Trickling Up? A study of eco/social enterprises in Southern and Eastern Africa and their role in sustainable development at the base of the pyramid

Lead Research Organisation: Queen's University of Belfast
Department Name: Queens University Management School

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Publications

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David Littlewood (Author) (2011) Social and environment enterprise in Namibia : sector mapping and a review of public policy responses in Business and Social Innovation Conference, University of Cape Town South Africa 14-16 November

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David Littlewood (Chair) (2013) Impact evaluation of a Kenyan Ecobusiness in Academy of Management Conference, Orlando Florida, 9-13th Aug 2013

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David Littlewood (Co-Author) (2013) Addressing Rural Social Exclusion through African Social Purpose Ventures in Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference (ISBE) Nov 12-13th 2013 Cardiff, UK

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David Littlewood (Co-Author) (2013) Institutional Framing of CSR and Social Entrepreneurship Interactions in South Africa in Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference (ISBE) Nov 12-13th 2013 Cardiff, UK

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Diane Holt (Author) (2011) 'Trade not aid'- social and environmental enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa : an initial analysis in EABIS (The Academy of Business in Society) 10th Annual Colloquium 2011 26-28 October - INSEAD Europe campus,

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Diane Holt (Author) (2011) Developing a taxonomy of social and environmental enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa - an initial analysis in Business and Social Innovation Conference, University of Cape Town South Africa 14-16 November.

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Diane Holt (Author) (2013) Framing social protection through social innovation - exploring case studies from sub-Saharan African social purpose ventures in Developmental Paper. British Academy of Management Conference , Liverpool, 10-12th Sept

 
Title ISBE conference 2012 : imitation, entrepreneurship and the informal/formal economy nexus 
Description The Trickle Out Africa Project. Presentation Dr Diane Holt. Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ISBE) Conference 2012, Dublin 7-8th November. Paper Title: Imitation, Entrepreneurship and the Informal/ Formal Economy Nexus- An African Perspective 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2012 
 
Title Trickle out Africa : mapping the trickle out benefits of social and environmental enterprises 
Description The Trickle Out Africa Project: Presentation by Dr David Littlewood - Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ISBE) Conference 2012, Dublin 7-8th November. Paper Title: Mapping the Trickle Out Benefits of Social and Environmental Enterprises- A Pilot Study of an East African Ecobusiness. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2012 
 
Description This research is summarised at the Trickle Out Africa Project website, which includes the major outputs from the project alongside open access materials detailing early findings. The project team included Dr Diane Holt (Principal Investigator and Grant Holder) and Dr David Littlewood (Research Fellow). The team collected data during more than 24 weeks of fieldwork in Zambia, Kenya, South Africa and Mozambique during 2011 and 2012. The grant ended in March 2013 with early findings emerging from the research including:
- A suggested segmentation of the distribution of types of enterprises in the nexus between the informal/formal economy which has major implications for the targeting of development initiatives, microfinance and general 'development through enterprise' initiatives
- Evidence of extreme forms of hybridisation and partnership between various actors emerging amongst the social and environmental enterprises reported in the 19 countries of Southern and Eastern Africa, with almost 4000 such organisations available on the freely searchable database
- Evidence from survey data detailing the nature, scope, focus, funding and management of these organisations that many do not meet the 'criteria' often used to describe western centric social enterprises
- Clear evidence of the direct and indirect, positive and negative impacts of these organisations in their communities with detailed impact maps produced for the case studies (with a number available already on the website).
Further findings will be reported as they emerge and posted on the website and the research outcomes system.
Exploitation Route This research is already being used in a non-academic context. The website is being used by potential investors, customers and other stakeholders to find out about the various organisations. Some of the case studies involved are using the research to shape their strategic and operational decisions. Some case studies are also able to show how their received daily referrals from the website, bringing their products and services to a global audience. Indeed one of the case studies was recently shortlisted for an international award and credits the link with Trickle Out as a major factor in drawing attention to their organisation.

