findings:
• Grouping by ability is associated with more social segregation across classrooms but not with more ethnic segregation;
• Grouping by ability leads to greater disparities of civic knowledge and skills but is not associated with disparities of civic attitudes and participation;
• In countries practicing grouping by ability the peer effect of classroom social composition on civic knowledge and skills is higher than in more comprehensive systems;
• In Germany and Sweden native majority children are more tolerant the more ethnically diverse their classrooms are. In England, however, there is no relation between classroom diversity and ethnic tolerance and a negative relation between the average civic competence of ethnic minority children and the ethnic tolerance of their white classmates. In other words, the more competent ethnic minority children are, the less tolerant their white classmates are.
• Neither native majority nor minority children are more trusting in more diverse classrooms. In Germany the native majority children are even less trusting in more diverse classrooms.
• In countries with comprehensive systems the social and ethnic disparities in student attitudes on tolerance and patriotism are much smaller.
• Ethnically diverse classrooms foster the inclusive attitudes of native students towards immigrants, especially in contexts where there are more second- than first-generation immigrant children.

Project 3.3 Sub-project 1: Returns to Lifelong Learning (Led by Martin Weale with Richard Dorsett and Silvia Lui) investigated the economic benefits conferred by life-long learning using the British Household Panel Survey in the United Kingdom and the Survey of Income and Living Conditions for other European countries.

The research showed that there were statistically significant and substantial effects on earnings from life-long learning for both men and women with, not surprisingly, higher returns from upgrading than from learning with no upgrading. We found that a very important component of the overall return from life-long learning was its effect on employment probability and that this effect was particularly marked for those with low initial educational status because their employment rate is also low. It was also more marked for women than for men. Thus a twenty-five year old woman increases her hourly wage by only 6% as a result of life-long learning, but the effect on employment means that her total life-time earnings rise by 47%. For a man aged 25 the direct effect on the wage rate is once again only 6% but the total effect on life-time earnings is 16%. Statistical tests provided strong support for our modelling approach relative to the more traditional approach of analysing the effects of qualifications on wage dynamics by means of equations in first differences (i.e. on the assumption that everyone is a stayer).
Exploitation Route LLAKES is already helping to shape policy, at local, national and international levels, and is influencing the general climate of opinion in a number of areas.

Strand Two research on apprenticeships is informing policy at local and national level. Their work with Southampton City Council helped to shape the council's policy regarding pre-employment training in the retail sector and this has been written up as an ESRC case study of 'pathways to impact'. The team have also been advising national Government on training policy. In July, 2010, during the Comprehensive Spending Review, Fuller and Unwin were invited to submit a paper to BIS Ministers, David Willetts and John Hayes, to attend a meeting with Willetts and Vince Cable on the Skills Strategy, and with the BIS team at the Treasury. Unwin was also one of two academics invited to a seminar with the Chancellor of the Exchequer in August. Their ideas for using public sector procurement and local authority planning powers as levers for increasing apprenticeships are informing Catherine McKinnell MP's Private Member's Bill, and BIS have invited a proposal for funding to extend the research. More recently, Fuller and Unwin have given oral and written evidence on apprenticeships to the Education Select Committee's Inquiry into Post-16 Participation, the latter being published in full in the Committee's report. They also drew on their research for a critique of the Wolf Review of 14-19 Education, which was published in the Times Educational Supplement on March 18th 2011. Mason's work on the upskilling of older workers (Project 2.4) found evidence of a general decline in off-the-job training rates since the early 2000s, with employers' training plans being blown of course after the recession. As noted earlier, the results were presented at a Public Policy Seminar held at HM Treasury in 2009, at which Andy Green also presented a paper, and have also been fed into policy meetings at BIS and the UKCES. A subsequent Financial Times article (David Turner, March 30th 2010) was devoted entirely to the research.



Strand Three research of education-employment transitions has also reached the attention of policy-makers. Schoon's work was presented to the Prime Minister's Strategy Unit (PMSU) and DCSF, who requested advice and engagement in their steering group meetings. An email from a user in the PMSU said: 'The project has contributed to a better understanding of youth transitions in a changing socio-historical context, and has been instrumental in rethinking current policy conceptions about the transition to adulthood'. At the international level, Strand One research has also had potential influence. Andy Green and Francis Green advised OECD on the development of their Horizontal Skills Strategy and this, and Francis Green's involvement on its advisory committee for the PIAAC Survey, may help to shape OECD policy initiatives in adult training. Hoskins' inputs to discussions have also influenced the development of the OECD's forthcoming publication on the learning of civil and social engagement. Green, Hoskins Mostafa, Unwin and Guile provided numerous advice notes to NESSE which informs the European Commission Directorate General Education and Culture's (DG EAC) initiative on education and social inclusion. Our responses were used by Angelos Agalianos (DG EAC, Unit A1) and Oyvind Bjerkestrand (DG-EAC Unit A4) in planning their future activities, in particular in the area of monitoring the 'Education and Training 2010 Work Programme'. Mr Agalianos stated that: 'The feedback we received from colleagues in Unit A4...is very positive. Colleagues found the reply very useful in several ways, especially for the selection of the various topics to be addressed at the conference and for their grouping'.



LLAKES can also claim to be influencing the general climate of opinion in several areas. Susanne Wiborg's research on 'Free Schools in Sweden and the UK' (Research Paper 18: Briefing Paper for the National Governors' Association, July 2010) has been widely cited in policy reports and in the media and has led to numerous invited lectures to policy audiences. She gave invited talks to two events organised by Inside Government and another at a Westminster Forum seminar. Her work is cited in articles in a wide range of national newspapers including: The Guardian, TES-Connect, Prospect Magazine, The Daily Telegraph, EdConnect, and Spectator, as well as online in LocalGov.co.uk and BBC News Online. Her research findings are also discussed in various policy reports from NASUWT, BECTA and by Derek Gillard in Forum. The research, which sheds light on some of the negative outcomes of Free School policies in Sweden, also highlighted subsequently by a Swedish Think Tank report, has arguably contributed to shaping the debate in England where Ministers no longer refer to Sweden as the provenance of their 'Free School' policy.

Research on ability grouping in primary schools by Hallam and Parsons also generated a great deal of media coverage. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study, Hallam and Parsons show that one-in-six UK children is allocated to a set or stream by the age of seven, a much higher rate than previously thought. The research was discussed in articles in The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent and the Times Educational Supplement, as well as in numerous on-line bulletins. Hallam gave a total of three TV interviews and nine radio interviews, including on BBC Radio 4's Today and You and Yours programmes, the latter devoting 50 minutes to discussion of the research. As a result of the publicity the DfE got in touch with the authors who are now due to meet DfE officials to discuss their research and its findings.



Janmaat's research on the impact of classroom ethnic diversity on levels of student tolerance has also received wide media coverage. The research was discussed in articles in The Daily Telegraph, Times Education Supplement, The Daily Mail and on the BBC Website. Janmaat was also interviewed for the BBC Radio's Dotun Adebayo Show. Green and Janmaat's research on education and social cohesion is also extensively cited in the Equality and Commission Human Rights Commission's report on 'Good Relations Measurement Framework' and in the Government Office for Science's Insight Report on 'Mental Capital and Wellbeing: Making the Most of Ourselves in the 21st Century'. An article on the trends in social and political trust was discussed in an article in the Evening Standard.

