The development of repetitive behaviours in young children

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Psychology

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.
 
Description Summary as taken from ESRC End of Award Report April 2010 http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/warc/files/2014/11/Repetitive-Behaviours-End-of-Award-Report_April-22-2010.pdf

Restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) such as repetitive motor movements, routines, rituals, and intense sensory interests are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism. They are also common in all young children early in development. Little is known about how these behaviours change with age and such knowledge is important in order to detect atypical behaviour patterns in children with autism. Parents of 126 typically developing children completed the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2) when their children were 15 months, 2 years old and 6 years old and the results were analysed in this study. Results showed that RRBs reduced with age. However at all three ages, two distinct subtypes of behaviour emerged, each showing different developmental pathways. One subtype included repetitive motor and sensory behaviours. The behaviours in this subtype were extremely common at 15 months, rapidly declined by 2 years and then remained low in frequency. In contrast, the other subtype of behaviours which included routines and insistence on sameness were low in frequency at 15 months, increased at 2 years and then decreased by 6 years. Results across time also revealed that repetitive behaviour subtypes at 15 months were strongly related to repetitive behaviour subtypes later in childhood at both 2 years and 6 years, even when language ability and socio-economic status were taken into account. Research findings on these changing patterns of behaviours will help future child health and education professionals to detect when repetitive behaviours are atypical for the child's age and level of development.
Exploitation Route Our findings have been taken forward in follow up work by three new PhD students studying repetitive behaviours in children and adults with autism. This has resulted in a new repetitive behaviour measure for adults and in increased understanding about the relation between repetitive behaviours and anxiety and sensory symptoms (new published research) in children with autism.

The findings have been put to use by clinicians in the health sector in the Netherlands who have used the RBQ-2 (the measure tested in this grant) and are in the process of translating it into Dutch.

The RBQ-2A for adults has also been used by researchers in Australia.
Sectors Education,Healthcare

URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/warc/files/2014/11/Repetitive-Behaviours-End-of-Award-Report_April-22-2010.pdf
 
Description The findings from this research have led to the testing of a new measure for repetitive behaviours. The work in the grant was originally applied to typically developing children but impacts from the grant since then have included successful testing of this measure to children with autism and recently to adults with typical development and adults with autism. The measure is now being used by clinicians and being translated into other languages.
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Healthcare
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Developing targeted intervention for repetitive behaviours and anxiety in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Amount £115,618 (GBP)
Organisation Baily Thomas Charitable Fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2010 
End 09/2012
 
Description Repetitive behaviours, anxiety and sensory problems in children with autism and correlates of anxiety in their parents
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Funding ID PhD grant to Mirko Uljarevic 
Organisation Health and Care Research Wales 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2010 
End 01/2013
 
Title RBQ2A 
Description The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire-2 for Adults RBQ2A is a self-completed questionnaire for adults that was developed from the parent completed child version RBQ-2 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Press release in August 2015 and BBC-Wales radio interview. 
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/rbq2a/
 
Title Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire-2 
Description The RBQ-2 is a20-item parent-completed questionnaire that collects symptoms of repetitive behaviour (behaviours such as spinning and lining up objects and routines and restricted rituals). It is suitable for parents to use to record the repetitive behaviours of children of all ages. It has relevance for research and also is beginning to be used in clinical practice. It was designed as relevant for children with autism. A new questionnaire is now being developed from the RBQ-2 which is suitable for adults (self-report version). 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The RBQ-2 was used by a independent research team at Cambridge University to collect data on repetitive behaviours in 61 children with autism (these data have now been published in Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders). The recently RBQ-2-A (for adults) has also been used by a research team in Australia (not yet published) Clinicians in the Netherlands have been using the RBQ-2 in their clinical practice and beginning to translate it The RBQ-2 is currently available to download at http://research.ncl.ac.uk/cargo-ne/RBQ.html (scroll to end of page) and will shortly be available to download on http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/warc/ . 
URL http://research.ncl.ac.uk/cargo-ne/RBQ.html
 