Recently the PI Dr Diane Holt was nominated for a national award from the All Party Group for International Development, in the category of 'Outstanding Academic Project in Development'. Shortlisted as a finalist the project received an 'honourable mention', which arguably recognises the potential impact of the project on a wide range of stakeholders in the developing world.
The research is already being put to use by many stakeholders and those interested in social and environmental enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa. The project website and directory is demonstrating significant reach and use, with 4.3 million hits, almost 530,000 unique visitors, 1.9 million page views, and 7500+ document downloads during the year from May 2012 to April 2013. Some 71.4 million kbytes of information has been accessed from the site during this period.

The information presented on the site, early findings and general knowledge transfer activities are being promoted through conference papers, book chapter, engagement events such as workshops in Kenya and South Africa, public lectures, guest lectures, conferences and in the media. There have been more than 20 newspaper articles, blog posts, and online articles published in the UK and in Africa on the findings and the research project.

The case study organisations are using the findings from the analysis of their impacts and strategies to support their strategic developments. One case study stated stated 'Your conclusions will be a very useful reference, especially when fine-tuning our business plan and for future funding applications" . The wider group of companies are also benefiting, with the directory supporting their access to potential customers and donors. Recently one such investor stated "I came across your website while researching a new business venture. .. Yours is the most useful I have found so far and I certainly hope to be contacting some of the suppliers".

Policymakers are also using the research findings. The South African based NGO, the African Social Entrepreneurs Network (ASEN), is using the data to inform their practice. They recently presented their assessment of the training needs of Southern African social entrepreneurs and their practical response to this, informed by this data.

As part of the research the team undertook a range of knowledge exchange, transfer and capacity building activities for social and environmental entrepreneurship within the region. Feedback from the participants from the capacity-building training workshop for entrepreneurship researchers from Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Southern Africa (April 2012) suggest significant impacts on knowledge and facilitating networking. One of the workshop participants subsequently attended a meeting with the regulatory body for universities in Kenya, where they suggested that social entrepreneurship should be taught at MBA level , whilst others are linking up in south-south networks.

The findings from the analysis of the data will have wide ranging implications on the areas of social entrepreneurship, environmental entrepreneurship, social franchising, 'development through enterprise' debates and understanding enterprise models in informal economy communities. The findings may shape development interventions, policy initiatives, outreach activates and entrepreneurship education. Little empirical work exists on these types of enterprises in this part of the world and it is expected that this research and the associated directory of almost 4000 examples, the detailed case studies and the emerging findings from the empirical analysis of the data will have wide ranging uses.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Retail

