Lay and Institutional Knowledges of Domestic Violence Law: Towards Active Citizenship in Rural and Urban Cambodia

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Holloway, University of London
Department Name: Geography

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.
 
Description 1.Original knowledge generated through multi-stakeholder research with domestic violence (DV) victims, legal and health professionals, police officers, policy makers, and other authority leaders. The study's findings demonstrate how political economy dynamics are crucial to understanding the path and outcomes of DV law. Outputs including a widely cited infographics report, eight published or in press journal articles, a forthcoming monograph, and landmark handbook chapter, highlight how fundamental changes in social, economic and political realms of Cambodian life are required if DV victims are to become 'active citizens' who can claim legally sanctioned rights. While the quantitative survey indicates that 92% of participants (n=1,177) were aware of the law's existence, the findings overall show that the socio-legal conditions for DV law to be exercised in practice are hindered by four main factors.


(A) Structural gender inequities - The make-up of the economy and structural gender inequalities within it sees the material basis for women's ability to negotiate their life-decisions diminished by an economic dependency on spouses that was pervasive within the case study communities. There are strong economic reasons for remaining in an abusive relationship and foregoing rights, especially in rural sites.


(B) Social norms -The efficacy of DV law to assist victims was limited by prevailing gender norms around women's silence and responsibility for harmony in the family (commonly to the detriment of women's wellbeing). Primary research data combined with secondary analysis of the law itself showcases how legislation can actually entrench gender norms and traditions rather than challenge them. 


(C) Impunity for perpetrators - A major hindrance to the up take of DV law is the weak rule of law environment and public distrust of the justice system. The research found consistent evidence of DV law use being actively discouraged by local stakeholders because of the 'dangers' of corruption that victims may face, including the extortion of informal fees.


(D) Inadequacy of financial and human resources - Local institutional stakeholders interviewed repeatedly highlight the risks of pursuing DV law given that the budget and facilities are rarely in place to safely support its implementation and enforcement.