LLAKES is conducting research in many areas which are relevant to policy and we are working hard to ensure that research findings are widely disseminated and brought to the attention of policy-makers who may be interested. Press releases are issued when research is published which is newsworthy. Where research has clear policy implications we also issue Policy Briefing Papers designed to give policy-makers rapid and easy access to findings. There are a number of areas of our research where we would seek to influence policy more and for which we have developed 'pathways to impact' strategies. In the case of the work on education, values and social cohesion, we have recently launched a synthesis Policy Briefing entitled 'Education, Opportunity and Social Cohesion', which brings together all our findings in this area in one six-page paper. The launch was well attended and copies of the briefing are being posted out to politicians, policy-makers, journalists and relevant academics. We intend to follow a similar strategy for the research on adult skills and training.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education

URL http://llakes.org
 
Description Strand One Research focuses on Education and Social Cohesion. In March 2013 Strand One placed several substantial datasets in the public domain which will enhance the visibility of LLAKES and confirm its reputation as a centre engaging in data-driven cutting-edge research. One of these was a time series dataset containing national statistics on lifelong learning systems and their outcomes in OECD countries. This covered the period from 1960 up to the present and included: 1) administrative data on key socio-economic indicators and on inputs and properties of LLL systems and 2) aggregate survey data representing mean levels and distributions of skills, competences, attitudes and identities. We believe that the longitudinal and comprehensive character of the dataset will be very attractive for researchers interested in investigating relations between macro-level institutional characteristics and socio-economic outcomes both diachronically and synchronically. In May 2012 Janmaat was awarded a one year British Academy Mid-Career Fellowship (£50,690) allowing him to explore the effects of tracking and school ethnic and social composition on civic engagement using British longitudinal datasets. This research represents a follow-up and deepening of the Strand One projects on perceptions of inequality (Project 1.3) and school ethnic mix and social attitudes (Project 1.4). The planned output of the Fellowship is four articles in high impact factor journals. The BA-MCF and the Projects 1.3 and 1.4 feed into the Crisis for Contemporary Youth project of Theme One of LLAKES Phase Two. Strand Two Research included investigations into Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Innovation and Learning. The work undertaken in Project 2.1 by Guile and James on the effects of the transition from Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) to Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) on SMEs in the Creative sector in Birmingham and by Unwin and James on regeneration and skills in Manchester provided the intellectual case to secure funding from the ESRC for an interdisciplinary research network (with Guile as the Principal Investigator) - the Knowledge-Dynamics, Innovation and Learning Network (KILN). The researchers, from seven countries (UK, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Sweden) cover the fields of economic geography, organisational studies and workplace learning. The network will explore two related issues: i) how the learning and skills of individuals are linked to collective learning by firms in different kinds of production-consumption networks; and ii) how learning and innovation takes place across geographical, organisational and professional boundaries. Guile and Unwin's work on workplace learning, skills and innovation was also featured in the ESRC's report, Re-igniting Growth. Strand One research on education, citizenship and social cohesion made a significant impact on the wider academic community. Green and Janmaat's book, Regimes of Social Cohesion: Societies and the Crisis of Globalization, inspired a report on social cohesion authored by the Framtidskommissionen (Commission on the Future) of the Swedish Government. It has further informed the work on social cohesion at the CEPS/Instead Research Centre in Luxembourg conducted by Paul Dickes and Monique Borsenberger. Andy Green gave invited lectures based on the book at Hong Kong University; National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan; Zhejiang University, China; Bergische Universität, Germany; the University of Latvia; the LLAKES Second International Conference at the Institute of Education and the ASEM Forum on Lifelong Learning, Copenhagen. Janmaat's research on classroom diversity and ethnic tolerance, as published in LLAKES Research Paper 4 and in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2012, January issue), has also been taken up by oversees scholars. Janmaat was invited: to contribute a paper on this topic to a volume edited by Jaap Dronkers, a well-known Dutch educationalist and to present at the ESA mid-term sociology of education conference in Ghent in September 2012 and at a one-day conference on citizenship education in February 2013 at the University of Amsterdam. In May 2012 Hoskins completed her European Commission project on Participatory Citizenship in the European Union. Three separate reports (the Contextual, the Analytic and the Good Practice Report) mapped the theory, policy, practices and levels of civic and political engagement across Europe. A special event, organised by the University of Southampton, was held at the Houses of Parliament in December 2012 to present the project and disseminate its findings. Several members of parliament participated in this event. Strand Three research on young people's transitions had had significant scientific impact. Evans and Field were commissioned to edit a Special Issue of the British Journal of Educational Sociology which brought together chapters based on research in all three strands of LLAKES Phase One and took forward the synthesising of their research findings. The invitation to produce this volume was indicative of recognition and growing scientific profile of LLAKES research. Project 3.2's core membership of the European Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI) network, sponsored by The Danish Strategic Research Council and supported by the Danish Trade Union Confederation, LO, has developed critical insights into innovation that are complementary to those of Strand Two and work on the health care sector forthcoming in Theme Two. These have been recently published in the Palgrave collection Employee-driven Innovation: A New Approach edited by Høyrup et al. (2012) and debated in the open-access Journal Lifelong Learning in Europe, with an invited international overview by Evans. The concept of Employee-Driven Innovation first featured in EU socio-economic research priorities in the call for the FP7 programme as a direct result of the EDI network's interventions. Schoon et al's findings from Project 3.1 on the role of school engagement and 'non-cognitive' skills' in promoting successful development and attainment have been taken up by Department for Education. Riley's research in Project 3.3 has been the subject of an INDICSER (Indicators for Evaluating International Performance in Service Sectors) Paper (Mahony, M. and Riley, R., 'Human Capital Spillovers: The Importance of Training', INDICSER Discussion Paper No. 23, December 2012.) Strand One research on pre-school education and care has influenced the current, very prominent, debate on policy in this area. Two LLAKES Research Papers (32 and 36), co-authored by Andy Green and Tarek Mostafa, have identified universal pre-school education and care (PSEC) as a clear 'win-win' policy in terms of its beneficial effects for both competitiveness and social cohesion. A simulation using Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data showed that universalising PSEC would improve educational performance for all social groups with smaller inequalities in performance. The maximum reduction in skills inequalities at 15 occurred in the simulation by universalising attendance for the bottom six socio-economic deciles while maintaining current attendance levels of higher social groups. Analysis of actual time-series data for a range of countries shows that higher rates of PSEC attendance are also strongly associated with higher rates of female employment. The research has been picked up by the press with articles appearing in The Independent, Western World and Nursery World in December 2012, with numerous follow-up blogs. The authors were invited to present their findings to the relevant policy team at DFE and at a Fabian Society House of Commons seminar in January, 2013. The Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) has also invited LLAKES to advise them on their current report on PSEC. The Comparative Analysis of Early Childhood Cognitive Outcomes project in Theme Three of LLAKES Phase Two will build on this work, using longitudinal data for several countries and regions to compare how social gaps in cognitive achievement develop during the early years in different policy environments. Strand Two research on the role of apprenticeship in relation to city-region regeneration and sectoral development has had an impact on a range of non-academic stakeholders at local and national levels. Fuller and Rizvi's evaluation for the Southampton Skills Development Zone Board of a city-wide initiative to provide apprenticeships for unemployed and disadvantaged young people by public sector employers has contributed to a review of its strategic planning for future initiatives. Manchester City Council has asked Unwin to prepare further case studies of apprentices involved in its regeneration initiatives as part of a planned exhibition on new approaches to youth unemployment. As a result of the Southampton and Manchester studies, the London Borough of Camden has invited Unwin to advise on strategies to increase apprenticeships and make better use of planning and procurement levers. At a national level, Guile's study of media apprenticeships in the North West has led to an invitation to join Creative Skillset's new Research and Evaluation Committee and its Apprenticeship Advisory Group to help identify ways to introduce apprenticeship into hard-to-reach sub-sectors. Fuller, Guile and Unwin's research on the interconnections between apprenticeship forms of learning and skill formation at the intermediate level resulted in the Gatsby Foundation commissioning them to study the role of technicians and technical level work in the healthcare sector (reported in outputs). Gatsby has also commissioned Fuller and Unwin to do a scoping study on the relationship between apprenticeship and the concept of occupation. Fuller and Unwin have also been commissioned by the National Apprenticeship Service to produce a new version of their Guide to Creating and Managing Expansive Apprenticeships for Employers, Colleges and Training Providers to be launched at the Skills Show in October 2013. Their research was cited in the Richard Review of Apprenticeship (Department of Business, Innovation and Skills, 2012); they were consulted twice by Doug Richard and asked to give detailed feedback at the draft report stage. Findings from this research also contributed to Unwin's role as Chair of the Commission of Inquiry into the Role of Group Training Associations (which reported to government in September 2012) and as academic adviser to the Commission on Adult Vocational Teaching Learning (CAVTL) which reported to government in March 2013.
First Year Of Impact 2009
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Academic Partner to Commission on Adult Vocational Teaching and Learning
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation Learning and Skills Improvement Service 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2012 
End 05/2013
 