URL http://www.trickleout.net
 
Description This research has achieved scientific impact. It has advanced the knowledge and understanding of the field of social purpose ventures in Africa, informal economy dynamics, and base of the pyramid business ventures. The main scientific impacts from our research where we contribute to empirical understanding, methods, theory and application are detailed across our outputs, of which there are over 50 in the research catalogue. In summary these are: • Institutional Theory - Greater awareness and understanding of the influence of context and institutional forces on the nature of social purpose ventures raging from for-profits with an environmental mission, to social enterprise and non-profit models. • Hybrid Organisations - Examination of the nature of hybrid organisations in sub-Saharan Africa. • Impact Mapping - Development and testing of a framework for mapping the impact of these organisations across their social, economic and environmental dimensions. • The formal/informal economy - Conceptualisation of the nexus between the informal and formal economies within developing countries and the implication of this for targeting entrepreneurial initiatives and research. Presentation of a model of segmentation of a continuum of informal to formal business ventures. In addition we also explore the nature of supply chain models that are emerging in this interface where the informal economy is considered as a legitimate route to market. • Social Exclusion - Understanding of the role of social purpose ventures in addressing social exclusion issues in the developing world. • How the poor manage their money - Conceptualisation of the role of alternative financial services utilised in the informal economy, their role as facilitating process to alleviate poverty and the business models emerging from within the formal economy that mimic these village based informal ways of managing money. In this section we consider the findings and outputs related to scientific impact (detailed in the research catalogue, at www.trickleout.net, and on our YouTube channel). Our findings are emerging from the significant data sources we have developed. These include: • Twenty case studies of social purpose ventures (hybrid organizations) in Zambia, Kenya, South Africa and Mozambique. • Over 400 interviews and focus groups with amongst stakeholders, case studies employees and managers during 24 weeks of overseas fieldwork collecting qualitative data on these organisations and informal economy markets; • Quantitative data collected using an online survey in 5 languages linked to our enterprise directory with over 500 responses to date. • Interviews with 60 Kenyan and 60 South African informal economy micro-enterprises. Our scientific outputs so far include contributions to three peer-reviewed book chapters and 14 conference papers. We have two more conference papers accepted for the Academy of Management August 2014 and the Subsistence Marketplaces Conference in Illinois in June 2014. In order to maximise early scientific impact the Trickle Out team have initially concentrated on publishing conference papers, working papers and case studies available in open access format on the website (12,321 downloads of documents), as well as publishing the book chapters in African or developing world specialist texts with leading groups of international authors. We are now concentrating on sharing our findings and theoretical contributions through leading international journal submissions. This includes an 'invited submission' and a 'revise and resubmit' decision for two of the top 45 journals used in the Financial Times research rankings (Impact factors 1.667 + 3.174). A third paper has been shortlisted from 100 submitted to a special edition of a leading international journal (3* ABS) and is currently under review. Additional submissions are also planned. Please outline how these impacts were achieved (This can include specific academics/researchers through to broader academic groups. ) We adopted a diverse and multi-platform dissemination strategy to promote our scientific impacts including open access materials, presentation of early findings in conferences, a dedicated website hosting all our materials, a Facebook page, press releases, and production of YouTube videos of our events, fieldwork and presentations. We detail our dissemination activities related to economic/social impact later. Our dissemination and engagement activities enhance our scientific impacts. Our evidence includes: • 12,321 downloads of copies of the documents hosted on the site (working papers, presentations, case studies) over a 35 month period. • 710 views of our conference presentations and lectures on YouTube. • 14 conference papers presented (France, UK, USA, South Africa, Ireland, Canada). • Four nominations for 'Best paper in Track' in 2012 and 2013. • Award of best paper in the social, environmental and ethical enterprise track at the Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2013 . Our academic activities have also includes academic impact events such as: • A Public Lecture at Queen's University (also available as a video online). • Guest lectures at Universities of Salford (UK), Bondo University College (Kenya), University of Nairobi (Kenya), and University of Cape Town (S.Africa). • A two day workshop for 22 African academics held in Nairobi. • An evening Master Class with 70 invited members of Kenyan government, industry, media and civil society including a presentation by Prof Richard Harrison on 'Fostering Entrepreneurship - the role of enterprise in economic development'. We are also actively collaborating with fellow academics in the UK, USA, Europe and South Africa (Universities of Amsterdam, Cape Town, Reading, Babson College), and are a founder member of the International Comparative Social Enterprise Models - ICSEM - Project launched July 2013 that includes over 200 researchers from 50 countries. Our research has impacted upon a range of audiences from the academic community for instance: those that use our research materials (papers, data sets, case studies, enterprise directory) for their own academic enquiries; those accessing our knowledge transfer activities (events); those viewing our disseminations activities (conferences, public lectures, video clips); and those we are collaborating with (e.g. ICSEM). The impact