Now over a decade since the law's ratification, these factors have resulted in a continued reliance on customary local reconciliation, a process that often re-traumatises DV victims and compromises their agency. DV law too often remains a nominal threat rather than actionable mechanism in both rural and urban Cambodia.
Exploitation Route The research makes a major intervention in feminist, development and political geography and has successfully advocated for the belated study of violence against women and girls (VAWG) in the discipline. The findings are to be taken forward by the PI to initiate a feminist turn in the burgeoning legal geographies field. They can also be put to use by interdisciplinary audiences in women's studies, international relations, development studies, sociology and law. Beyond academia, the need for a multi-sector approach to DV prevention and alleviation evidenced through the research data is of significance to policy communities in Cambodia (Ministry of Women's Affairs, UNWomen), the United Kingdom (Department for International Development, Foreign and Commonwealth Office) and among regional and international NGOs. For those designing programmes to tackle VAWG, it is important to recognise the interlocking factors that prevent change from happening and to design interventions and strategies that address the most relevant factors in any given context.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description Domestic violence (DV) is a one of the starkest collective failures of the international community in the 21st century. Although a growing number of laws have been passed to protect women, governments from around the world have struggled to convert promises into prevention. The ESRC-DFID funded research in Cambodia has improved understanding of why investments in law are faltering. The findings were communicated to programme and policy-makers in Cambodia during an external engagement drive in early 2014 and since this time have become even more visible in citations by government, multilateral finance institutions and NGOs (the Cambodian Ministry of Women's Affairs, 2014; Asian Development Bank, 2015; and Save the Children, 2015; DFID, 2018 as respective examples). The infographic grant report has attracted more than 1,000 page views (January 2017). The study has underlined to diverse audiences through a range of knowledge transfer activities, the structural challenges that need to be overcome to enable women's rights claiming. The innovative and multi-sector approach adopted by the grant team has been impactful in the following respects: (1) THIRD SECTOR RESEARCH DATA USE: Demonstrating the in-demand status of the research, the Asia Foundation, with support from Australian Aid, formally contracted the project's quantitative dataset to use in their analysis of risk and protective factors in DV prevention (2014). (2) ENHANCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUBLIC SERVICES AND POLICY IN CAMBODIA: (a) GOVERNMENT: The successful public dissemination of the infographic findings report resulted in Prof Brickell's (PI) invited advisory role to the Ministry of Women's Affairs (MOWA) at closed-door strategic meetings focused on legislative review (2014). Prof Brickell was also invited to peer-review national level policy documents (2013-2014) including the 2nd National Action Plan on the Prevention of Violence Against Women 2014-2018) and Cambodia Gender Assessment 2014-2018. Results from the study on women's help seeking behaviour were cited in the Cambodia Gender Assessment 2014-2018 (2014) - the government's flagship report published every 10-years on the status of women in the country. The data informed their proposition that further policy attention is needed on this matter given that 'options for redress and support are limited for violence against women and girls'. (b) INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES: The grant team were invited to present high-level briefings to key international development agencies including the United Nations (UN) in both 2013 and 2014. The 2014 briefing attracted a wide range of UN departments to attend, namely: UNWomen; World Health Organization (WHO); UNAIDS; International Labour Organization (ILO), UN Population Fund (UNFRA); UN High Commissioner for Refugees (ONHCR); and UN Development Programme (UNDP). The success of the grant and its external engagement is evidenced in a formal letter from the Director of UNWomen in Cambodia (2014) which states that 'The report which you have disseminated enables us to design development programme interventions on the basis of credible evidence and recommendations. It effectively highlights to UN Women that the challenges of domestic violence reduction are wide-ranging and a plurality of gaps require systematic policy attention.' UNWOMEN HQ in New York commissioned and have now cited a background paper written by Prof. Brickell based on the research for its flagship global report Progress of the World's Women 2018. Prof Brickell met with UNWOMEN in Cambodia during January 2020 who confirmed that the review of the law was now in the Ministry of Women's Affairs planning documents for the first time and that the ESRC-DFID research had made an impact on this positive development. (3) CONTRIBUTION TO UK SELECT COMMITTEES: In the UK, Prof. Brickell has engaged government through written submissions based on the research findings in Cambodia to the UK Foreign Affairs Committee Inquiry on Human Rights (2016) and UK Parliamentary Select Committee on Violence against Women and Girls (2013). (4) INVITED ADVICE TO THE DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID): The significance accorded to the study by policymakers is evidenced by the request for a 1-page findings summary which was published in the 2016 guidance note 'Shifting Social Norms to Tackle Violence Against Women and Girls'. The guidance note is intended to support DFID advisors and programme managers with evidence, relevant examples and practical guidance on how to address harmful social norms in the context of programming to prevent VAWG. While laws against