Description ESRC Festival of Social Science, University of Stirling: "Learning, Inequality and Social Cohesion in Recession"
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2010 
End 03/2010
 
Description PATHWAYS to Adulthood
Amount £694,000 (GBP)
Organisation Jacobs Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Switzerland
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description Precarious workers in Singapore: how vocational learning and identities are constructed through non-permanent work in the Singaporean labour market
Amount £12,528 (GBP)
Organisation Institute of Adult Learning, Singapore 
Sector Academic/University
Country Singapore
Start 09/2012 
End 09/2014
 
Description Quality of work and employment in Europe: measurement, results and challenges
Amount € 64,940 (EUR)
Funding ID 0446 
Organisation Eurofound 
Sector Public
Country Ireland
Start 06/2011 
End 03/2012
 
Description Skills and Employment Survey 2012
Amount £808,877 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2011 
End 05/2014
 
Title 2012 Skills and Employment Survey, second wave 
Description In 2014, a follow-up wave of interviews was conducted with a random, consenting sample of respondents to the 2012 Skills and Employment Survey. Interviews were mainly face to face interviews in the home, though a small proportion of interviews were conducted online. The achieved sample was 1108 cases. The anonymous data has been deposited for public non-commercial use with the UK Data Archive. It can be downloaded and used in conjunction with the 2012 wave data, as a two-wave panel. This panel forms a unique source of longitudinal data on skills utilisation and job quality for a substantial representative sample of workers in Britain. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Narrative Impact Report The Skills and Employment Survey 2012 is the sixth in a series of representative sample surveys of workers in Britain. This round of data collection has allowed us to chart the changing pattern of job quality and skills over a quarter of a century, with some new survey questions specifically designed to reveal the impact of the recession on working life. The results have had, and continue to have, demonstrable economic and societal impacts. This is evidenced in six ways: 1. Engagement with policy-makers, civil servants and representative bodies with an interest in enhancing the quality of working life. During the course of the project, 4 launch events have been held across Britain - 2 in London, and 1 in Cardiff and 1 in Glasgow. Taken together, these events attracted an audience of 330. Delegates mainly consisted of policy-makers, political representatives, trade union officials, professional bodies, lobbying organisations, training providers and employers. 2. The project findings have attracted considerable media interest which have helped to generate public debate about how the quality of working life might be improved and the worst effects of austerity mitigated. Notably this included a front page article in the Financial Times, as well as articles in The Guardian and the Daily Mail, and commentary on Radio Four's Today programme and live interviews on Radio Five Live, LBC and Radio Cymru. 3. The project team wrote, designed and produced a series of 8 short reports with the intention of communicating bite-sized policy-relevant research messages to policy-makers. These have proved an effective device. A total of 4,600 hard copy reports have been distributed and all were made available for download from the project web site. This approach has been complimented by the publication of 3 articles in policy-making/practitioner facing outlets. 4. The results have informed policy-making as evidenced by project citations. For example, the UKCES recent review of the skills landscape makes frequent use of the SES results and associated data, the NHS Pay Review Body's pay recommendations for 2014 cite project results and the Welsh Government's policy on skills also refers to findings from the project. More recently, the survey findings have been used to frame public policy debates as the political parties launch their election manifestos for May 2015. Evidence has been used by the Smith Institute 'Making Work Better' Inquiry and the Skills Commission Inquiry into the Future of Work, whose deliberations are intended to influence the priorities of the next government. More recently, evidence taken from the survey appears has been used on several occasions - unfortunately, without attribution - in the Labour Party's manifesto for work (see Influence on Policy entry). 5. The lasting legacy of the project, however, is the data infrastructure which will permit further analyses to be carried out by academic or policy-based researchers on a variety of skills and job quality issues. It also maintains the tradition of carrying out such a survey every five years and therefore provides another data point against which future researchers will be able to make comparisons. To this end, four datasets have been lodged in the Data Archive and are available for analysts to download. The academic importance of the series as a crucial part of social science research infrastructure was recognised in 2014 when the Data Archive selected the series for inclusion in the 'curated collection'; that is, surveys which are regularly deposited by known researchers and frequently used by other social scientists. As of March 2015, a total of 507 researchers have downloaded the data from the series and used the material for research and teaching purposes. 6. The survey has also made a lasting impression on the collection of skills data internationally. The 'Job Requirements Approach', for example, has been built into the background questionnaire of the OECD's Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) - the adult equivalent of PISA - which was carried out in 24 countries in 2011/12. In addition, the 2012 SES questionnaire has been used with only modest change by the Institute of Adult Learning in Singapore. Two papers, directly resulting from the second wave data, have been published recently: Gallie, D., Y. Zhou, A. Felstead, F. Green and G. Henseke (2017). "The implications of direct participation for organisational commitment, job satisfaction and affective psychological well-being: a longitudinal analysis." Industrial Relations Journal 48(2): 174-191. Felstead, A., D. Gallie, F. Green and G. Henseke (2016 online). "The determinants of skills use and work pressure: A longitudinal analysis." Economic and Industrial Democracy. Open Access. It is too soon to report impact from these. 
 
