Re-negotiating the Social Contract in the GCC: State-Business Relations and Reforms in the Oil-Rentier Gulf Monarchies

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: Arab and Islamic Studies

Abstract

This project concerns the dynamics and implications of the economic and social transformations in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states [Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE] over the last decade. The GCC states are of global geopolitical importance (40% of world oil reserves), they are at the heart of the Arab world's economy, and it is here that the Arab world's most significant bourgeoisie has arguably been emerging. It examines the evolution and position of the GCC's business community, its relations with 'state' and regime, and its perceptions of and roles in the reforms attempted in the region. By the same token, it investigates the impact of these reforms on the fortunes, composition and roles of the business community in these polities, including on state-business relations.

The social contract established by the ruling families during the 'rentier' period in the 20th Century - redistributing oil rent through free education, health care, housing, and well-paid government jobs; granting key positions to historically important tribes/families and economic monopolies to nationals; and legally subordinating expatriates to nationals - implied in return the non-interference of nationals and civil society in domestic politics. Fears over future oil revenue, globalisation and population growth & expectation reduced the viability of the oil-rent model of development, and brought an unprecedented awareness by GCC elites of the need to rethink their states' socio-economic structures. While past high oil prices arguably reduced the pressure to diversify, the latest period of high prices has instead coincided with sustained liberalising reforms, including changes in the role of the state, economic diversification policies, labour market reforms, health and educational reforms - all alongside fledgling political reforms. The current raft of reforms, affecting the definition of the welfare model, the structure of economy, and the sociology of business in these states, also have global implications. At the same time they represent a prima facie paradox, and a range of unanswered questions, for Rentier State Theory and the study of political and economic reform. The business elite has had a decisive role in supporting the established socio-political order and shaping political legitimacy, alongside its related economic role - even if these roles underwent important shifts. The nature, extent and implications of the current shift is the central subject of this project, including the role this 'bourgeoisie' might play in a broader socio-political evolution of these systems.

The subject will be approached primarily through the economic reforms and those that relate to it (governance, education and judicial): investigating the reforms themselves, the mutual impact between them and the business community, and what this tells us about changing state-business relations. But the aim is also to interpret what these dynamics tell us about the wider questions of the social contract and the future of political liberalisation vs. authoritarianism. A key hypothesis is that the proximity or distance of these economic elites vis-à-vis the ruling elite decisively affects the orientation, implementation and effectiveness of each state's economic reform policies.

At a wider level, investigating state-business relations in the Gulf monarchies in this critical period of re-negotiation of the social contract throws light on three broader issues: (1) the role of the economic elite in the decision-making process and in the liberalisation/ consolidation of post-colonial authoritarian regimes; (2) the social changes occurring in this region, where new generations, directly affected by these policies, call into question the inherited social model and impose new dynamics in societies usually seen as monolithic and traditional; (3) the dynamics of economic liberalisation processes as studied in other regions and in other social contexts.

Planned Impact

The GCC's socio-economic dynamics and transformations have a growing impact on the global economy. Changes in economic leadership or priorities in the Gulf have consequences for the Middle East and beyond; dynamics here can tell us much about wider prospects for development and change in the Arab world as well as the big conceptual questions on political and economic change. The academic, commercial, and policy audience interested in the results of this project is therefore very broad, not least considering the questions thrown up by the 'Arab Spring' sweeping the region in early 2011. Indeed, the project's timing fortuitously gives the researchers the opportunity to observe significant changes and their impacts first hand.

The growing share of the Gulf business elite and investment funds in financial and industrial assets in OECD economies and beyond is such that solutions to the global economic downturn of necessity included the Gulf investment funds and business families. Nationalization policies of employment in the Gulf's private sector, targeting foreign (including Arab) workers, are crucially relevant for the wider Middle East economy and beyond: expatriates' contribution to their native country's GDP can exceed that of tourism. Similar dynamics connect economic reform and employment policies in the Gulf with South Asia.

The project's wider subject - economic reform in the South - is a key topic in contemporary debates. While most Middle East regimes, whether 'capitalist' or 'socialist', relied on a state-centred economy until the 1990s, all have since been driven to consider the need to open up to the private sector, not least under the impetus of international financial institutions and the WTO. Finally, the project promises a significant contribution to debates on Middle East authoritarianism, through enabling a better understanding of business elites' relations with the state.

