Seeing the Links in the Speaker-Hearer Chain: An investigation of the transmission of articulatory variation using Ultrasound Tongue Imaging.

Lead Research Organisation: Queen Margaret University Edinburgh
Department Name: Clinical Audiology Speech &Lang Res Cen

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.
 
Description 1. We confirmed the results of an earlier and smaller study in the eastern Scottish Central Belt. We showed that middle-class and working-class adolescents produce postvocalic /r/ with markedly different tongue shapes across central Scotland. The current study used a new corpus collected in the western Scottish Central Belt in which an even clearer pattern of theoretically-important social stratification was observed.
2. We showed, for the first time, the transmission of phonetic variation from an articulatory perspective, i.e. that speakers are able to adapt the movements of their vocal organs to match subtle variation in unseen vocal organ movements of another person from the audio signal only. When presented with audio stimuli containing /r/ and asked to mimic the audio stimulus, the most common response was not to deviate from habitual tongue configuration for /r/ (around half of the speakers studied did not change their tongue shape). The second most common response was non-discrete adaptation, that is, when mimicking the audio stimulus, participants altered from their usual strategy for producing /r/, but did not consistently differentiate between the two social types of /r/ they were being presented with. We observed blending of alternate strategies for producing /r/ and perseveration of the effect of previously heard examples. The rarest type of adaptation was discrete adaptation where speakers were able to match the tongue configuration of each stimulus presented to them with a high level of accuracy.
3. We demonstrated that variation in the Scottish vowel system is caused by underlying differences in tongue shape during the production of /r/. We were able to show that a prerhotic vowel merger in words such as fir, fur and fern that had previously been considered an anglicisation is actually due to differences in the tongue shape for the following /r/. Speakers who had a bunched /r/ produced fir, fur, fern with one, strongly rhotic, vowel. Ultrasound analysis showed that tongue shape during the vowel portion of these words was very similar to the tongue shape during /r/. In other words, the vowel and the /r/ have coalesced, perhaps creating a new vowel, "schwar". No such vowel adaptation or merger occurred where speakers used an /r/ with a raised tongue tip.
4. We showed that weakening of postvocalic /r/ in e.g. car, heard, form etc. results mainly from changes in the timing of tongue gestures and to a lesser extent a reduction of the /r/ gesture (i.e. production of a weaker gesture that doesn't fully reach its target). Recordings where /r/ was rated absent or weak almost always contained a full /r/ gesture, but it was timed to occur late, so that it was masked by a following silence or a following consonant, making the /r/ only partially audible. In other words, weakening and deletion of this consonant can result from changes in timing of tongue movements rather than simple weakening.
Exploitation Route Our findings are of relevance to speech and language therapists (SLTs) who use speech modelling of a range of sounds. We showed the difficulty a normative speaker group has discretely copying the tongue gestures underlying speech. If short-term articulatory adaptation is difficult for speakers who have no speech and hearing disorders, it must be even more problematic for those who do. We suggest that visual biofeedback (ultrasound tongue imaging and electropalatography) may improve speaker-hearers' adaptation to new speech production strategies.
We presented our results at a Visual Biofeedback workshop (5th May 2014) at Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh with a primarily SLT audience with hands-on ultrasound training, and at a special session "Novel impact pathways in variationist linguistics" at NWAV, Chicago (25th October 2014), with an audience of mainly variationist researchers. This special session promoted the view that variationist research can have impact outside of its immediate domain, e.g. in SLT practice.
We also gave a public lecture at the Glasgow Science Festival (15th June 2014) "Changing Voices - Workshop 2 - Seeing Tongues Speak" (rated excellent by all attendees). We gave two hands-on demonstrations of UTI at a library and community centre in Anniesland, Glasgow (16th July 2014) and Drumchapel, Glasgow (21st July 2014) respectively. The audience for these demonstrations were members of the public (around 100 attendees per session).
Sectors Other