Description Cardiff-Australia Repetitive Behaviour Collaboration 
Organisation La Trobe University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I worked with Prof Prior in 2009-2011 to produce a review article on the repetitive behaviours literature. We also worked together to produce a online lecture for Henry Stuart Biomedical Talks as outputs of grant. I supervised the PhD of Dr Uljarevic from 2010-2013 (now a postdoctoral researcher at La Trobe University) who co-authored the review paper described above
Collaborator Contribution As above - Prof Prior and Dr Uljarevic worked with me to prepare the review paper. Prof Prior contributed to the online lecture.
Impact 2011 publication in the journal Psychological Bulletin, article co-authored by Prior and Uljarevic. 2009 lecture in the Henry Stuart talks series 2010-2012 grant from Baily Thomas Charitable Fund (Prof Prior as a collaborator) (Details of both are in the publication and output sections)
Start Year 2009
 
Description Cardiff-Australia Repetitive Behaviour Collaboration 
Organisation University of Melbourne
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I worked with Prof Prior in 2009-2011 to produce a review article on the repetitive behaviours literature. We also worked together to produce a online lecture for Henry Stuart Biomedical Talks as outputs of grant. I supervised the PhD of Dr Uljarevic from 2010-2013 (now a postdoctoral researcher at La Trobe University) who co-authored the review paper described above
Collaborator Contribution As above - Prof Prior and Dr Uljarevic worked with me to prepare the review paper. Prof Prior contributed to the online lecture.
Impact 2011 publication in the journal Psychological Bulletin, article co-authored by Prior and Uljarevic. 2009 lecture in the Henry Stuart talks series 2010-2012 grant from Baily Thomas Charitable Fund (Prof Prior as a collaborator) (Details of both are in the publication and output sections)
Start Year 2009
 
Description Cardiff-Clinicians Repetitive Behaviour Collaboration 
Organisation NHS Direct Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This collaboration was set up as part of a grant from Baily Thomas Charitable Fund on repetitive behaviours which was a directly outcome from the ESRC Repetitive Behaviours Grant. Four clinicians (Kanaris, McKigney, Mullis and Paradice) gained research advice and experience from bi-monthly meetings and built a collaborative research and practice network with the research team.
Collaborator Contribution All collaborators gave input and advice on recruitment and procedures. Mrs Kanaris contributed intervention input to the study.
Impact The following publication was a direct outcome of the collaboration (details not elsewhere on the form) Lidstone, J., Uljarevic, M., Kanaris, H., Mullis, J., Fasoli, L. & Leekam, S. (2014). Imitating the child with autism: A strategy for early intervention?. Autism 4(1): 124.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Cardiff-Newcastle Universities Repetitive Behaviour Research Collaboration 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I and members of my research team have published research articles on repetitive behaviours as primary authors which have been co-authored by our Newcastle collaborators (Prof Helen McConachie, Prof Ann Le Couteur, DrJacqui Rodgers, Prof Mark Freeston). We have also contributed discussion and advice through talks as formal seminars and workshop meetings.
Collaborator Contribution The same as above
Impact Although the beginning of collaboration preceded this grant, the grant consolidated the collaboration formally and built further outputs, enabling additional publications and further funding that followed after the end of the grant. Outcomes that directly followed were a grant from the Baily Thomas Charitable Fund Oct 2010-2012 and a publication in the journal, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 8(2): 82-92.(see details of these outputs under relevant sections)
 
Description Cardiff-USA Repetitive Behaviour Collaboration (Australia) 
Organisation Bucknell University
Department Department of Psychology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution During the period of the repetitive behaviours ESRC grant, we shared ideas and advice with collaborator Prof David Evans and collected data using a measure that he had published. This led to a further grant collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Same as above
Impact The collaboration led to a further grant funded collaboration as part of a grant I was awarded from Baily Thomas Charitable Fund, 2010-2012 which enabled a visit by Prof Evans to Cardiff. The visit led to a further collaboration between my PhD student Mirko Uljarevic and Prof Evans involving development of a new measure and also visit by another PhD student from Cardiff (Rhiannon Fyfield) to Prof Evans' lab.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Media Release - The Adult Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire-2 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The activity let to 300 individuals completing a questionnaire and generated downloads of the questionnaire in Brazil and other countries. Due to the publicity received a donation was received of £1,850 to support our work on assessment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/rbq2a/
 
Description Seminar at MIND Institute, UC Davies, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk stimulated discussion

Contact with colleagues at the MIND Institute led to a collaborative visit by Sally Rogers to Cardiff in a follow up grant project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Workshop for professionals (Health and Social Care) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talks raised awareness about the distinction between different forms of repetitive behaviours

After the workshop professionals attending made contact asking to receive further information and be involved in other research projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009