By enhancing our understanding of the impact the changes in the rent-based welfare state model are having on the social contract in these states, the project promises a significant advance in UK-based research on the Gulf's political economy. It aims to do so while (1) fostering an international network of academic and policy-related expertise ; and (2) producing research outputs that are of direct practical importance to decision-makers and business in the UK, the Gulf and elsewhere, and engages those audiences in a two-way process.
(1) Given our comparative and multi-disciplinary approach, the direct beneficiaries of the research include the worldwide community of analysts focusing on contemporary Gulf politics or the political economy of reform and the link between economic change, social contracts and the political legitimacy and stability in the Middle East. The project is designed to stimulate synergies among experts looking at Middle East reforms, to develop new ideas on correlations between state-business relations and successful reforms. Concomitantly it aims to bring new perspectives to assessing the stability and durability of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East, by exploring the challenges to political legitimacy induced by the current structural reforms.
(2) Given the global impact of transformations in the Gulf, the project will be of direct relevance for UK, EU & US policy towards the Middle East. It will enable a better understanding of the changing economic balance of power and locus of economic decision in these countries, and help inform policy on addressing political and economic risk and, for UK and international business, on how to seize and improve opportunities in the Gulf. Its findings should also be relevant to GCC governments, civil society organisations and business groups, in illuminating the changing dynamics of decision power and its influence on the implementation and outputs of public policies.
For the instruments and outputs through which this impact will be realised, see Pathways to Impact.
 
Description The project has explored the evolution of the business elites in the six oil monarchies of the Arabian Peninsula since the early 2000s, their relations with 'state' and regime, their perceptions of policy-making and policies implemented in the Gulf and their roles in it. The economies of these monarchies are state-dominated economies, in which the private sector is highly dependent on the state owing to the role of nationalised oil resources. This has crucial implications for economic and political reform prospects.
The research funded on this grant discovered that:
* The business elites' main priority has been to capture benefits from the rentier state. This has led them to adopt the role of supporter of the regimes and ruling families in the Gulf monarchies. In essence, the extent to which business elites engage in policy debates is to protect their privileges (as illustrated by their attitude since the 2011 Arab uprisings). Due to the business elites' tremendous dependence on the state for revenues and contracts, and the state's key role in the economy (because of the state's massive ownership of stocks in listed companies), the distinction between business and political elites in the Gulf monarchies has become increasingly blurred. Informal networks (especially family and personal connections, but also business partnerships) are crucial in understanding the linkages and dynamics between regimes and business elites in the GCC.
* All GCC ruling families have moved much more extensively into business themselves over the past two decades. In several countries (Bahrain, Qatar, UAE), the business elites's economic role is now usually restricted to the one of subsidiary partner in projects decided and led by a few senior royals who have become the countries' most prominent business actors.
* Since 2014, GCC governments have all responded to lower oil prices by comparable reform announcements, including: 1. the cutting of state subsidies and government spending; 2. the implementation of labour market reforms focussing on the competitiveness of nationals compared to expatriate workers; 3. the privatisation of state-owned enterprises, health, education sectors and other government facilities (electricity, transport, water, etc.); 4. the increase of taxation starting with the introduction of value-added tax (VAT). The vast majority of the private sector, including business royals, opposed these timid reforms, which are strengthening to compromise their monopolies.
* The structural rivalry between the business elites and the broader population means that it is increasingly difficult for the government to promote and justify large-scale austerity measures in the public sector for the sake of sustainable development, while small merchant and royal elites preserve their privileges and are able to secure the flow of rents. In the context of the persistently low oil prices, growing tensions related to the definition of the new social contract and the content of structural reforms could provoke renewed popular frustrations and considerable turmoil.
Exploitation Route While the research initially intended to focus mainly on the business elites, by studying their role in affecting the orientation and the outcomes of the social and economic policies in the Gulf, one of the key findings of this research has been the increasing economic role played by ruling families. Like elsewhere in the Arab world, social and economic demands have been at the top of the agenda of opponents and critics of the regimes in all GCC countries since 2011: popular claims have been triggered by resentment at an elite usually perceived as busily safeguarding its privileges, together with a growing disparity between the happy few who have access to the bulk of the economic spinoffs and the vast majority who do not. As a consequence, the increasing personal involvement of ruling family members in business is likely to fuel this popular frustration towards a model perceived as increasingly predatory.
This dimension of the research needs to be dealt with and taken into account by UK and EU policy-makers and diplomats, but also by all UK business sectors and civil society actors dealing with the Gulf monarchies, and the Middle East more broadly.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Energy,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description N.a. (since the grant end date is in April 2016).
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Energy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Political Transformation in the Arab World (Seminar, Kuwait - March 2013)
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Gulf Research Centre (GRC) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Switzerland
Start 03/2013 
End 04/2013
 