of our research was recognised by the nomination and selection as a finalist in the All-Party Awards in International Development as 'Outstanding Academic Study in Development'. We have also had impact upon the 22 attendees from Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Southern Africa in our capacity building and knowledge exchange workshop in Nairobi. "The workshop was really insightfulit was good to meet with other researchers and network" (participant from University of Lusaka, Zambia). "The Workshop was so valuable and an eye opener to social enterprise research" (participant from Moi University). One of these participants subsequently attended a meeting with the regulatory body for universities in Kenya, where they suggested that social entrepreneurship should be taught at MBA level (participant from University of Nairobi). Two of the participants (Zambia and South Africa) have linked up in a south-south network to submit a grant proposal. A Kenyan academic participant from Bondo University College also noted "the experience I gained was enormous as I was able to create linkages and network". Numerous students and academics have accessed our website resources including the papers as evidenced by the 12, 231 downloads. Working Paper 1, on defining social enterprises has 2186 downloads, the bibliography 855,and the case study series of detailed impact profiles have been downloaded 1115 times. These numbers excludes those that access this resources from the outputs listed on the ESRC website research catalogue. Here we look at our impacts on policy and practice outside academia. Making a specific link between our outputs with resultant impact can be problematic. Nevertheless we do have evidence that impacts have occurred from communications received from individuals and groups. In particular our case study organisations have identified impacts from working with us. One organisation profiled highlighted how the project is helping to shape its future strategic direction. "It (the detailed case analysis) identifies our key strengths and obvious weaknesses. There is much for us to do in increasing our educational impact, some of which we will address with the workshops and teaching scheme listed. Your conclusions will be a very useful reference, especially when fine-tuning our business plan and for future funding applications". Another case study was recently shortlisted for the prestigious Ashden Award for green trailblazers, with the CEO crediting our coverage as a contributory factor. The enterprise directory lists almost 4000 organisations. Though hard to identify impacts are undoubtedly occurring. "I came across your website while researching a new business venture. I am starting up a company aiming to raise awareness of global craftsmanship though the sale of goods, very much like those produced by some of the companies featured on your website. Yours is the most useful I have found so far and I certainly hope to be contacting some of the suppliers." This research is also informing policy and practice amongst practitioner organisations, especially in partnership with the South African based NGO the African Social Entrepreneurs Network, using our data to inform their presentations to the World Social Enterprise Forum and their practice. They recently presented their assessment Southern African social entrepreneurs training needs and their practical response to this, informed by the data collected we shared with them. We have a range of findings and outputs that support the generation of social and economic impact. One of our main outputs is the website which hosts a free searchable online directory of social and environmental business and those that support them across the 19 countries of Southern and Eastern Africa. This directory is constantly growing with new organisations registering online to be entered. We also have 20 case study profiles with detailed impact profiles being developed and published on the website. These detailed case studies can be used by the organisations to help them to understand their own impacts from a sustainable development and poverty alleviation perspective. These published cases are approved by the organisations we worked with before being posted online. In addition they offer a framework that can be used by other organisations to consider their own impacts and for policy makers to visualise the kinds of impacts that might occur. Our findings and thoughts have also been discussed in over 20 newspaper articles, blog posts and interviews - including an article we published in the Big Issue online magazine. These practitioner focused discussions and outputs help to promote our impacts at a policy level and contribute to the emerging discussions on the role of social and environmental enterprises as development vehicles within developing countries. Our outputs also include practitioner focused events, namely the launch of the project in Nairobi and the evening Master Class on Entrepreneurship attended by 70 members of Kenyan civil society and policy makers. Both were filmed so that a wider audience could view them. These events support the social impacts of the project introducing policy makers more widely to issues associated with the development through enterprise agenda. Please outline how these impacts were achieved (This can be at a broad societal level through to specific individuals or groups.) Our strategy for generating economic, social and scientific impacts involved using a varied platform for engagement, promotion of our activities, dissemination of findings, and contributions to multiple potential audiences. We believe our website with 3.8 million page views last year generated significant impact, especially the free directory which can be searched by key word, business type or by one of the 19 countries. Whilst use of the non-English versions (Afrikaans, Portuguese, French, and Kiswahili) was not frequent we believe it was important to have these available to make clear our inclusive approach. Using support organisations also captured some 'second-hand' access to organisations that would not normally have an internet presence. By doing an in-depth search for examples for the directory across many types of medium we were able to collect information on organisations that would traditionally be excluded. We actively promoted our project through public events, give