Title ISCO(HE)2008: An International Database of Graduate Jobs 
Description This database is a classification of ISCO_08 occupations across OECD countries at 3-digit level, as to whether they are graduate or non-graduate jobs. The classification was made using statistical methods, based on skills use and educational requirements data drawn from the OECD's Survey of Adult Skills. The database is published in the following publications: Henseke, G. and F. Green (2016), "Graduate Jobs" in OECD Countries: Analysis Using A New Indicator Based on High Skills Use", OECD Education Working Papers, No. 144, OECD Publishing, Paris. Open access. Henseke, G. and F. Green (2017) "Cross-national Deployment of "Graduate Jobs": Analysis Using a New Indicator Based on High Skills Use". Research In Labor Economics. Online open access. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The database has been used by us to develop an analysis of graduate underemployment. 
URL http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1542476/
 
Title SOC(HE)_GH: A Database of Graduate Jobs in Britain. 
Description Graduate Jobs Classifier: This database is a classification of occupations in Britain at the 4-digit and 3-digit level, as to whether they are graduate or non-graduate jobs. The classification was made using statistical methods, based on skills use and educational requirements data drawn from four successive waves of the Skills and Employment Surveys, culminating in the 2012 survey. Green, F. and G. Henseke "The Changing Graduate Labour Market: Analysis Using a New Indication of Graduate Jobs". LLAKES Discussion Paper No 50. Green, F. and G. Henseke (2016). "The Changing Graduate Labour Market: Analysis Using a New Indicator of Graduate Jobs". IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 5:14. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The database has been compared with a pre-existing classification, and after revisions offered to the Office for National Statistics, as a basis for recommendations for revisions to the occupational classification (SOC_2020) in Britain. 
URL http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1186/s40173-016-0070-0?author_access_token=zr05lUBGVaIHocuJ6ODO_...
 
Title Skills and Employment Survey 2012 
Description The Skills Survey is a series of surveys which aim to investigate the employed workforce in Great Britain (and United Kingdom from 2006). The survey series builds on two previous studies of the workforce, Social Change and Economic Life Initiative Surveys, 1986-1987 and Employment in Britain, 1992. The first Skills Survey was conducted in 1997 and represented a new approach to assessing the extent to which those at work in Britain had skills matching the requirements of their jobs. The 2001 survey was aimed at assessing how much had changed between the two surveys. The third survey in 2006 enhanced this time series data further but had the overarching aim of providing a resource for analysing skill and job requirements in the British economy in the middle part of the current decade. The Skills and Employment Survey, 2012 (SES2012) was the fourth in the series, and aimed to again add to the time series data and, coinciding as it did with a period of economic recession, aimed to provide insight into whether the British workforce felt under additional pressure/demand from employers as a result of redundancies and cut backs. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Narrative Impact Report The Skills and Employment Survey 2012 is the sixth in a series of representative sample surveys of workers in Britain. This round of data collection has allowed us to chart the changing pattern of job quality and skills over a quarter of a century, with some new survey questions specifically designed to reveal the impact of the recession on working life. The results have had, and continue to have, demonstrable economic and societal impacts. This is evidenced in several ways: 1. Engagement with policy-makers, civil servants and representative bodies with an interest in enhancing the quality of working life. During the course of the project, 4 launch events have been held across Britain - 2 in London, and 1 in Cardiff and 1 in Glasgow. Taken together, these events attracted an audience of 330. Delegates mainly consisted of policy-makers, political representatives, trade union officials, professional bodies, lobbying organisations, training providers and employers. 2. The project findings have attracted considerable media interest which have helped to generate public debate about how the quality of working life might be improved and the worst effects of austerity mitigated. Notably this included a front page article in the Financial Times, as well as articles in The Guardian and the Daily Mail, and commentary on Radio Four's Today programme and live interviews on Radio Five Live, LBC and Radio Cymru. 3. The project team wrote, designed and produced a series of 8 short reports with the intention of communicating bite-sized policy-relevant research messages to policy-makers. These have proved an effective device. A total of 4,600 hard copy reports have been distributed and all were made available for download from the project web site. This approach has been complimented by the publication of 3 articles in policy-making/practitioner facing outlets. 4. The results have informed policy-making as evidenced by project citations. For example, the UKCES review of the skills landscape makes frequent use of the SES results and associated data, the NHS Pay Review Body's pay recommendations for 2014 cite project results and the Welsh Government's policy on skills also refers to findings from the project. In 2015 the survey findings were used to frame public policy debates as the political parties launched their election manifestos. Evidence was used by the Smith Institute 'Making Work Better' Inquiry and the Skills Commission Inquiry into the Future of Work, whose deliberations were intended to influence government priorities. Evidence taken from the survey was used on several occasions - unfortunately, without attribution - in the Labour Party's manifesto for work. 5. The lasting legacy of the project, however, is the data infrastructure which will permit further analyses to be carried out by academic or policy-based researchers on a variety of skills and job quality issues. It also maintains the tradition of carrying out such a survey every five years and therefore provides another data point against which future researchers will be able to make comparisons. To this end, four datasets have been lodged in the Data Archive and are available for analysts to download. The academic importance of the series as a crucial part of social science research infrastructure was recognised in 2014 when the Data Archive selected the series for inclusion in the 'curated collection'; that is, surveys which are regularly deposited by known researchers and frequently used by other social scientists. As of March 2015, a total of 507 researchers have downloaded the data from the series and used the material for research and teaching purposes. 6. The survey has also made a lasting impression on the collection of skills data internationally. The 'Job Requirements Approach', for example, has been built into the background questionnaire of the OECD's Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) - the adult equivalent of PISA - which was carried out in 24 countries in 2011/12. In addition, the 2012 SES questionnaire has been used (with moderate changes) by the Institute of Adult Learning in Singapore in two surveys: its Skills and Employment Survey and its Learning At Work survey (in 2017). 7. The data have been used to construct an indicator of graduate jobs - both in Britain, and in Germany over time, and for several other OECD countries at a single point of time. Based on this index, a submission was made to the consultation on TEF. In addition, after a reconciliation with an alternative indicator developed using expert methods (as opposed to statistical methods), the indicator is being used by the Office for National Statistics for the purposes of the revised occupational classification in preparation for 2020 (to be termed SOC2020). The potential impact on the statistics is that some unit groups (occupations classified with four digits) may be moved between "major occupational groups" (which are classifications at the one digit level), which will affect how the occupational structure of Britain's economy is described in future analyses. 
URL https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/?sn=7466&type=Data%20catalogue
 