 
Description Clinical speech therapy impact: Our findings have relevance to speech and language therapists (SLTs) who use speech modelling for a range of sounds. We showed the difficulty a normative speaker group has discretely copying the tongue gestures underlying speech. If short-term articulatory adaptation is difficult for speakers who have no speech and hearing disorders, it must be even more problematic for those who do. We suggested that visual biofeedback (based on articulatory analysis techniques ultrasound tongue imaging and electropalatography) may improve speaker-hearers' adaptation to new speech production strategies. We presented our results at a Visual Biofeedback workshop (5th May 2014) at Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh with a primarily SLT audience with hands-on ultrasound training, and at a special session "Novel impact pathways in Variationist Linguistics" at NWAV, Chicago (25th October 2014), with an audience of mainly variationist researchers. This special session promoted the view that variationist research can have impact outside of its immediate domain, e.g. in SLT practice. Practical innovation and improvement of research practice: In order to carry out this project, we designed and produced a bite plate that can be used in conjunction with ultrasound tongue imaging to identify and capture the speaker's occlusal (bite) plane. Capturing the bite plane helps standardise the angle of the ultrasound probe in relation to the speaker's head and improves inter-speaker comparability. Bite plates are now used as standard at the CASL speech lab, QMU, and we have made bite plates for researchers at other major ultrasound labs in the UK and distributed them at conferences and talks. We have also made enquiries concerning the commercial production of bite plates. Societal/Cultural impact: media: A Press release on July 10th 2015 sparked a huge amount of media and public interest and resulted in our research findings on the weakening of Scottish /r/ being reported in most national, numerous local and some international newspapers, including: The Sunday Times (front page) 19/07/2015; The Guardian; The Independent; The Times (Scotland); The Scotsman; The Herald; The Daily Mirror; The Daily Record; the Daily Mail; 20/07/2015; Quartz 10/07/2015 and Le Monde 22/07/2015. We were also asked to take part in radio interviews on BBC Radio 4's Today programme; BBC World Service; BBC Radio Scotland's Good Morning Scotland 20/07/2015; BBC radio Ulster 21/07/2015 and PRI The World (BBC co-production in Boston USA) 22/07/2015 - also an interview for a podcast on Linguistics by PRI. After the radio broadcasts, we were contacted by many members of the public who wanted to know more about our research or express their opinion on accent changes. Comments sections in newspapers that printed out research results typically contained a large number of comments and lively discussion. Public engagement: We have used our findings in a number of ultrasound-focussed public engagement activities with the aim of teaching members of the public about speech production and accent variation, including: a public lecture at the Glasgow Science Festival (15th June 2014) "Changing Voices - Workshop 2 - Seeing Tongues Speak" (rated excellent by all attendees); two hands-on demonstrations of UTI at a library and community centre in Anniesland, Glasgow (16th July 2014) and Drumchapel, Glasgow (21st July 2014) respectively. The audience for these demonstrations were members of the public (around 100 attendees per session); a 'Meet the Expert' event at Glasgow Science Centre (30th May 2015). Around 100 attendees from small children to their grandparents. Digital Information impact: The results of this project led directly to a related series of knowledge-exchange/impact projects, funded first by the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland and then the Arts and Humanities Research Council under their Big Data scheme. These grants funded the creation of a set of freely available digital resources, a Youtube channel (ArticulatoryIPA), and two linked Web resources, Seeing Speech and Dynamic Dialects, which enabled the insights from our fundamental research carried out in this project, to be exploited by making accessible information, films and animations of speech production using Ultrasound Tongue Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and lip movement cameras. The key issue was the need to be able to allow anyone with an interest in speech to be able to find out more about speech production, without needing to have specialised software to do so. The impacts of this subsequent work are reported now through the Dynamic Dialects AHRC grant ResearchFish, but they rest on the work of this project and others before it (e.g. Looking variation and change in the mouth; the Ultrax project). To date non-academic users are speech and language therapists, language learners and teachers, including English as a Second/Foreign Language, voice and drama coaches, teachers and students more generally, the general public. We are currently in the early stages of a collaboration with an ESL teaching department at a college in the United States, which will produce an imaging-based tool for teaching English. Education impact: The web resources described above have both impact for a range of non-academic users. They have also been important resources for teaching phonetics in other HEIs beyond QMU and Glasgow. We are aware of a number of HEIs both in the UK and beyond (e.g. Europe, the US) which are now regularly using these resources. The section below also notes that this research has led to invitations to speak to more educationally orientated workshops, such as the Phonetics Teaching and Learning conference, the Association for Learners and Teachers of English (France), and international undergraduate (e.g. Hannover, Germany) and postgraduate summer schools (e.g. Dublin, Ireland). Academic impact: We presented papers at 10 conferences: BAAP 2012 and 2014; NWAV 42 and 43, r-atics 4; Methods in Dialectology XV, Ultrafest VI and VII (forthcoming); Labphon 14 and ICPhS 18 and have published six papers relating to: social stratification of tongue shape in /r/ production; the role of gesture timing in coda /r/ weakening; the impact of covert articulatory /r/ variants on the prerhotic vowel systems; speaker mimicry strategies for covert /r/ variants; onset-coda asymmetry in /r/ and real-time change in Scottish postvocalic /r/. Our research has shown that apparently covert articulatory /r/ variants (retroflex and bunched) are perceptible and can be used by speakers to signal social-class affiliation. Other researchers have previously stated that that these two strategies produce a similar acoustic output and that their use by speakers is idiosyncratic. We have shown that use of bunched /r/ variants can lead to the coalescence of vowel + /r/ in the syllable rime and also promote prerhotic vowel merger. We have shown that variation in gesture timing is a key mechanism leading to the loss of coda /r/. We have shown that there appears to be syllabic asymmetry in tongue shape for /r/ production, with tip-up variants preferred in onset position and bunched variants preferred in coda position (across a variety of datasets). Finally, we have shown that /r/-loss in Scottish English is a very slow moving sound change by carrying out a real-time study spanning 100 years. We were invited to present a plenary paper involving our /r/ research at the Phonetics Teaching and Learning conference, UCL, 6/08/2015, and to present a plenary and workshop at the Sociolinguistics Summer School 6, Trinity College Dublin, 8/08/2015.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Collaborative Grant Scheme
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation Carnegie Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2011 
End 06/2013
 