aways (pencils with the project logo and website address), contributions to social media (our Facebook page, trade articles and others blogging about us), and press releases. We tried to make sure our findings and outputs were accessible. Hence we produced small videos of some of our presentations and talks. We offered materials in an open access format that could be downloaded and we produced project briefings in the five languages which we gave out at events and in the field. Indeed 2680 of the document downloads were in one of the four non-English languages. We also reach out to partners, namely ASEN in South Africa and the East African Social Enterprise Network based in Kenya. We funded the participation of 22 academics in the workshop in Nairobi, paying for transport and accommodation. We also covered the costs for the launch and Master Class events which included networking receptions. Please outline who the findings and outputs had an impact upon We believe that our findings and outputs have reached a wide ranging audience outside of academia. Our engagements with our case study organisations have led to some impacts on them and their operations. Indeed even the process of discussing trickle out impacts during the data collection phase actually led some to reflect and consider these aspects in their future planning. "Much of what we talked about has helped me shape xxxx strategy for 2013 and beyond". Our case studies also offer insights to similar kinds of groups and organisations who seek to build sustainability and poverty alleviation impacts into their activities. We believe there has been impact on those organisations we profile in the business directory. Many of these 4000 organisations have no web presence of their own and at the very least our research offers a free resource for them - helping their customers, stakeholders, policy makers and the public find where they are and what they do. We have interacted with groups involved in promoting enterprise led solutions to development with some resultant impacts. ASEN and EASEN attended and contributed to the practitioner events and the academic workshop in Nairobi - sharing insights and exchanging knowledge. We have reached policy makers through our impact events and potentially through the 20+ newspaper articles and online articles about the Trickle Out work and findings. The publicity we generated about social purpose ventures, albeit as one of a number of voices, is contributing to the general upsurge in interest in these types of organisations as solutions to 'wicked' problems such as poverty. The lack of details on various African countries makes our work even more pertinent to multiple audiences including policy makers, funders, NGOs, development agencies, academics, students and the general public especially in relation to business as a vehicle for development focused around smaller scale enterprise models rather than just multinationals. Unexpected Impacts We were not expecting the scale of the success of the website. Originally we had proposed we would list about 250 organisations and now we actually have around 4000. The site gets a phenomenal amount of traffic (which we accept no doubt includes some web scanning activities harvesting data) but nevertheless it received 6 million hits from March 2013-Feb 2014 with 162 million kilobytes of data downloaded and 3.8 million page views according to data provided by our website host. The scale of the document downloads of more than 12 thousand was also unexpected. Tracking the specific impact of this is activity is very difficult but we certainly see how we have potentially had an impact amongst a wide range of potential users. The success of the online presence is, we believe, related to a number of factors. Our time and effort investment in designing the free, searchable directory and populating this was critical, making it useable and comprehensive. The large number of trusted web links embedded in the site means we get a significant number of hits. Having a standalone site was also critical as this gave us the capacity to manage the flexible structure we needed and update the various elements. Providing the website in five languages was also important, and we invested significantly in getting this translated. Overall the success of the website and the traffic we are getting is down we believe to our varied dissemination strategy and thinking clearly about impact before the project started as part of the 'pathways to impact'- building in from the start ways to maximise our exposure to multiple audiences. We believe there will be potential future impacts of the work initiated by this grant. Now this initial funding has finished the Trickle Out Africa Project has been re-envisaged as a long term plan of activities building on our findings from this grant. We have incorporated an advisory panel of international members to guide our future direction and recently applied for recognition as a 'British Academy Research Project'. We were also shortlisted for a new large grant- whilst we did not ultimately receive funding we were successful at being shortlisted and our final review scores were very strong. We intend to continue to apply for funding linked to the emerging findings from this work and currently have a large grant bid under considerations with a US sponsor. We have been approached to work with groups in Cuba and Cambodia, and have joined the ICSEM Project and this may have future potential impacts. We continue to update the directory and website and continue with our engagement and dissemination strategy for maximising impact. The significant volume of data we have provides many opportunities for future impact. We anticipate producing more outputs related to the on-going analysis of the data including papers and detailed case studies. We will continue to monitor and capture information on our impacts in the varying forms they may occur.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Education,Environment
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description British Council Newton Fund Researcher Links Programme
Amount £47,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Description RCUK-NRF Newton Fund PhD Partnering Programme South Africa
Amount £152,256 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N013840/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 10/2018
 