Title Skills and Employment Survey, 2012: Special Licence Access 
Description This data set containts the SES2012 data with geographical variables added. The four specific objectives for SES2012, stemming from the overarching aim to provide data on the skills and employment experiences of working life in Britain in 2012, were as follows: to describe and analyse the level and distribution of skills requirements of jobs in British workplaces in 2012 and compare these patterns with earlier data points to describe and analyse the level and distribution of key aspects of workers' experiences of their jobs in 2012, and compare with earlier data points to use the data to develop distinctive, original and substantive contributions to scholarship surrounding job quality and job skill to make the data available and provide the necessary data support and infrastructure for further analysis by academic or policy-based researchers in the field of skills and job quality Further information is available from the Skills and Employment Survey 2012 web page. A standard End User Licence access version of this study, with less detailed geographic variables included (Government Office Region (GOR) only), is available under SN 7466. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Narrative Impact Report The Skills and Employment Survey 2012 is the sixth in a series of representative sample surveys of workers in Britain. This round of data collection has allowed us to chart the changing pattern of job quality and skills over a quarter of a century, with some new survey questions specifically designed to reveal the impact of the recession on working life. The results have had, and continue to have, demonstrable economic and societal impacts. This is evidenced in several ways: 1. Engagement with policy-makers, civil servants and representative bodies with an interest in enhancing the quality of working life. During the course of the project, 4 launch events have been held across Britain - 2 in London, and 1 in Cardiff and 1 in Glasgow. Taken together, these events attracted an audience of 330. Delegates mainly consisted of policy-makers, political representatives, trade union officials, professional bodies, lobbying organisations, training providers and employers. 2. The project findings have attracted considerable media interest which have helped to generate public debate about how the quality of working life might be improved and the worst effects of austerity mitigated. Notably this included a front page article in the Financial Times, as well as articles in The Guardian and the Daily Mail, and commentary on Radio Four's Today programme and live interviews on Radio Five Live, LBC and Radio Cymru. 3. The project team wrote, designed and produced a series of 8 short reports with the intention of communicating bite-sized policy-relevant research messages to policy-makers. These have proved an effective device. A total of 4,600 hard copy reports have been distributed and all were made available for download from the project web site. This approach has been complimented by the publication of 3 articles in policy-making/practitioner facing outlets. 4. The results have informed policy-making as evidenced by project citations. For example, the UKCES review of the skills landscape makes frequent use of the SES results and associated data, the NHS Pay Review Body's pay recommendations for 2014 cite project results and the Welsh Government's policy on skills also refers to findings from the project. In 2015 the survey findings were used to frame public policy debates as the political parties launched their election manifestos. Evidence was used by the Smith Institute 'Making Work Better' Inquiry and the Skills Commission Inquiry into the Future of Work, whose deliberations were intended to influence government priorities. Evidence taken from the survey was used on several occasions - unfortunately, without attribution - in the Labour Party's manifesto for work. 5. The lasting legacy of the project, however, is the data infrastructure which will permit further analyses to be carried out by academic or policy-based researchers on a variety of skills and job quality issues. It also maintains the tradition of carrying out such a survey every five years and therefore provides another data point against which future researchers will be able to make comparisons. To this end, four datasets have been lodged in the Data Archive and are available for analysts to download. The academic importance of the series as a crucial part of social science research infrastructure was recognised in 2014 when the Data Archive selected the series for inclusion in the 'curated collection'; that is, surveys which are regularly deposited by known researchers and frequently used by other social scientists. As of March 2015, a total of 507 researchers have downloaded the data from the series and used the material for research and teaching purposes. 6. The survey has also made a lasting impression on the collection of skills data internationally. The 'Job Requirements Approach', for example, has been built into the background questionnaire of the OECD's Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) - the adult equivalent of PISA - which was carried out in 24 countries in 2011/12. In addition, the 2012 SES questionnaire has been used (with moderate changes) by the Institute of Adult Learning in Singapore in two surveys: its Skills and Employment Survey and its Learning At Work survey (in 2017). 7. The data have been used to construct an indicator of graduate jobs - both in Britain, and in Germany over time, and for several other OECD countries at a single point of time. Based on this index, a submission was made to the consultation on TEF. In addition, after a reconciliation with an alternative indicator developed using expert methods (as opposed to statistical methods), the indicator is being used by the Office for National Statistics for the purposes of the revised occupational classification in preparation for 2020 (to be termed SOC2020). The potential impact on the statistics is that some unit groups (occupations classified with four digits) may be moved between "major occupational groups" (which are classifications at the one digit level), which will affect how the occupational structure of Britain's economy is described in future analyses. 
URL https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/?sn=7645&type=Data%20catalogue
 
Title Skills and Employment Surveys Series Dataset, 1986, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2006 and 2012 
Description The Skills Survey is a series of surveys which aim to investigate the employed workforce in Great Britain (and United Kingdom from 2006). The survey series builds on two previous studies of the workforce, Social Change and Economic Life Initiative Surveys, 1986-1987 (held at the UKDA under SN 2798) and Employment in Britain, 1992 (held at the UKDA under SN 5368). The first Skills Survey was conducted in 1997 and represented a new approach to assessing the extent to which those at work in Britain had skills matching the requirements of their jobs. The 2001 survey was aimed at assessing how much had changed between the two surveys. The third survey in 2006 enhanced this time series data further but had the overarching aim of providing a resource for analysing skill and job requirements in the British economy in the middle part of the current decade. The Skills and Employment Survey, 2012 (SES2012) was the fourth in the series, and aimed to again add to the time series data and, coinciding as it did with a period of economic recession, aimed to provide insight into whether the British workforce felt under additional pressure/demand from employers as a result of redundancies and cut backs. Although these surveys were not originally planned as part of a series and had different funding sources and objectives, continuity in questionnaire design has meant the surveys now provide a unique, nationall representative picture of change in British workplaces as reported by individual job holders. The Skills and Employment Surveys Series Dataset, 1986, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2006 and 2012 combines data from all six surveys in the series, where common survey questions were asked. For each survey, weights are computed to take into account the differential probabilities of sample selection, the over-sampling of certain areas and some small response rate variations between groups (defined by sex, age and occupation). All surveys cover Great Britain except the Skills Survey, 2006 which covers the United Kingdom. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The Skills and Employment Survey 2012 is the sixth in a series of representative sample surveys of workers in Britain. This round of data collection has allowed us to chart the changing pattern of job quality and skills over a quarter of a century, with some new survey questions specifically designed to reveal the impact of the recession on working life. The results have had, and continue to have, demonstrable economic and societal impacts. This is evidenced in six ways: 1. Engagement with policy-makers, civil servants and representative bodies with an interest in enhancing the quality of working life. During the course of the project, 4 launch events have been held across Britain - 2 in London, and 1 in Cardiff and 1 in Glasgow. Taken together, these events attracted an audience of 330. Delegates mainly consisted of policy-makers, political representatives, trade union officials, professional bodies, lobbying organisations, training providers and employers. 2. The project findings have attracted considerable media interest which have helped to generate public debate about how the quality of working life might be improved and the worst effects of austerity mitigated. Notably this included a front page article in the Financial Times, as well as articles in The Guardian and the Daily Mail, and commentary on Radio Four's Today programme and live interviews on Radio Five Live, LBC and Radio Cymru. 3. The project team wrote, designed and produced a series of 8 short reports with the intention of communicating bite-sized policy-relevant research messages to policy-makers. These have proved an effective device. A total of 4,600 hard copy reports have been distributed and all were made available for download from the project web site. This approach has been complimented by the publication of 3 articles in policy-making/practitioner facing outlets. 4. The results have informed policy-making as evidenced by project citations. For example, the UKCES review of the skills landscape makes frequent use of the SES results and associated data, the NHS Pay Review Body's pay recommendations for 2014 cite project results and the Welsh Government's policy on skills also refers to findings from the project. In 2015 the survey findings were used to frame public policy debates as the political parties launched their election manifestos. Evidence was used by the Smith Institute 'Making Work Better' Inquiry and the Skills Commission Inquiry into the Future of Work, whose deliberations were intended to influence government priorities. Evidence taken from the survey was used on several occasions - unfortunately, without attribution - in the Labour Party's manifesto for work. 5. The lasting legacy of the project, however, is the data infrastructure which will permit further analyses to be carried out by academic or policy-based researchers on a variety of skills and job quality issues. It also maintains the tradition of carrying out such a survey every five years and therefore provides another data point against which future researchers will be able to make comparisons. To this end, four datasets have been lodged in the Data Archive and are available for analysts to download. The academic importance of the series as a crucial part of social science research infrastructure was recognised in 2014 when the Data Archive selected the series for inclusion in the 'curated collection'; that is, surveys which are regularly deposited by known researchers and frequently used by other social scientists. As of March 2015, a total of 507 researchers have downloaded the data from the series and used the material for research and teaching purposes. 6. The survey has also made a lasting impression on the collection of skills data internationally. The 'Job Requirements Approach', for example, has been built into the background questionnaire of the OECD's Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) - the adult equivalent of PISA - which was carried out in 24 countries in 2011/12. In addition, the 2012 SES questionnaire has been used (with moderate changes) by the Institute of Adult Learning in Singapore in two surveys: its Skills and Employment Survey and its Learning At Work survey (in 2017). 7. The data have been used to construct an indicator of graduate jobs - both in Britain, and in Germany over time, and for several other OECD countries at a single point of time. Based on this index, a submission was made to the consultation on TEF. In addition, after a reconciliation with an alternative indicator developed using expert methods (as opposed to statistical methods), the indicator is being used by the Office for National Statistics for the purposes of the revised occupational classification in preparation for 2020 (to be termed SOC2020). The potential impact on the statistics is that some unit groups (occupations classified with four digits) may be moved between "major occupational groups" (which are classifications at the one digit level), which will affect how the occupational structure of Britain's economy is described in future analyses. 
URL https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/?sn=7467&type=Data%20catalogue
 