Description Digital Transformations in the Humanities, Big Data scheme
Amount £232,000 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/L010380/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Title Liquid consonants supplement to Seeing Speech www.seeingspeech.ac.uk 
Description A new ultrasound tongue imaging and lip camera video resource added to the Seeing Speech website. The resource comprises of a set of 16 new audio-articulatory videos, focussing on variants of the liquid consonants, /l/ and /r/ in British, Irish, American and West Indies English. 176 UTI and lip camera videos of productions of /r/, and 62 UTI and lip camera videos of productions of /l/, were exported in normal and quarter speed formats, processed and combined to produce composite videos of 10 articulatory categories of /r/ and 6 articulatory categories of /l/. This resource will help to shed more light on allophonic variation, sound change and speech production and will be of use to speech and language therapists in a clinical setting, i.e. providing models of real articulatory productions of two of the most complex and most frequently delayed/disordered phonemes. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Resource live on 9/11/2018 as part of a revamp of the Seeing Speech and Dynamic Dialects websites and officially launched on 8/02/2019. 
URL https://www.seeingspeech.ac.uk/r-and-l-in-english/
 
Title AAA software: various components 
Description We could classify this as "software", but decide instead on improved techniques. We, as users of AAA software, have been in a close collaborative relationship with spin out company Articulate Instruments Ltd, who have developed a number of improved techniques for data collection and analysis in order to help us attain our scientific goals. These improvements, embedded in the software, are now available to all users. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact Enhanced sales and use of AAA's software for the collection of ultrasound data and its analysis - our reserach has led to some of these enhancements. Articulate Instruments Ltd features in QMU's REF Impact Case Studies. 
URL http://www.articulateinstruments.com/
 