Description ICSEM 
Organisation SOCENT research program
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research undertaken during the TOA project is being used to inform our contribution to this international network of researchers, in particular to provide input on social enterprise models in Africa
Collaborator Contribution Although part of the IAP-SOCENT research program, the International Comparative Social Enterprise Models - ICSEM - Project is considered as a major research project on its own. The main specific feature of the ICSEM Project is its geographic coverage: it aims to compare social enterprise models and their respective institutionalisation processes across the world. It thus relies on the participation of a large number of researchers from all regions, who contribute country-specific or field-specific analysis of social enterprise models. Of course, contributions comparing social enterprise models in two or more countries are welcome as well. The ICSEM Project was officially launched on July 5, 2013 just after the 4th EMES International Research Conference held at the University of Liege, Belgium. The Project now involves over 200 researchers from some 50 countries. The ICSEM Project is jointly coordinated by Jacques Defourny (CES - University of Liege) and Marthe Nyssens (CIRTES - Catholic University of Louvain).
Impact We recently presented a working paper to the symposium organised by this project in Belgium. Funding was provided by the network to cover accommodation and meals over the three nights the event ran. This working paper will be published in 2105
Start Year 2014
 
Description University Cape Town/British Council Researcher Links Programme 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the activities during the grant I have partnered with a senior staff member from UCT in the Graduate School of Business to bid for a British Council Researcher Links workshop grant. We were successfully awarded this and will run a full funded workshop for early career researchers in March 2015 consisting of 17 UK and 17 South Africa researchers. This was one of two successful bids to the South African panel and is focussed on the theme of 'Development through Enterprise - Inclusive and sustainable futures through entrepreneurial initiatives and cross-sector partnerships.' This theme emerges directly from the research in the grant and through the relationships developed during it
Collaborator Contribution My partner at UCT, Dr Eliada Griffin-El is a full partner in the design and delivery of the funded workshop.
Impact a grant of £47000 to run the workshop and pay costs for 34 early career researchers, 4 mentors to attend as well as the costs of delivering the event
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collecting data in unusual places - presentation for University of Cape Town PhD programme workshop April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation on "Collecting data in unusual places" using data from Trickle Out project and other grant activities. Presented to group of PhD students as part of their training programme at University of Cape Town PhD in a workshop April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Development through enterprise in Southern and Eastern Africa Public Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A series of public lectures hosted by Queen's University Belfast showcasing research

Details:
Researchers at Queen's University Belfast make an enormous impact on the world in which we live. From groundbreaking work into new designs for aircraft, playing a world leading role in cybersecurity and helping the chemical industry find cleaner, green solutions to pollution, to discovering new ways of harnessing wave energy and innovative methods of bringing music to audiences. This pilot series of engaging talks gave us the chance to hear researchers talk passionately about their work and the benefits it brings. At each event, three researchers explained their latest research project for 20 minutes each, before responding to questions and comments from the audience. These events were well received by all those in attendance.

Downloads of the talk from youtube and project website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6NLm2MfW4M&feature=relmfu
 
Description ESRC festival of social science University of Essex 7 Nov 17 - speaker on financial inclusion for the poor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the ESRC festival of science. Topic- Finance for All. Holt gave talk based on research from the Trickle Out Africa project to members of general public and university community on financial inclusion in poverty contexts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.essex.ac.uk/events/2017/11/07/finance-for-all
 
Description Guest Speaker: Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ISBE) workshop Rural entrepreneurship exploring theoretical divergence in the Global North and South 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact External event arranged by the Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ISBE) where I was one of three keynote speakers on the topic Rural entrepreneurship exploring theoretical divergence in the Global North and South 2014 focussing on social entrepreneurship. 1st July 2014

dialogue with experts in field/ linked to the publication in the rural enterprise book (Henry and McElwee, 2014)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Guest speaker University Portsmouth Development Studies Group Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a guest talk to the Development studies group at Portsmouth. The theme was the Trickle Out Africa project and insights from the forma/informal economy nexus
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Guest speaker: A talk on 'Informal Economy Entrepreneurs -An African Perspective' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Guest lecture given at Salford Business School, University of Salford, on findings from ESRC funded Trickle Out Africa research.

nothing specifically
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Health awareness drama podcast by the Mavumbo Youth Group, Mongu Western Zambia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A drama presented by a health awareness group on the proper use of mosquito nets filmed during the fieldwork for the Trickle Out Project funded by the ESRC. This is the podcast of the presentation given by the group to a village in Zambia

Available as a youtube clip which helps inform people about the topic and show the drama group in action in the village in Zambia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmB9aUBapNw&feature=channel&list=UL
 