VAWG are an important policy commitment and are seen to create an enabling environment for change, the grant case study material included in the report demonstrates how legislation can actually entrench gender norms and traditions rather than challenge them. A link to the research report was also included the DFID Violence Against Women and Girls Evidence Digest (Issue 2, 2014) circulated to DFID staff and cross-government experts. In 2018 the ESRC-DFID research was cited in a DFID help desk report on 'Violence Against Women Legislation'. In addition to being available online, it has also been shared internally (through DFID's Community of Practice on VAWG and with security and justice colleagues) and with colleagues across government (FCO, Home Office, and the cross-Whitehall CSSF - Conflict Stability and Security Fund). On the basis of her grant leadership, Prof. Brickell was invited to act as advisory board member (2015-2016) on a DFID-funded Country Assignment on domestic violence in Ghana which is being led by the world-renowned Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex. Since 2018 she has acted as advisory board member for the British Academy Global Challenges Research Fund 'Disconnected Infrastructures and Violence Against Women (VAW): Innovating Digital Technologies in Low-Income Neighbourhoods to Produce Safer Indian Cities' research project. (5) ENGAGING UK CHARITIES: At the end of the grant a 1-day workshop was organised at the Wellcome Collection, London on 'The Geographies that Wound' (2015). It stimulated discussion and connections between academics and UK-based charities working on violence against women and girls. Delegates from UK-based charities also participated including Oxfam GB, Against Violence & Abuse (AVA), Trafford Rape Crisis and WISE Development. (6) MEDIA EXPOSURE: The grant has attracted repeated print and online media attention, including in The Guardian (2013 and 2015), Cambodia Daily (2014 and 2015), Phnom Penh Post (2014 and 2016); and Huffington Post (2014). The findings were even showcased as front-page national news in the Phnom Penh Post (2014) - Cambodia's oldest English language newspaper. They have also been the feature of radio broadcasts on the stations Radio Free Asia and Radio France International (2014). (7) SPIN-OFF RESEARCH FUNDING AND IMPACT: Forming a new collaboration with Pannasastra University in Cambodia, Prof. Brickell was awarded a grant from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Bilateral Programme Fund to hold a client consultation workshop and competition on Cambodia's DV law (2014). This spin-off grant maximised the impact of the original ESRC-DFID grant. Findings from the ESRC-DFID study formed the basis of training that Prof. Brickell delivered to students from Pannasastra University of Cambodia. The cases used in the training and client consultation competition were also based on those of domestic violence victims interviewed as part of the ESRC-DFID study. The educational intervention was a capacity builder among Cambodia's next generation of lawmakers. Analysis of evaluation data in 2015 (pre and post questionnaires + focus groups) evidences important changes to their understandings of what constituted domestic violence. Prior to the training intervention, domestic violence was primarily considered to constitute physical abuse. But after the training, many of them were able to explain the myriad types of violence in considerable depth. Participants also had stronger understandings of domestic violence law and some of the practical constraints on women being able to use domestic violence law to access justice. The project attracted interest from a range of broadcast and print media. It thereby showcased UK research excellence and facilitated new educational ties between the UK and Cambodia. The project also raised the profile of the British Embassy and its prioritisation of 'democratic values and the rule of law' in a country with a particularly poor human rights record. The Embassy's sponsorship of the Domestic Violence Law course and final contest has therefore been an especially rewarding example of cooperation with Cambodian institutions'. Women's rights are a key issue for the FCO and are likely to continue as so in the post-2015 development framework. They are also relevant to Violence Against Women and Girls' (VAWG) advisers and programme managers in DFID. Education, with its ability to challenge and change norms is widely considered a key means through which VAWG can be prevented. Project outcomes of this grant are therefore of significance across Her Majesty's Government. (8) SPIN-OFF DOCTORAL FUNDING TO ADDRESS POLICY LACUNA - While VAWG has been established as a widespread and systemically entrenched phenomenon in Cambodian society, the ESRC-DFID research exposed that the state of knowledge on response systems and victim services remains very weak by comparison. With a named student, Prof. Brickell successfully applied (2014) for a +3 ESRC CASE doctoral award with Naomi Graham. The research addresses this policy lacuna and is entitled 'Sheltering from Violence: Women's Experiences of Safe Houses in Cambodia'. Prof. Brickell and the doctoral candidate are currently working together on a policy report on the research. (9) Acted on behalf of the Asian Law Caucus in San Francisco. 12-page expert witness report and oral testimony including cross-examination by US. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) on the basis of ESRC-DFID findings. The immigration judge granted their client's application for deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture (from the US to Cambodia). In her written opinion, the immigration judge found that I had demonstrated government acquiescence due to Cambodia's widespread corruption, the lack of accountability of law enforcement, and law enforcement's unwillingness to assist women who are victims of violence.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Asia Foundation - citation of ESRC/DFID research
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
URL http://asiafoundation.org/publications/pdf/1585
 