Title Bite plate 
Description The bite plate is a 9.5x4cm flat section of medical grade plastic with a vertical protrusion half way along it. Bite plates are vacuum-moulded around standard templates. When placed in the mouth at the beginning of an ultrasound tongue imaging (UTI) recording session, and gripped between the teeth, a flat surface corresponding to the speaker's occlusal plane is imaged. The occlusal plane (or "bite plane") trace can be recorded as a reference marker to allow the reorientation of subsequently recorded tongue images. It allows the standardisation of probe-to-cranium angle across speakers. As the distance between the vertical protrusion (that sits in front of the upper incisors) to the back of the bite plate is known, it provides another way to quantify distance in the ultrasound image. 
Type Of Technology Physical Model/Kit 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact The bite plate improves the interpretability of ultrasound tongue images by showing the quasi-horizontal position of the head. This innovation is regularly used at the beginning of recording sessions by researchers at the CASL laboratory, Queen Margaret University, and undergraduate students at the University of Glasgow. Researchers at the University of Leeds and the University of Lancaster have also requested and been sent bite plates for their UTI-based speech research projects. We are currently investigating ways to increase production of bite plates and make them commercially available. 
URL http://www.seeingspeech.arts.gla.ac.uk/uti/Recording%20UTI%20page%20four.html
 
Description An interview with Public Radio International's Boston-based station for a radio programme and linguistics podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was informed that the podcast was picked up by linguistics students in the USA and was well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.pri.org/stories/2015-07-22/stereotypical-scottish-r-disappearing-its-not-necessarily-bad-...
 
Description Article printed in newspaper Quartz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article sparked large-scale media interest

After the quartz article was published, we were contacted by a journalist from the Sunday Times who wanted to write an article about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://qz.com/449525/the-scottish-accent-is-dying-out/
 
Description Being Human. Finding Glasgow, hidden secrets lost meanings, hidden tongues public engagement event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation to the general public demonstrating UTI, focussing particularly on /r/ sounds in English and Arabic. Attendees were from toddler to retirement age. Many attendees were refugees and asylum seekers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://beinghumanfestival.org/events/series/finding-glasgow-hidden-secrets-lost-meaning/
 
Description Block Seminar on sound change, Hannover 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited intensive Block Seminar (entire seminar course, 28 hours, taught over 4 days), on sound change. Included a segment on speech production and sound change, trialling the improved Seeing Speech website (was being augmented at that time), and highlighting findings from the previous two ESRC grants on the role of socially stratified articulatory variation in sound change.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Blockseminar, Sound change and society, Hannover University, 2-5 Dec 16 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Intensive seminar taught over four days, introducing phonetics, including articulatory phonetics, to around 30 university students studying English for a range of purposes at Hannover University. Classes and materials sparked a good deal of interest, including an application for a visiting student to Glasgow to take phonetics as part of their Masters study, in autumn 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Edinburgh Science Festival (2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact place holder - est 100 per day. Verbal feedback on child speech development, phonetics, bi-dialectalism , sign-up for future research on the latter.
Glasgow / QMU
11-4, 10-14 April (25 hours engagement, > 50 hours researcher engagement)
twitter --> https://twitter.com/greentoes/status/851538641683984384
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sciencefestival.co.uk/event-details/seeing-speech-hearing-tongues
 
Description Front page Sunday Times article on research project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Front page article in the Sunday Times sparked large-scale media interest, including interest from radio shows (BBC Scotland, BBC radio 4, BBC World Service - two programmes)

After the article appeared on the front page of the Sunday Times, I was contacted by academics who were interested in the topic and by radio broadcasters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/scotland/article1583087.ece
 
Description Interview on BBC radio 4's Today programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact After this interview, we were contacted by other radio stations - BBC radio Ulster and Public Radio Internationl's the World programme

After this interview, I was contacted by members of the public from the UK, West Indies and Australia who had positive things to say about the interview and expressed interest in our study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview on BBC radio Scotland - Good morning Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact After the radio broadcast I received emails and letters from interested members of the public enquiring about various aspects of Scottish speech.