Description ISBE Gender and Entrepreneurship Webinar - speaker "women, informal economy and borders 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A webinar held as part of the Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ISBE) gender series- Conquering Borders: Gender, Entrepreneurship and Prosperity Webinar . Was a member of the panel presenting work on the informal economy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOOBXaesyY0
 
Description Informal Economy Summit, Utah June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact An informal economy research summit held at Brigham Young University, USA. Invited presenter June 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited guest speaker at University of Nottingham Business School Research Seminar series December 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk on waste livelihoods through lens of bricolage at the Business School research seminar series
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited panel member and speaker Oxford Poverty and Business Conference, University of Oxford 11/12th July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Insight workshop at Conference event targeting third sector, businesses and policymakers Track 3 - Business and International Development | Case Studies of Success with Nathan Sivagananathan, Chief Growth Officer, MAS Holdings and Maggie Berry, Executive Director for Europe, WEConnect
Moderator: Diane Holt, Professor in Management, Essex Business School, University of Essex
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description LSE Business Review: African data can bring fresh insights to management and social entrepreneurship studies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact African data can bring fresh insights to management and social entrepreneurship studies, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/businessreview/2015/12/14/african-data-can-bring-fresh-insights-to-management-and-social-entrepreneurship-studies/

Holt, Littlewood, Kolk, Rivera-Santos
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/businessreview/2015/12/14/african-data-can-bring-fresh-insights-to-management...
 
Description Newspaper article: Business directory to cover 19 countries 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Newspaper article detailing the research covered by grant. Published in 'The People' in Kenya

Newspaper article published in national newspaper in Kenya; supporting a greater understanding of the TOA project and dynamics as well as impact of social purpose ventures in sub-Saharan Africa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Newspaper article: Firm's role in tackling poverty to be known 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Newspaper article detailing the ESRC funded project in Saturday Nation; a national newspaper in Kenya.

Newspaper article aimed to facilitate a greater understanding of the TOA project and dynamics as well as impact of social purpose ventures in sub-Saharan Africa. Published in national newspaper read by members of Kenyan public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Newspaper article: Group unveils research project on enterprises 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Newspaper article detailing the research supported by this grant Financial Post Dec 12-18 2011 p20 (Kenya)

Article in the national newspaper available to members of Kenyan public. Event aimed to facilitate a greater understanding of the TOA project and dynamics as well as impact of social purpose ventures in sub-Saharan Africa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Newspaper article: Research on EA social enterprise launched 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Newspaper article in Daily Nation detailing project supported by ESRC

Newspaper article aimed at facilitating a greater understanding of the TOA project and dynamics as well as impact of social purpose ventures in sub-Saharan Africa. In national newspaper read by members of Kenyan public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Newspaper article: Two groups unveil plans to compile business directories 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Newspaper article on ESRC funded Trickle Out Project Business Daily (Kenya) 13 Dec 2011 p 6.

Article in the Business daily read by members of the public. Hopefully facilitated a greater understanding of the TOA project and dynamics as well as impact of social purpose ventures in sub-Saharan Africa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Presentation by Carlo Chenge regional director EASEN at TOA workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation on social enterprise in Kenya by Carlo Chege Regional Director East African Social Enterprise Network at the Entrepreneurship Research Workshop funded by the ESRC as part of the Trickle Out Project. . Held at the British Institute in East Africa (BIEA) Nairobi Kenya 13th April 2012. This event consisted of a workshop with 22 African academics, but was also filmed and is available on youtube

Attendees interacted with each other to share findings and work on potential collaborative activity. Information was shared with each other but also was available on youtube so anyone in the word could download
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGYED_D86IU&feature=channel&list=UL
 
Description Presentation by Kojo Paris Witts University and Bev Meldrum ASEN at TOA workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation by Kojo Paris Director of the Witts University Centre for Entrepreneurship and Bev Meldrum Operations Manager the African Social Entrepreneurs Network (ASEN). Entrepreneurship Research Workshop held at the British Institute in East Africa (BIEA). Nairobi Kenya 13th April 2012.