Description Asian Development Bank - citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/156499/promoting-womens-economic-empowerment.pdf
 
Description CARE - Citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.care.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Einsaetze/Asien/Kambodscha/CARE-Kambodscha-GBV-multi-secto...
 
Description Cambodian League for the Promotion and defense of human rights (LICADHO) - citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.licadho-cambodia.org/collection/24/good_wives_women_land_campaigners
 
Description Centre for Civil and Political Rights - citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/KHM/INT_CCPR_CSS_KHM_19618_E.pdf
 
Description DFID - Invited case study evidence published in guidance note intended to support DFID advisors and programme managers with evidence, relevant examples and practical guidance.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/shifting-social-norms-to-tackle-violence-against-women-an...
 
Description DFID - Invited inclusion of ESRC/DFID research in DFID Violence Against Women and Girls Evidence Digest (Issue 2) circulated to DFID staff and cross-government experts
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/337917/Evidence-digest-jul...
 
Description Expert Witness testimony on behalf of Asian Law Caucus in San Francisco against U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Acted on behalf of the Asian Law Caucus in San Francisco. 12-page expert witness report and oral testimony and cross-examination by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) on the basis of ESRC-DFID findings. The immigration judge granted their client's application for deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture (from the US to Cambodia). In her written opinion, the immigration judge found that through the research I had demonstrated government acquiescence due to Cambodia's widespread corruption, the lack of accountability of law enforcement, and law enforcement's unwillingness to assist women who are victims of violence.
 
Description Governance and Social Development Resource Centre - citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.gsdrc.org/publications/social-protection-programmes-supporting-women-survivors-of-domesti...
 
Description Health Squared - citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.academia.edu/8188817/An_Audit_and_Assessment_Of_Prevention_Based_Messages_Within_The_Cam...
 
Description Heinrich Boll Stiftung - Citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://kh.boell.org/sites/default/files/hbs_broschure_cvg_a5_rz-klein.pdf
 
Description Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - citation of ESRC/DFID research in Cambodia National Documentation Package
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/Eng/ResRec/NdpCnd/Pages/ndpcnd.aspx?pid=6938
 
Description Invited expert, closed-door Legal Review workshop organised by the Cambodian National Council for Women Phnom Penh.
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Invited peer reviewer, 2nd National Action Plan on the Prevention of Violence Against Women 2014-2018, UNWOMEN.
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Invited peer reviewer, violence against women chapter of Cambodia Gender Assessment 2014-2018, Cambodian Ministry of Women's Affairs.
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Letter from UNWomen
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact A letter from the Director of UNWomen in Cambodia in response to the ESRC-DFID report writes, 'The report which you have disseminated enables us to design development programme interventions on the basis of credible evidence and recommendations. It effectively highlights to UN Women that the challenges of domestic violence reduction are wide-ranging and a plurality of gaps require systematic policy attention.'
 
Description Opposition leader blog comment
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Posted reply to www.katherinebrickell.com to ESRC/DFID research blog by Cambodia's foremost female (opposition) leader MP Mu Sochua - 'As one of the initiators of the law, I am very interested in knowing its implementation. Your team is very solid and impressive. I am looking forward to knowing the full results. We need to take comprehensive and full scale intervention and action based on findings'.
URL http://www.katherinebrickell.com/2012/09/11/the-challenges-of-turning-promises-into-prevention-intro...
 
Description Parliamentary Institute of Cambodia - citation of ESRC/DFID research
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.pic.org.kh/download/20141127%20Domestic%20Violence%20Eng_FINAL.pdf
 
Description Save the Children - Citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://cambodia.savethechildren.net/sites/cambodia.savethechildren.net/files/library/20150119%20Fin...
 
Description The Asia Foundation - citation of ESRC/DFID report
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://asiafoundation.org/publications/pdf/1466
 
Description Client Consultation Workshop and Competition: Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of the Victims
Amount £4,953 (GBP)
Funding ID Bilateral Programme Fund 
Organisation Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 03/2014
 
Description Doctoral +3 award
Amount £66,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 08/2018
 
Title Quantitative dataset contracted to the Asia Foundation 
Description Quantitative dataset on experiences of, and attitudes to, domestic violence formally contracted to the Asia Foundation for the improvement of primary prevention of intimate partner violence. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Unknown 
 
Description Invited advisory board member of DFID-funded country assignment - Domestic violence in Ghana: Prevalence, Incidence and Causes 
Organisation Institute of Development Studies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Review by Katherine Brickell of qualitative and quantitative instruments and methodology, including ethics; draft report and publications. Learning outcomes and findings from ESRC/DFID grant included, as appropriate, in reviews.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of the documentation to review.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2015
 
Description Pannasastra University of Cambodia 
Organisation Pannasastra University of Cambodia
Country Cambodia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Katherine Brickell collaborated with Paññasastra University of Cambodia, Phnom Penh to seek funding and then hold a 'Client Consultation Workshop and Competition' with their undergraduate law students. Dr Brickell provided them with training and victim cases based on the ESRC/DFID research material. See 'Engagement Activities' for further detail.
Collaborator Contribution Paññasastra University of Cambodia, Phnom Penh provided the students, staff and venue for the workshop and competition.
Impact Cobbett, M and Brickell, K (under review). High hemlines and sloppy cooking: challenges in changing social norms that support violence against women and girls in Kenya and Cambodia. Gender and Education. See also 'Engagement Activities' for further detail on the impact of the training and competition on students' understanding of domestic violence.
Start Year 2013
 