In this interview, I was able to correct some misreporting of the study in the media. After the radio broadcast I received emails and letters from interested members of the public enquiring about various aspects of Scottish speech.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview with Joss Fong for Vox.com on the pronunciation of /l/ and /r/ consonants 22/02/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A journalist for Vox.com came across the /l/ and /r/ resource created as part of the Changes in Space, Shape and Time project and asked to conduct a Skype interview with PI Eleanor Lawson to find out more about the complexity of the articulation of these speech sounds and why some east Asians have difficulty learning them, (22/02/2019). The video article is currently under construction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited LinguA Talk, Hannover University, 6 Dec 16 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk to highlight research on speech, including articulatory phonetics, supported by the Dynamic Dialects project (and earlier ESRC ultrasound projects), to the Anglistik Seminar's annual LinguA talk, which is open to students at all levels, interested professionals (e.g. teachers, teacher-trainers), and the general public. The talk generated a number of questions and discussion from across the audience present. The talk invitation was a direct result of my delivery of the BlockSeminar in 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited talk at the Institut für Phonetik und Sprachverarbeitung, Munich. 7/2/2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Eleanor Lawson was invited to give a talk entitled "Studying the performance of consonantal and vocalic variation using ultrasound tongue imaging and lip camera video." to staff, postgraduate students and researchers at the Institut für Phonetik und Sprachverarbeitung, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany. The invitation was extended after a staff member at the Institut attended a conference talk given by Eleanor Lawson at Ultrafest 2017, Potsdam, Germany. The talk detailed articulatory methods used in the study of postvocalic rhotics and of vowels. In particular, the use of the bite plate to standardise probe to cranium angle and the development of measurement and normalisation techniques for ultrasound data. Marianne Pouplier also requested that Eleanor Lawson bring bite plates for use in the standardisation of probe to cranium angle at the Institut für Phonetik und Sprachverarbeitung.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.phonetik.uni-muenchen.de/~pouplier/
 
Description Oct 2016 campus visit SS/DD Shirley-Anne Somerfille 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 12 Oct 2016 - Campus visit by Minister for Education and Science Shirley-Anne Somerville MSP - the Dynamic Dialects project was invited to present the two websites Dynamic Dialects and Seeing Speech to explain their purpose for research and education, and how they build on the team's scientific research into articulatory phonetics. The minister expressed greater understanding of speech production and recognition of how the team have combined social science, humanties and engineering research, and created educational resources that are innovative and free to use worldwide.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://pic.twitter.com/YVaTOb2Clt
 
Description Oral presentation at NWAV 2018 "An ultrasound-tongue-imaging study of rhoticity in a socially-stratified spontaneous speech corpus of Scottish English" 29th June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact An oral paper entitled "An ultrasound-tongue-imaging study of rhoticity in a socially-stratified spontaneous speech corpus of Scottish English" was delivered to attendees of a special session on Laboratory Phonology at the New Ways of Analysing Variation (NWAV) sociolinguistic conference in New York, June 2018. Originally a poster presentation was planned, but the organisers invited the author to present an oral paper. Founder of Variationist Sociolinguistics William Labov attended the session. After the presentation, we were contacted by a researcher at the University of Washington for practical help and advice in ultrasound recording. We sent them bite plates to help standardise ultrasound recording settings along with advice on undertaking ultrasound recordings. The researchers said "Than you so much for all the time,c are and effort you put into helping us prepare for our foray into ultrasound research. We value your experience and expertise greatly."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster presentation on the impact of phonotactic position and social class on coda /r/ tongue gesture timing in spontaneous speech at BAAP Colloquium 12th April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A poster presentation on "The impact of phonotactic position and social class on coda /r/ tongue gesture timing in spontaneous speech". The talk showed that utterance final position is a key position for lingual gesture delay, across social classes. The poster described a mechanism whereby prosodic factors, such as utterance-final syllable lengthening, interact with mechanical speech movements, resulting in masking of speech sounds and audible weakening or deletion of utterance-final sounds in spontaneous speech.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://blogs.kent.ac.uk/baap/files/2018/03/BAAP-2018_Lawson_etal2.pdf
 