This was also filmed and is available on youtube for download from anywhere in the world

Attendees were involved in roundtable discussions, stimulating debate and potential future collaborations. The YouTube clips also made this accessible to an international audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPX3wNtxmAc&feature=channel&list=UL
 
Description Presentation by Rachel Etter postgraduate student Royal Agricultural College at TOA workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation by Rachel Etter Postgraduate Student Royal Agricultural College on 'Entrepreneurship in Malawi' Entrepreneurship Research Workshop funded by ESRC Trickle Out Project. Held at the British Institute in East Africa (BIEA), Nairobi Kenya 13th April 2012. Attendees includes delegates from S Africa, Kenya, UK and Zambia. The presentation was also filmed to allow for an international audience to view this

Attendees were involved in roundtable discussions, stimulating debate and potential future collaborations. The YouTube clips also made this accessible to an international audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6uwdOyr1HSA&feature=channel&list=UL
 
Description Public event: Launch of 'trickle out' project in South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Launch of the 'trickle out' project during the Business of Social and Environmental Innovation Conference at University of Cape Town 14 Nov 2011

Attendees at the workshop were introduced to the project and the website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Public event: Research Showcase at Queen's University Belfast 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of the public are being invited to Queen's University at lunchtime on Thursday (13 September) to meet and hear from the people behind some of the biggest scientific, medical and technological breakthroughs of recent times.

In a special lunchtime research showcase in the University's Whitla Hall,entitled Local Talent, Global Impact, members of the public can discover how Queen's researchers are making an enormous impact around the globe.

Event aimed to facilitate a greater understanding of the TOA project and dynamics as well as impact of social purpose ventures in sub-Saharan Africa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Radio inteview: Questions of power, trade and enterprise, and asking if the markets be made to work for the poor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact In 'The Dickensian Bargain' TNV's Maurice Macartney talks to Dr Alfred Hickey M'Sichili of Comhlámh and Dr Diane Holt of the Trickle Out Project, examining questions of power, trade and enterprise, and asking if the markets be made to work for the poor. http://www.thenextvillage.org/Homely Planet Radio

http://www.homelyplanet.org/radio-shows.php?station=10&?ogramme=123

This interview on the radio shared the findings of the project and emerging ideas with the public in the broadcast
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.homelyplanet.org/radio-shows.php?station=10&&programme=123
 
Description Round table discussions at the TOA workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Summary podcast of discussion from African Faculty Workshop on Entrepreneurship/Social Enterprise held in Nairobi Kenya April 2012. Presented as a document on the website the recordings from each table were transcribed and made available on the website.

Attendees from Kenya, South Africa, Zambia and UK were involved in discussion and debate sharing knowledge. The podcast also allowed others to see the debate to influence their own opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Di0jfQuWpU8
 
Description Selected speaker at (Small) Social Enterprises and CSR in emerging/developing countries seminar as part of the ESRC seminar series Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: A Global Perspective 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact We gave a talk linked specifically to the findings from our ESRC grant

Requests for further information from some attendees
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The Trickle Out Africa project - Master class Nairobi : talk by chief guest Dr Manu Chandaria OBE EBS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Introductory comments from Dr Manu Chandaria from the Trickle Out Africa masterclass sponsored by ESRC grant. This was an event attended by over 70 members of Kenyan civil society. It was also filmed and the downloads are available on youtube

This was an event attended by over 70 members of Kenyan civil society. It was also filmed and the downloads are available on youtube
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDmhE-uxnqk&feature=plcp
 
Description Trickle Out Africa Project Masterclass by Professor Richard Harrison 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A recording of the address given at an evening masterclass on 'The role of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development' held at British Institute of East Africa, Nairobi Kenya April 2012 organised by the ESRC funded Trickle Out Project. Over 70 members of Kenyan business community and civil society attended the event. The event was also filmed and is available as a youtube download

This event was covered in the press and in the print media. Members who attended included leading Kenyan practitioners and policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G4kLmRsXm0I&feature=channel&list=UL
 
Description Trickle Out Project launch event in Nairobi December 8th 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Podcast of speeches and event

Series of linked press releases. Coverage of event in the print media and on radio.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://trickleout.net/index.php/outputs/podvideosmenu
 
Description • Invited keynote speaker at the 7th International Social Innovation Research Conference 2015 at The University of York 6-8th Sept 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Contacts made with various fellow researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015