Title Skills and Employment Surveys Series Dataset, 1986, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2006 and 2012: Special Licence Access 
Description The Skills and Employment Surveys Series Dataset, 1986, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2006 and 2012 combines data from all six surveys in the series, where common survey questions were asked. For each survey, weights are computed to take into account the differential probabilities of sample selection, the over-sampling of certain areas and some small response rate variations between groups (defined by sex, age and occupation). All surveys cover Great Britain except the Skills Survey, 2006 which covers the United Kingdom. This is the Special Access Version with geographical identifiers attached. Felstead,A., Gallie, D., Green,F., Inanc, H. (2015). Skills and Employment Surveys Series Dataset, 1986, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2006 and 2012: Special Licence Access. [data collection]. UK Data Service. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The Skills and Employment Survey 2012 is the sixth in a series of representative sample surveys of workers in Britain. This round of data collection has allowed us to chart the changing pattern of job quality and skills over a quarter of a century, with some new survey questions specifically designed to reveal the impact of the recession on working life. The results have had, and continue to have, demonstrable economic and societal impacts. This is evidenced in several ways: 1. Engagement with policy-makers, civil servants and representative bodies with an interest in enhancing the quality of working life. During the course of the project, 4 launch events have been held across Britain - 2 in London, and 1 in Cardiff and 1 in Glasgow. Taken together, these events attracted an audience of 330. Delegates mainly consisted of policy-makers, political representatives, trade union officials, professional bodies, lobbying organisations, training providers and employers. 2. The project findings have attracted considerable media interest which have helped to generate public debate about how the quality of working life might be improved and the worst effects of austerity mitigated. Notably this included a front page article in the Financial Times, as well as articles in The Guardian and the Daily Mail, and commentary on Radio Four's Today programme and live interviews on Radio Five Live, LBC and Radio Cymru. 3. The project team wrote, designed and produced a series of 8 short reports with the intention of communicating bite-sized policy-relevant research messages to policy-makers. These have proved an effective device. A total of 4,600 hard copy reports have been distributed and all were made available for download from the project web site. This approach has been complimented by the publication of 3 articles in policy-making/practitioner facing outlets. 4. The results have informed policy-making as evidenced by project citations. For example, the UKCES review of the skills landscape makes frequent use of the SES results and associated data, the NHS Pay Review Body's pay recommendations for 2014 cite project results and the Welsh Government's policy on skills also refers to findings from the project. In 2015 the survey findings were used to frame public policy debates as the political parties launched their election manifestos. Evidence was used by the Smith Institute 'Making Work Better' Inquiry and the Skills Commission Inquiry into the Future of Work, whose deliberations were intended to influence government priorities. Evidence taken from the survey was used on several occasions - unfortunately, without attribution - in the Labour Party's manifesto for work. 5. The lasting legacy of the project, however, is the data infrastructure which will permit further analyses to be carried out by academic or policy-based researchers on a variety of skills and job quality issues. It also maintains the tradition of carrying out such a survey every five years and therefore provides another data point against which future researchers will be able to make comparisons. To this end, four datasets have been lodged in the Data Archive and are available for analysts to download. The academic importance of the series as a crucial part of social science research infrastructure was recognised in 2014 when the Data Archive selected the series for inclusion in the 'curated collection'; that is, surveys which are regularly deposited by known researchers and frequently used by other social scientists. As of March 2015, a total of 507 researchers have downloaded the data from the series and used the material for research and teaching purposes. 6. The survey has also made a lasting impression on the collection of skills data internationally. The 'Job Requirements Approach', for example, has been built into the background questionnaire of the OECD's Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) - the adult equivalent of PISA - which was carried out in 24 countries in 2011/12. In addition, the 2012 SES questionnaire has been used (with moderate changes) by the Institute of Adult Learning in Singapore in two surveys: its Skills and Employment Survey and its Learning At Work survey (in 2017). 7. The data have been used to construct an indicator of graduate jobs - both in Britain, and in Germany over time, and for several other OECD countries at a single point of time. Based on this index, a submission was made to the consultation on TEF. In addition, after a reconciliation with an alternative indicator developed using expert methods (as opposed to statistical methods), the indicator is being used by the Office for National Statistics for the purposes of the revised occupational classification in preparation for 2020 (to be termed SOC2020). The potential impact on the statistics is that some unit groups (occupations classified with four digits) may be moved between "major occupational groups" (which are classifications at the one digit level), which will affect how the occupational structure of Britain's economy is described in future analyses. 
URL https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/?sn=7646&type=Data%20catalogue
 
Description 'Education and its effects on income, health and survival for those aged sixty-five and over', research seminar presented by Martin Weale, 23 May 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Martin Weale gave a considered reflection on his research at the National Institute for Economic Research. His views were challenged by some members of the audience during a constructive debate, and he agreed to consider these responses for future stages of the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description 2012 LLAKES conference: lifelong learning, crisis and social change 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Second LLAKES conference, held 18 and 19 October 2012. The event showcased the research from LLAKES Phase 1, and included a keynote address from Will Hutton; the conference also set the stage for LLAKES Phase 2.