Description Poster presented at the 4th Sound Change Workshop, April 11-17th, Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The authors engaged with international academic researchers and students, explaining the project, preliminary findings and broader implications of those findings - discovery of a phonetic mechanism for coda liquid (and possibly other consonant) deletion. We have no specific impact to report, other than the interest of the researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=4th+sound+change+workshop&gws_rd=cr,ssl&dcr=0&ei=-lGdWvTCMoK...
 
Description Postgraduate Summer School Course (Groningen) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Five days of doctoral student and masters student seminars at the LOT Summer School, Groningen, 17-23 June 2013.

At least one of the students has gone on to undertake ultrasound-based research for her doctorate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.lotschool.nl/files/schools/2013_Summerschool_Groningen/schedule.php
 
Description Postgraduate Training (São Paulo) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact one week of masters / doctoral seminars at Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Brazil, primarily to a group of Speech Therapists and Therapy-oriented researchers.

Additional request for CAPES-funded international post-grad visit to QMU for 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Postgraduate summer school, Copenhagen 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Jane Stuart-Smith was an invited expert tutor at the Copenhagen Summer School for Sociolinguistics, contributing a session on sociophonetics, which reported results from the two ESRC projects on UTI and socially stratified articulatory variation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description R video (twitter) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A participant at a science engagement event observes how she has two very different tongue shapes for R in word initial vs. word final position, in this video which captures both her clear interest and the sound and tongue shapes themselves. We tweeted this video (18 Aug 2016), creating over 3000 impressions, and over 200 engagements (Feb 2017).
Tweet text: "Seeing Speech with ultrasound! Captivating to discover your tongue adopts two different shapes for consonant R"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://pic.twitter.com/K4xh3iwcLs
 
Description Radio interview BBC Scotland - accent and social class 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Eleanor Lawson was invited to take part in a discussion on "posh Scottish accents" on a Radio Scotland morning discussion programme, and was able to share findings of current and previous research, highlighting the resource www.dynamicdialects.ac.uk She explained changes that had occurred in middle-class and working-class Scottish speech over the past 60 years, with specific reference to the importance of /r/ in signalling social identity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Radio interview on BBC Scotland regarding the impact of broadcast media and gaming on accent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Eleanor Lawson was invited to a radio interview on the Kay Adams show on Radio Scotland to discuss the impact of broadcast media and gaming on the accents of young people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Society (London) 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scobbie (QMU) and Wrench (Articulate Instruments Ltd/QMU) were invited and funded to travel to London to present ultrasound tongue imaging as part of the Royal Society Lates / Twilight Science, in the "Sense Tent". The programme said "Venture round our marquee where you can have a whiff of some pathology perfumery, virtually train your tactility, conduct an ultrasound analysis of your voice, stimulate your tastebuds using electricity and experience audio-visual synaesthesia among other things. 6pm-9.30pm." There was a very large international audience of mainly young professional and academic adults, who expressed fascination with the technology and the articulatory underpinnings of speech production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2016/07/twilight-science/
 
Description SLT UTI Study Day (06/14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Visualising Articulation: A Study Day for Speech & Language Therapists on Visual Biofeedback and Articulatory Models for treating Speech Sound Disorders. (5th June 2014), Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh.
Attended by NHS Speech and Language Therapists who wanted to find out about research findings on ultrasound tongue imaging fundamentals, what it reveals about typical populations and development, and how it can be used for biofeedback therapy.
Input from researchers on multiple projects for a full day workshop for local SLT managers and therapists, upper undergraduate and masters-level students.
a. EPSRC ULTRAX (Renals PI)
a. ESRC Mimicry (Scobbie PI)
c. Carnegie Trust Seeing Speech (Stuart-Smith PI)
d. AHRC Dynamic Dialects (Stuart-Smith PI)
(An associated advanced training workshop in UTI was also run at the same time - it is recorded as a separate event.)