Description 'The Geographies that Wound': Workshop on violence against women and girls 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The publication of the article 'The Geographies that Wound' (Chris Philo, 2005) brought attention to the interlaced geographies that create vulnerabilities for certain bodies, in certain places, over others. Ten years on, the workshop organised by Dr Brickell revisited the theme of wounds and wounding with a specific focus on violence against women and girls (VAWG) - a human rights abuse often described as one of the starkest collective failures of the international community in the 21st century. While in geography the wounded body has been examined in relation to the geopolitics of conflict, asylum and garment-work (as notable but not exhaustive examples), the workshop extended and deepened scholarship on precarious corporealities and lived experiences of VAWG. It also counterbalanced the onus in geography on war-related violence to generate greater awareness of the everyday spaces of VAWG within, but also critically beyond, (inter-) national landscapes of conflict and militarism. Bringing together geographers and inter-disciplinary speakers, the workshop explored the characteristics and dynamics of the entangled spaces and scales that render women's and girls' bodies the place of physical and psychological harm. It also considered the 'treatment' and healing of wounds through different means, through a range of spaces and temporalities, and with varying outcomes.

Keynotes were given by foremost Professors Chris Philo (University of Glasgow) and Rachel Pain (University of Durham). The workshop facilitated high-level conversation between audiences from geography, international relations, sociology, development studies and gender studies. Delegates from UK-based charities also participated, including Oxfam GB, Against Violence and Abuse (AVA), Trafford Rape Crisis, and WISE development.


Submission by workshop speaker with Katherine Brickell of British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow application on women's 'journeyscapes' from domestic violence in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.eventbrite.com/e/violence-against-women-and-girls-a-workshop-on-the-geographies-that-woun...
 
Description 9th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, Sicily, Italy, presentation - 'From intimate war to peace? Local reconciliation of domestic violence in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards on alternatives to domestic violence law.

Greater awareness of ESRC/DFID research amongst international relations scholars from around the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.paneuropeanconference.org/2015/upload/docs/Programme.pdf
 
Description Association of American Geographers Annual Conference plenary panelist - Rule of/By Law in Cambodia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Engagement of American academic audience and exposure to the ESRC/DFID research. Discussion on the violences of law.

Further enquiries from audience members about my research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Association of American Geographers Annual Conference, USA, presentation - 'Towards intimate geographies of peace: Local reconciliation of domestic violence in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk brought about discussion on how the ESRC/DFID research is original from the majority of geographical work on violence and peace. This resulted the writing and publication of a paper in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (2015). Since my conference talk I have also started collaborating with one of the other speakers in the session, Dana Cuomo in the USA. This work is being taken forward at the 2016 RGS-IBG Annual Conference via sessions we have organised on 'Feminist Legal Geographies'.

Better knowledge of ESRC/DFID by academic audiences in the United States.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://conference.rgs.org/AC2016/28d0b4a0-a833-4afd-9dc4-dedc765ba5f8
 
Description Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth, presentation on Participatory action research on domestic violence law: Insights from a client consultation competition with university students in Cambodia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The paper discussed the findings of a higher education-oriented participatory action research project in Cambodia funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) Bilateral Programme Fund. Women's rights are a key issue for the FCO and are likely to continue as so in the post-2015 development framework. The 'Client Consultation Workshop and Competition' held in 2014 sought to raise awareness and practice-based expertise on this important yet understudied law among 100+ undergraduate students at Pannasastra University of Cambodia. The paper analyses pre and post project evaluation data (namely questionnaires and focus groups) on the impact of the training and competition on students' knowledge and understanding of domestic violence (law) and draws on the distinction between practical and strategic gender interests to examine the challenges of the short-term educational intervention to effect deep seated change. Material from an ESRC/DFID funded project was used as a training aid in this work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.theasa.org/conferences.shtml
 
Description British Sociological Association Annual Conference, UK, presentation - 'Towards intimate justice? Everyday politics of domestic violence law and legal pluralism in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards on the efficacy of domestic violence law.