The 2012 LLAKES conference included over 20 presentations, and keynote addresses from Jonathan Portes, Will Hutton, and Stuart Dawley.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description An attractive vocational education and training : what really matters? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop, European Centre for the Development of Vocational Education (CEDEFOP), 9 & 10 October 2012

Outputs from a LLAKES-related CEDEFOP research project were discussed in detail. Further work for CEDEFOP was anticipated as a restul.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Big Issue 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A two-page article in the Big Issue for the week beginning 11/2/2019, covering arguments about the role of private schooling in Britain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Blog for Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog, for Conversation, covered some of the main findings from the private school project, and also the arguments put forward in Engines of Privilege, co-authored with David Kynaston. It attracted around 5,000 readers in the first few days after posting, and many shares and comments (to which I replied).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Citizenship in the European Union - Twenty Years after Maastrich 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Invited presentation, European Commission Europe for Citizens conference, Budapest 27 June 2013

No impacts recorded.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Comparative and international education : past, present and new directions for the future? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented at the 'New paradigms and challenges in comparative and international education' seminar, a BERA special interest group (SIG) event.

Interest in the subject under discussion was expected to lead to collaboration at future conferences, including BERA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conditions for informal and formal learning at work 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presented at Asia-Europe Education and Research Hub for Lifelong Learning, Research Network Seminar on Competence Development and Workplace Learning, 12-15th December 2012, Bangkok, Indonesia

The seminar was well received, and may have help to lay the foundation for future collaborative research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Educational reforms in the Middle East and North Africa : what is to be done? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Posted by Dr Tarek Mostafa on Mar 27, 2012 in DevEd Blog, Series: Gender and Advocacy, Series: Into Africa, Special Series
As per the text at http://deved.org/blog/2012/03/educational-reforms-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-what-is-to-be-done/

As per the text at http://deved.org/blog/2012/03/educational-reforms-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-what-is-to-be-done/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://deved.org/blog/2012/03/
 
Description Employee-driven innovation amongst 'routine' employees in the UK : the role of organisational 'strategies' and individual 'tactics' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented to EDI research meeting, 13-14 October 2011

Interest expressed in LLAKES research by EDI members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Expansive approaches to supporting staff development? : opportunities and barriers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Presentation to Opportunities and Barriers, Supporting Employers in Developing Bands

No details reported.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.progresssouthcentral.org.uk/NHS%20S_Central_17.11.10%20%5Bexternal%20version%5D.ppt
 
Description Geographies of inequality after recession 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Joint symposium, organised by LLAKES and the Economic Geography Research Group (EGRG) of the Institute of British Geographers (IBG)

The session was well attended, and opened up the possibility of further joint events to be run with IBG.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Good practice in apprenticeships 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Repeated seminar held during "showcasing" section of the LLAKES contribution to the 2012 ESRC Festival of Social Science, held at Belfast Metropolitan College

High levels of interest from an informed Northern Ireland audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Guest presenter Karen Evans- An international view of workplace learning over 20 years : where has it been? : where is it going? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented at ASEM LLL Research Network 2 Meeting in Innsbruck, July 11-13 2011, convened by University of Innsbruck.

The presentation maintained and encouraged interaction with ASEM, which has been an important outlet for LLAKES research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Higher education and the crisis for youth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan

LLAKES has a continuing policy of engaging with Asian audiences; this presentation was an example of that approach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Issues and trends in workplace learning in the United Kingdom 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar presented by Professor Karen Evans to the Educational Research Unit, University of Ottawa, in celebration of the Canadian Society for Training and Development's Learn @ Work week.

Interest levels were raised in Canada with regard to the LLAKES research programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Job Quality Theories and Frameworks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the Ingrid-2 project event -- a workshop and summer school; held at Noisy-le-Grand. My presentation was entitled "Job quality: conceptual frameworks and theories".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Karen Evans editorial - Employee-driven innovation and workplace learning : exploring present realities, future possibilities and enduring challenges 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article for LLinE (Lifelong Learning in Europe) newsletter issue 4

No details reported.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.lline.fi/en/article/karen/employee-driven-innovation-and-workplace-learning-exploring-pre...
 
Description LLAKES Newsletter Issue 4, Spring 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact LLAKES Newsletter Issue 4, covering the Centre's activities in 2011

The newsletter helped to draw together the research outputs from LLAKES Phase 1, which was drawing to a close in 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.llakes.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/LLAKES-Newsletter-4-Final.pdf
 
Description LLAKES newsletter issue 5 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This is the fifth annual LLAKES newsletter, covering the final year of the LLAKES Phase 1 grant, and looking ahead to the Centre's new research period, which has been funded for five years from 1 January 2013.

The newsletter was well received, and set the stage for the second phase of the LLAKES research programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.llakes.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/LLAKES-Newsletter-5-2013-Final.pdf
 
Description LLAKES newsletter no. 3 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The newsletter brings you up-to-date with LLAKES news and research progress, and includes comment and analysis from the LLAKES team on recent developments.

The newsletter encouraged participation in subsequent LLAKES events, which were flagged up in the publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description LSE Launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Launch of Engines of Privilege, with illustrated presentation, discussion and Q&A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/engines-of-privilege-9781526601261/
 
Description Lifelong learning, equality and social cohesion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, 8 November 2012

The presentation of LLAKES-related research in Taiwan is part of an ongoing engagement strategy with Asian audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Lifelong learning, equality and social cohesion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture at Institute of Education, University of Hong Kong , 28 February 2013.

As noted for the other presentation given at this time: interaction of this kind has helped to nuture an ongoing relationship with the Hong Kong Institute of Education, which should help to support future research activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Lifelong learning, equality and social cohesion. Public Lecture at University of Riga, Jean Monnet Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Public Lecture sponsored by European Commission given at Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, University of Latvia, 3 October 2012

This was the first presentation of LLAKES-related research in Latvia, which opened up a potential new area of interest in the Centre's work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://www.lu.lv/eng/news/t/15489/
 
Description Minimum wages and pay equity in Europe : understanding the role of pay bargaining 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Research seminar organised and run by the LLAKES Centre on 23 January 2013, presented by Professor Damien Grimshaw, of Manchester Business School.