Increased awareness of
a. the importance and use of visual biofeedback methods in speech therapy, protocols used in current successful therapy at QMU and elsewhere,
b. datasets of and research into typical production of a range of sounds, including social variation in adulthood and typical childhood articulation patterns
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seeing Speech - public workshop at Glasgow Science Festival 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hands-on workshop held in the Glasgow University Laboratory of Phonetics, which was attended by members of the general public aged 6 to 60, which introduced articulatory phonetic analysis using ultrasound tongue imaging. All participants enjoyed taking part, and especially understanding how their tongue works when they talk from the direct visual input that UTI allows. This workshop was run by Jane Stuart-Smith and Fabienne Westerberg, who is an ESRC-funded student at GULP.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://glasgowsciencefestival.wordpress.com/2015/05/07/seeing-speech/
 
Description Seeing Speech - walk-up event at Kelvingrove Museum, 'Glasgow Innovates', Glasgow Science Festival 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Walk-up event for the general public run by Fabienne Westerberg, Jane Stuart-Smith and Jim Scobbie, Sat/Sun 4-5 June 16, with hands-on ultrasound tongue imaging demonstrations (2 portable machines). We imaged over 100 speakers each day, from toddlers and young children, to mums and dads and grannies and grandpas, all backgrounds, from Glasgow, Scotland, visiting tourists. Some children liked it so much on Saturday that they brought their families back the next day!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seeing Speech event at Glasgow Science Festival (14/06/15) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We ran two workshops called Seeing Speech. Each one attracted around 20 participants of all ages, from 2 to mid-50s. We gave a short presentation explaining speech production and ultrasound tongue imaging, and then participants volunteered to have their tongue imaged in order to carry out a collaborative quiz task. Everyone enjoyed the presentation, and especially the ultrasound imaging.

We had a range of participants, from families with young children to early teenaged schoolboys (who loved the ultrasound headset) to university students and couples interested in science. The evaluation sheets rated the workshops as 'excellent' or 'very good', saying that they were 'very interesting'. Two afterschool teachers had brought the group of teenage boys to the university, and were very enthusiastic about the impact of being in a phonetics lab and taking part in 'real' research. All the boys said that they would like to come to university and work in a lab like ours.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL https://glasgowsciencefestival.wordpress.com/2015/05/07/seeing-speech/
 
Description Seeing the links in the speaker-hearer chain: Accent-feature acquisition and modelling in speech therapy. Invited panel presentation at New Ways of Analysing Variation (NWAV) conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This presentation received four questions and one comment in the allotted time, including whether a misunderstanding of how /r/ is produced could lead to a speech therapist misdiagnosing a client; why did I think providing a greater variety of vowel contexts did not improve ability to perceive underlying tongue shape (followed by a discussion about choice of stimulus materials and experimental design); how variable were speakers in their /r/ production and a comment by an audience member confirming that she could hear the difference between audio stimuli linked to the different underlying tongue shapes we presented and was pleased that our research showed this was possible (given that previous research had appeared to demonstrate that the underlying tongue shapes produced audio signals that sounded alike.

A copy of the talk was requested by a senior researcher at the University of Arizona.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nwav43.illinois.edu/
 
Description Sounds and ultrasound in Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Invited lecture at GIPSA-Lab, Grenoble.

Academic collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Speech articulation event for the Glasgow Science Festival at the University of Glasgow followed by a hands-on UTI demonstration 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An hour long slot at the Glasgow Science Festival consisting of a 40 minute presentation about speech production with video of vocal fold vibration, MRI video of vocal organ movement and ultrasound tongue imaging (UTI) video of tongue movement, followed by 20 minutes of hands-on demonstration of UTI to the talk attendees with two ultrasound machine.