Greater awareness among sociologists of research in Geography on domestic violence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Centre for Gender Studies, SOAS, UK, presentation - 'Everyday politics of domestic violence law in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion on the efficacy of legal reform in domestic violence cases.

I received multiple follow-up emails from doctoral students for further information on the ESRC/DFID project in addition to advice about their own proposed research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.soas.ac.uk/genderstudies/seminar-series/
 
Description Centre for Khmer Studies, Cambodia, presentation - 'Everyday politics of domestic violence law in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The seminar was so well attended that the room was not large enough and some audience members had to listen from the balcony outside. The delegates were a mix of academics and development practitioners.

I received a large number of emails commending the presentation and requesting follow up information. In some cases a follow up meeting was requested, including from international NGOS such as CARE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH), University of Cambridge, UK, presentation - 'Towards intimate injustice? Everyday politics of domestic violence law and legal pluralism in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion on whether local reconciliation should be discouraged or modified to improve outcomes for domestic violence victims.

Invitation to publish the presentation by conference organisers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.crassh.cam.ac.uk/events/25658
 
Description Client consultation workshop and competition: Law on the prevention of domestic violence and the protection of victims 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The project involved undergraduate Law and Social Science students at Paññasastra University of Cambodia, Phnom Penh. The seventy students were given a two-day training workshop about domestic violence with a particular emphasis on understanding Cambodia's 2005 'Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection of Victims'. The training, provided in part by Katherine Brickell based on her ESRC/DFID research findings, improved understanding on this previously un-taught law and intended to complement a compulsory 'Gender Studies' module that they had already all completed as part of their undergraduate studies. Training was also provided by representatives from the Ministry of Women's Affairs. After a month of study and technique preparation with assigned mentors, sixteen participants took part in a two-day 'client consultation competition'. The competition simulates a law office consultation in which the students work in pairs to respond to a client's problem. In front of a large student audience (100+) in an auditorium, each of the eight teams were allowed 45 minutes to conduct their client consultation and then hold a post-consultation discussion with each other to summarize the interview and the scope of legal work to be undertaken. Such competitions are a normal part of undergraduate Law training and aim to help students develop skills in questioning and listening to clients and applying the law to real situations. For this project, the actors playing the clients used case studies of real domestic violence incidents from the ESRC/DFID research and the competition was judged by Cambodian experts on domestic violence. High-level participation is evidenced by speeches at the final competition by the Ministry of Women's Affairs, its Secretary of State, and the UK Deputy Ambassador to Cambodia.

The aim of the research was to examine whether the training the students received impacted on the way they responded to the clients experiencing domestic violence. The client consultation interviews and post-consultation discussions were a key source of data and these were recorded, transcribed and translated. To complement this, and aid in understanding changes, the workshop students completed pre and post questionnaires. Two focus groups were also organised after the competition finale. The post-training questionnaires and focus groups showed marked changes in knowledge and beliefs in some areas. Most prominent, were changes to their understandings of what constituted domestic violence. They also had stronger understandings of domestic violence law and some of the practical, though not ideological, constraints on women being able to use domestic violence law to make claims. This impact is evidenced in the Gender and Education article reported under 'Publications'.

The aim of the research was to examine whether the training the students received impacted on the way they responded to the clients experiencing domestic violence. The client consultation interviews and post-consultation discussions were a key source of data and these were recorded, transcribed and analysed. To complement this, and aid in understanding changes, the workshop students completed pre and post-training questionnaires. Two focus groups were also organized after the competition finale.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Department of Geography, University of Leicester, UK, seminar - 'Violences of home in contemporary Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Seminar sparked questions and discussion afterwards on the geographies of home literature and its limitation.

Notable impacts unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/geography/newsevents/research-seminars-2012-2013
 
Description German Agency for International Cooperation, Cambodia, research briefing - 'Gender-based violence in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation generating discussion what on reforms are needed to the 2005 law.

Continued email correspondence post-talk with development professionals action-planing with the Cambodian government to reduce domestic violence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Institute of Development Studies, UK, presentation - 'Everyday politics of domestic violence law in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A lot of discussion post-talk on the (limited) commitment of government to reduce domestic violence through legal reform.