This presentation analysed the role of social actors in shaping the pay equity outcomes of minimum wages in diverse country and sectoral contexts. An empirical focus on the interaction between minimum wage policy developments and collective wage agreements in key sectors shed new light on types of pay bargaining that can promote pay equity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Nuremberg keynote lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Francis Green gave the keynote speech on Tuesday 18th September to the 1st Forum on Higher Education and the Labour Market in Nuremberg. 'Pulling Apart? A Decade of Change in Europe's Graduate Labour Markets'. The forum, the first of a planned annual series, was sponsored jointly by the German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies (DZHW) and by The Institute for Employment Research (IAB), the Research Institute of the Federal Employment Agency. His speech examined how the supply and demand for graduates has changed in European countries over the decade from 2005 to 2015, and the slow growth of graduate underemployment in some countries in this period that spans the global financial crisis. His talk concluded with a study of changes in the dispersion of the graduate wage premium. Researchers from both Germany and elsewhere in Europe were in attendance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Observer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an adapted extract from our book: F.Green and D. Kynaston 'Engines of Privilege. Britain's Private School Problem.' It attracted a very large number of online comments, and published letters in the newspaper, to which we responded with a further letter, also published two weeks later.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participatory citizenship in Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation given by Dr Bryony Hoskins at a LLAKES Research Seminar, drawing on a research consultancy entitled: "Active Citizenship in Europe".

The seminar provided useful dissemination for what was a wide-ranging LLAKES-related research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Promoting ethnic tolerance : what can education do in the current circumstances? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact European Diploma in Intercultural Competence, final seminar, 12 September 2011, Institute of Education, University of London

LLAKES research was presented to an audience of international students, to help them with their studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Re-thinking professional formation as "recontextualisation"; the development of social capital" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the Annual Meeting of the Society for Education in Anaesthesia UK, organised jointly with the Royal Society of Medicine Section of Anaesthesia, 9 March 2012, Royal Society of Medicine, Wimpole Street

This seminar represented a useful engagement with medical professional practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Real progress on apprenticeships 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Letter published in The Guardian

The Guardian
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2011/oct/31/real-progress-on-apprenticeships-germany
 
Description Regimes of social cohesion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture at 'Welfare State, Sociology of Education, Childhood Studies: Democratic Challenges and Perspectives : A Symposium in Honour of the 65. Birthday of Heinz Sünker', Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 15 - 16 February 2013.

This was a useful opportunity to present LLAKES research findings to an international audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Regional development : conceptualising the organisational and epistemic aspects of learning 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presented at Faculty of Educational Sciences (FALK) seminar, University of Oslo, Norway, 6 December 2011, as part of a workshop entitled: "Perspectives on knowledge dynamics and innovation : workplaces, organizations and regions"

No details reported.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Resectoralising higher education : from public to private good 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented at workshop entitled "For a Public University", 15 June 2012, University of Nottingham, organised by University College Union, and International Political Economy Group (IPEG).

Some UCU members expressed willingness to collaborate in future research activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Response to Bristol Cable 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Response to Bristol journalist on the Bristol Cable, with quotation on the role of private schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Response to El Pais 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Responded to El Pais' request for expertise/quotation on the role of private schools in Europe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Studying Muslim girls in England : socialization, identity and integration 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Delivered at session on Religious socialization in schools and families

The seminar was attended by a varied group of people, some with particular engagement in this subject, and the exchange of ideas which took place was beneficial to those in the room.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Subjective inequality : people's views on inequality across the western world 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presented at workshop in Madrid: contributions to smart, green and inclusive growth for Europe 2020

No details reported.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description TES Response 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was our response to the antagonistic review of our book, written by the head teacher of Westminster School. The review was so bad and antagonistic and ill-informed, that we requested an immediate right of reply, which was accepted by the TES editor. Week beginning 11/2/2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The 2008 crisis : a threat to particpatory citizenship? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A LLAKES research seminar presented by Dr Germ Janmaat, drawing on a research consultancy entitled: "Active Citizenship in the European Union".

There was considerable interest in the research project for which results were being presented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The RAE 2008 and the REF 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

This seminar helped to maintain a useful working relationship with the Hong Kong Institute of Education.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The economics of skills 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meeting with the Minister of State for Universities and Science (David Willetts MP).

The Minister expressed interest in the information provided; and the research findings may have influenced his subsequent thinking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The government supported apprenticeship programme : a missed opportunity for helping the jilted generation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to session titled 'Skilling up the jilted generation: the employability debate' at the 2011 Institute of Ideas battle of ideas festival

An energetic and informed debate took place, during which considerable amounts of information were exchanged.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description The roles of reputational competition and positional goods in maintaining patterns of inequality 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The roles of reputational competition and positional goods in maintaining patterns of inequality
Presentation by: Roger Dale, based on LLAKES research, to EQNET symposium.

One notable feature of the landscape of Universities is the growing prominence of particular forms of inter-University competition, in particular of reputational competition, typically mediated through 'league tables. It may be considered that this, alongside a formal audit culture, will replace or reduce the 'positional' significance of University qualifications.

Roger Dale reported a strong level of interest from the participants in the EQNET symposium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.equnet.info/events/equnetceps-symposion/abstracts/the-roles-of-reputational-competition-a...
 
Description Transitions from the vocational route into HE 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation given to a joint LLAKES / SKOPE seminar, entitled: "Transitions within Learning and within the Labour Market", held at the Institute of Education, 3 July 2012.

Further co-operation between LLAKES and SKOPE was suggested, as a result of this event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Trust in times of economic crisis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented by Dr Germ Janmaat as part of a one-day seminar on "The Effect of Austerity on Active Citizenship in Europe", held at the University of Southampton, 7 December 2012.

European research conducted as part of, and in association with, the LLAKES programme, was presented to a wider audienc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description What does democracy need from its citizens? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation, given at IEA and European Commission Conference: "Lessons Learned for Understanding Civic and Citizenship Education", Rome University Tre, 2-4 December 2014

This conference provided an opportunity to share LLAKES research on citizenship with a wider audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Where is the STEM in apprenticeship? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture delivered to the Gatsby Foundation and SKOPE one-day seminar, 16 March 2012, as part of the Oxfordshire Science Festival.

As well as promoting LLAKES research, the presentation reinforced links with the Gatsby Foundation and with SKOPE, who have both been influential organisations during the lifetime of the LLAKES Centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Workforce : stress at work 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The publication addressed the following issues:

Stress caused by work has been increasing in Britain since 1992. The 2008-09 recession has increased work stressors including job insecurity, work intensity, and inter-personal conflict; and cuts in government spending will undoubtedly heighten these levels of work stress, particularly in the public sector.

The research results cited here formed the basis for more extensive research projects later on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/documents/innovation/larci/Winter_10_final.pdf
 
Description Workshop on private schools 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This workshop discussed findings from the ESRC project Private Schooling in the 21st Century, in front of and among a diverse audience.
We used the LLAKES mailing list which brought in a number of people from outside academia, mainly those involved directly or indirectly with education, both private and state. The findings were linked with those from a related, earlier but still ongoing project, Schooling and Unequal Outcomes in Youth and Adulthood, also discussed at this event.
Altogether, seven papers were presented to this diverse audience, and the debate was led by two discussants from outside the project.
The event took place in late December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.llakes.ac.uk/research-project/337/private-schooling-uk-21st-century-participation-and-ou...
 
Description Written evidence from Alison Fuller and Lorna Unwin, University of Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Written evidence was given to the House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts.

The evidence presented was referenced in the Committee's subseqent Report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.parliament.uk/documents/TSO-PDF/committee-reports/pubacc.1875.pdf