The event was rated as excellent by all attendees, who also reported that they felt they had learned things they didn't know about speech production in general and about their own speech.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Student training, LSA Summer Institute, Chicago 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Jane Stuart-Smith was invited to give a course on the influence of the media on speech at the LSA Summer Institute, Chicago, July 2015. This had two segments which used materials from the Dynamic Dialects project (Seeing Speech), and reported results from the two ESRC projects on UTI and socially-stratified variation and change.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The role of gesture timing in postvocalic /r/ lenition: an ultrasound study. Paper presented at Ultrafest VI 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation included a demonstration of the bite plate innovation for standardising ultrasound probe to cranium settings.

The bite plate demonstration increased awareness of the problems of lack of standardisation of probe to cranium angle when interpreting ultrasound video or comparing tongue shapes between speakers. Increased awareness of issues of standardisation led to many requests for bite plates, e.g. three requests from QMU researchers and a request from two researchers at Lancaster University and one request from a researcher at the University of Manchester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.qmu.ac.uk/casl/conf/ultrafest_2013/
 
Description UTI researcher training (06/14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Advanced and Intermediate Training in UTI data analysis for post-doc, PhD and active researchers from around the UK, June 2014.
(See also a related Speech and Language Therapist Training event).

Academic colleagues requested further, regular (eg annual) events. Small grant application written and submitted to British Academy with one of the participants on the basis of their attendance (unsuccessful).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Ultrasound Tongue Imaging hands-on demo at the Science in the Community events 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 60 adults and children (of all ages) took part in hands-on ultrasound tongue imaging (UTI) demos at Anniesland Public Library and Drumchapel Community Centre as part of a community science even centring on the Queen's Baton Relay.

It is difficult to quantify the impact of this event; however, some children were very interested in the ultrasound machine and returned again and again to look at their tongue moving, experimenting with producing different speech sounds. At one venue, a young boy took over the demonstration and began showing people how to apply gel to the probe, where to place it under their chin and described their speech movements to them. I believe that the demonstration stimulated an interest in speech articulation for the children who returned again and again to the demo. As I said, it is very difficult to quantify what the long-term impact of this interest will be.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Ultrasound Tongue Imaging: Insights into articulation in the laboratory, community and clinic 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Keynote talk at 14th Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, Macquarie University, Sydney. Interdisciplinary audience of general academic and Speech and Language Therapy researchers and students.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description interview for BBC World Service: Crowd Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC World Service Crowd Science creates documentaries in response to listeners' questions. In this case, the listener's question was: why do acccents vary? The documentary makers came up to Glasgow to interview Jane Stuart-Smith as an expert on Glaswegian accent variation and change, including the ESRC-funded research on media impact on sound change, and variation and change in /r/. Whilst researching for the programme, they also came across the Dynamic Dialects and Seeing Speech websites, and were very interested in the ultrasound tongue imaging work that we were doing. During the recording for the programme, the presenter was recorded being imaged using ultrasound for a podcast to be put on the Crowd Science website alongside the programme, together with web links for Dynamic Dialects and Seeing Speech.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04d42rc
 
Description project demo at Digging into Data conference event, January 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited demostration of Dynamic Dialects web resources (Seeing Speech and Dynamic Dialects) to members of the Digging into Data showcase event, held at the Glasgow School of Art, 29 January 2016, as part of the Digging into Data conference for award holders, council administrators, and senior international research council leaders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ultrasound demonstration at Applicants Day 31/03/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We discussed and demonstrated speech production using ultrasound tongue imaging and through looking at Seeing Speech website, and discussing recent findings from the ESRC Seeing the Links in the Speaker-Hearer Chain project, and the Looking Variation in the Mouth project. Applicants were excited and interested and asked many questions.

Applicants and their parents enjoyed their visit to the lab as a result of these hands-on activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description walk-up hands-on demonstration and public engagement event Kelvingrove Museum, part of Glasgow Science Festival (17/18 June 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Two full days of live ultrasound tongue imaging demonstration for the general public, from toddlers to grandparents, locals to international tourists - we also demonstrated the website, and carried out drawing activities with young children. Great feedback from all who attended!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017