After my presentation I was invited to become advisory board member of a DFID-funded country assignment entitled 'Domestic Violence in Ghana: Prevalence, Incidence and Causes' (2015-2016)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ids.ac.uk/events/conflict-violence-and-development-seminars
 
Description Media interest - Crothers, L. (2014) 'Report finds poor implementation of domestic violence law'. Cambodia Daily, Jan 21st, p.15 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The newspaper article was repeatedly 're-blogged' (for example on destinationjustice.org) and tweeted. It is also cited in a number of policy reports on domestic violence in Cambodia.

A large number of follow-up requests for more information from the ESRC/DFID research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.cambodiadaily.com/archives/report-finds-poor-implementation-of-domestic-violence-law-509...
 
Description Media interest - Radio France International 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Findings from the ESRC/DFID broadcast to wide-ranging public audiences in Cambodia

After the radio broadcast, a number of Buddhist monks approached me to discuss the ESRC/DFID research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Media interest - Radio Free Asia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Findings from the ESRC/DFID broadcast to wide-ranging public audiences in Cambodia

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Media interest - Reiss-Wilchins, G (2014) 'Gender-based violence in Cambodia: The intersection of rights and poverty', The Huffington Post (online) Jan 31 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Findings from the ESRC/DFID broadcast to online audiences predominately in the United States

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gina-reisswilchins/gender-based-violence-in-_b_4682385.html
 
Description Media interest - citation of ESRC/DFID research in The Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact N/A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/20/cambodian-tycoon-sok-bun-attack-victim-ek-socheata-sasa
 
Description Media interest from Woodside, A and Sen, D 2014 Finances tie victims to abusers Phnom Penh Post Jan 21st pages 1 and 5 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The headline 'Finances tie victims to abusers' was billed as 'National News' and positioned as headline on the newspaper front cover. Infographics from the ESRC/DFID project report were reproduced in the newspaper.

A large number of follow-up requests for more information from the ESRC/DFID research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/finances-tie-victims-abusers
 
Description Methodology Institute, London School of Economics, UK, invited presentation - 'Community Fictions of Domestic Violence: Participatory Video Drama Research in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards on the ethics of participatory video usage.

Writing up of presentation into Area and ACME publications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/methodology/newsEvents/Past-Seminar-Series.aspx
 
Description National Training of Trainers on Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Opportunity to discuss ESRC/DFID research with a wide range of NGOs in Cambodia, including attending delegates from LICADHO, Oxfam Quebec, SILAKA, Partnership for Development in Kampuchea, Child Rights Foundation, IWRAW Asia Pacific and Women Empowerment through Legal Assistance. The ESRC/DFID research assistant participated in this event.

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Qualitative field training - GADC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Qualitative field research training was provided by Dr Brickell to GADC NGO staff (including those not involved in the research). Covered interviewing, research design, ethics and Q&A session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description RGS Annual Conference, UK, plenary pallenist - 'Rule of/by Law in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The plenary panel facilitated new links with other scholars working on gendered violences in different parts of the world. On this basis, I organised an intervention series on gendered violences in the journal Dialogues in Human Geography (2016).

Katherine Brickell (in collaboration with Avril Maddrell - panel convenor) - led publication of the panellist talks in the journal Dialogues in Human Geography.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/journal/dialogues-human-geography
 
Description RGS Annual Conference, UK, presentation - 'Legal pluralism and the everyday politics of domestic violence law in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The talk sparked questions on legal pluralism. It has also resulted in sessions I have organised for the 2016 RGS-IBG Annual International Conference on 'Feminist Legal Geographies'.

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://conference.rgs.org/AC2014/67
 
Description RGS Annual Conference, UK, presentation - 'Towards geographies of peace? Researching lay and institutional perspectives on domestic violence law in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The talk sparked debate on the blurred line between war and peace and the needed to re-scale discussions to the micro. In addition to presenting this paper (now published in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers) Katherine Brickell convened two sessions titled 'Researching Geographical Frontiers Between Violence and Peace'.

Presentation written into journal article form and published in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (ranked 3/76 geography journals: 4.011 impact factor).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tran.12086/abstract
 
Description Royal Geographical Society, presentation on Participatory action research on domestic violence law: Insights from a client consultation competition with university students in Cambodia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This paper discusses the findings of a higher education-oriented participatory action research project in Cambodia funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) Bilateral Programme Fund. The 'Client Consultation Workshop and Competition' held in 2014 sought to raise awareness and practice-based expertise on this important yet understudied law among 100+ undergraduate students at Pannasastra University of Cambodia. The paper analysed pre and post project evaluation data (namely questionnaires and focus groups) on the impact of the training and competition on students' knowledge and understanding of domestic violence (law) and drew on the distinction between practical and strategic gender interests to examine the challenges of the short-term educational intervention to effect deep seated change.

The paper was presented as part of sessions on 'Feminist Legal Geographies' I co-convened with Dana Cuomo. It has resulted in a special issue proposal accepted by the journal Environment and Planning A.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://conference.rgs.org/AC2016/28d0b4a0-a833-4afd-9dc4-dedc765ba5f8
 
Description Training on non violent communication by CORD 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Opportunity to discuss ESRC/DFID research with NGOs in Cambodia. The ESRC/DFID research assistant participated in this event.

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Presentation - 'Domestic Violence Law and the Denial of "Active Citizenship" in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Drawing on the in-depth research with domestic violence victims, legal professionals, NGO workers, police officers and other authority leaders, the paper explored the hiatus between promises enshrined in law (citizenship as status) and progress realised on the ground (citizenship as practice). Combining data from the large-scale household survey and suite of interviews with different stakeholders, it traced the socio-legal conditions which are denying women of their ability to claim legally and morally enforceable rights via 'active citizenship'. These constraints encompass structural gender inequities; customs and traditions around silence and harmony; a weak rule of law environment; and inadequacies of financial and human resources to support domestic violence law training, implementation and enforcement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://activecitizenshiptoday.wordpress.com
 
Description United Nations Learning Seminar research briefing 'Everyday politics of domestic violence law in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk generated discussion about the possibility of reform to the 2005 law.

The talk disseminated the ESRC/DFID research to an impressive range of delegates from different United Nations departments. These included: UNWOMEN, WHO, UNAIDS, ILO, UNFRA, OHCHR and UNDP.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description United Nations Learning Seminar, Cambodia, research briefing 'Gender, Violence and Injustice in Contemporary Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact After the successful talk, Katherine Brickell was re-invited in 2014 to give an update on the ESRC/DFID research at another UN Learning Seminar.

Katherine Brickell was invited by UNWomen to act as peer reviewer of national action-planning documents as well as expert observer at closed door government meetings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.katherinebrickell.com/2013/03/14/gender-violence-and-rights-in-cambodia-2013-research-and...
 
Description Wellcome Trust, UK, presentation - 'Legislating wounds: Violence against women in Cambodia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion afterwards on how the ESRC/DFID findings on domestic violence (and rule of law) sit in sharp contrast to other project data on forced eviction which shows the public violence that female housing activists face on Cambodia's streets as they try to exert 'active citizenship'. The presentation forms the basis for the monograph 'Home SOS: Gender, Injustice and Rights in Cambodia' (Wiley RGS-IBG Book Series).

I organised the day to mark the end of the ESRC/DFID project. The feedback from the day was extremely positive, for example:

'I felt that the workshop was valuable for my studies as the day provided insights in ongoing research by engaging different approaches as well as specific case studies and offered ample time to network with the presenters and other workshop participants. It is particular beneficial that the workshop organiser encouraged the exchange with a variety of practitioners who offered valuable contributions to the discussions and insights into their work. In addition to reflecting on emerging research questions, this format allowed sharing practical concerns and experiences, as for example recommendations on how to deal with witnessing violence during the research process. These gained insights will have a positive lasting impact on my work and help me reflect on my own topic. Overall, the provided opportunity to exchange research ideas about this rather difficult topic was motivational and encouraging' - attending PGR student.

Engagement with the keynote speaker, Professor Chris Philo has also resulted to my invited presentation at an ESRC seminar on violence at the University of Glasgow in August 2016.

Dissemination of ESRC/DFID research to both academics and practitioners in the UK and internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.katherinebrickell.com/2015/04/28/call-for-papers-violence-against-women-and-girls-a-works...
 
Description White Ribbon Campaign coordination meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to organising the annual White Ribbon Campaign in Cambodia - a global movement of men and boys working to end male violence against women and girls. The ESRC/DFID research assistant participated in this organising.

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012