Description Series of workshop/symposium in Japan (September 2014)
Amount ¥500,000 (JPY)
Organisation Utsunomiya University (Tokyo) 
Sector Academic/University
Country Japan
Start 09/2014 
End 10/2014
 
Description 2-day training on Energy challenges in the Middle East (Master's degree on Global Energy Transition and Governance, CIFE, Berlin, March 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture (2h) + research seminar (4h) as part of the module entitled 'International Energy governance and conflicts' led by Prof. Bafoil (Sciences Po Paris).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ie-ei.eu/Ressources/FCK/files/MASTER/ENERGY/CR_Master_Energy_2016-2017.pdf
 
Description 2-day training on energy policies and challenges in Arab countries (Master's Degree in Global Energy Transition and Governance, CIFE, Berlin, February 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture (2h) + research seminar (4h) as part of the module entitled 'International Energy governance and conflicts' led by Prof. Bafoil (Sciences Po Paris).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ie-ei.eu/Ressources/FCK/files/MASTER/ENERGY/CR_Master_Energy_2017-2018.pdf
 
Description 2-day training on energy policies and challenges in the Arab countries (Master's Degree in Global Energy Transition and Governance, CIFE, Berlin, March 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture (2h) + research seminar (4h) as part of the module entitled 'International Energy governance and conflicts' led by Prof. Bafoil (Sciences Po Paris).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ie-ei.eu/en/3/description_131-1
 
Description AGSIW Roundtable (Washington, USA, April 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact US policy-makers, businessmen and journalists attended this roundtable, which sparked discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description APL Workshop (IDE-Jetro, 16 September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards.

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Events/Apl/140916_apl.html
 
Description Academic workshop (Kyoto University, September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards.

Possibility for further collaborations between our research group and Japanese experts in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Brismes Conference 2015 (LSE, 24-26 June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://brismes2015.com/panel-4b-political-economy-in-the-gcc-sponsored-by-the-kuwait-programme-lse/
 
Description British Society of Middle East Studies Conference (London, June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentation sparking questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://brismes2015.com/panel-4/
 
Description Bruno Kreisky Forum public lecture on Oman (Austria, October 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited lecture at the Bruno Kreisky Forum (Vienna, Austria, 2017), which sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.kreisky-forum.org/cal/1806/2017_11/kalender.html
 
Description Business and Politics of Reform in Bahrain and Oman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Paper at the book launch event "The Politics of Business in the Middle East After the Arab Spring"

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/middleEastCentre/Events/events2013/steffen-hertog.aspx
 
Description Chatham House Roundtable (London, April 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A policy paper, summarising the discussion and findings of this roundtable, will be published in September 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.chathamhouse.org/event/state-business-relations-gulf-monarchies
 
Description Coffee talk (Qatar University, Doha, November 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation sparking questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.qu.edu.qa/artssciences/gulfstudies-center/coffee.php
 
Description Conference on Oman (Sorbonne University, Paris, December 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 80-100 undergraduate and postgraduate students, policymakers and general audience attended the event, which sparked discussion and increased interest in the topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://remondearabe.com/2018/11/28/conference-le-role-doman-dans-un-golfe-persique-tourmente/
 
Description Exeter-AUB workshop (Beirut, April 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Joint workshop held at the American University of Beirut (Lebanon) to promote research cooperation between Exeter and Beirut.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.aub.edu.lb/Events/Pages/EventDetails.aspx?ItemId=2603
 
Description FCO Roundtable (June 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards

See below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description FCO Roundtable (London, April 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A roundtable was organised at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (London) to present the key findings of the project to FCO and Cabinet officials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description FCO Seminar on Shii Politics (March 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 30 FCO and other government officials attended this workshop at the FCO, organised to inform British policy in the Gulf.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description FCO, Briefing seminar for new Ambassador to Bahrain (2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion afterwards

Increase in request for further information and cooperation with FCO
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description GRC Meeting (Cambridge, July 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Workshop proceedings (edited book).

see below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://gulfresearchmeeting.net/common/pdf/GRM2013-Web.pdf
 
Description Gulf Research Meeting (Cambridge, 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of a paper entitled 'Business Sector and Reform Policies in Kuwait' by Nosova at the Gulf Research Meeting, Cambridge (August 2016)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://grm.grc.net/index.php?pgid=MTg2&pid=MTY4MA==
 
Description Gulf Research Meeting conference (Cambridge, August 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentation sparking questions and discussion afterwards, leading to an edited book to be published in 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description International Conference 'Democracy, State and Informal Politics in Comparative Perspective' (Prague, Czech Republic, 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation sparking questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://upol.ff.cuni.cz/detail.php?xSET=lang&xLANG=&fIDSTRANKY=17&fIDCLANKU=1318
 
Description International Conference on state-business relations in a comparative perspective (British Library, London, April 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This conference held at the British Library examined the development of business elites in a global comparative perspective, and their relationships with local regimes and the "state." The workshop included 10 presentations that examined the impact of state-business relations on policy making in Egypt, Turkey, Qatar, Russia, Brazil, Poland, Cambodia, Angola and Gabon.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International Symposium on Comparative Studies of Islamic Areas (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, Sept 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of a paper entitled 'Authoritarianism and Strategies of Legitimation in the GCC Monarchies Post-2011: A Political Economy Perspective' by Valeri
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.waseda.jp/inst/ias/news-en/2018/07/30/1438/
 
Description International symposium (JETRO, Tokyo, 17 September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 160 Japanese businessmen and government officials attended an international symposium entitled 'Changing the Arab Gulf States: Monarchy, Expatriate, and Economic Outlook in the Gulf'.

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description International workshop on State-Business Relations in the GCC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A 2-day workshop held in presence of world specialists of the topic to present preliminary results and analysis and to discuss further steps. This workshop was the first step towards the establishment of a strong trans-national network of expertise.

Publication plans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://socialsciences.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/instituteofarabandislamicstudies/centres...
 
Description International workshop on energy security in the Gulf (Trondheim, Norway, Sept 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 10 international colleagues and postgraduate students attended the event, which sparked discussion and increased interest in further collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International workshop, Georgetown University (Washington, USA, April 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The two-day workshop examined the development of business elites throughout the Middle East and North Africa, and their relationships with local regimes and the "state." The workshop included thirteen presentations that examined the impact of state-business relations on policy making in Arab states and monarchies, including Syria, Egypt, Qatar, and Kuwait.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://ccas.georgetown.edu/state-business_relations_workshop
 
Description Interview, Asahi Shinbun (Japan, 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview, Associated Press (September 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://bigstory.ap.org/article/9a8df88278d744f5902381e544e37b48/oman-again-mideast-mediator-helps-fr...
 
Description Interview, Financial Times (London, March 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/8bdf1daa-aaba-11e3-be01-00144feab7de.html#axzz3zP2exM1l
 
Description Interview, Linkiesta (February 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.linkiesta.it/it/article/2014/02/27/oman-sultanato-silenzioso/19841/
 
Description Interview, Middle East Economic Digest (April 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.meed.com/sectors/government/muscat-committed-to-investment/www.meed.com/sectors/governmen...
 
Description Interview, The New Arab (London, February 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.alaraby.co.uk/english
 
Description Interview, The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia, 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.smh.com.au/world/could-oman-be-next-domino-in-middle-easts-arc-of-instability-20150412-1m...
 
Description Interview, Wall Street Journal (New York, November 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://online.wsj.com/articles/ailing-sultans-absence-leaves-oman-in-limbo-1416005909
 
Description Invitation to the Anti-Sectarianism Conference (Houston, USA, Dec 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 40 international colleagues and postgraduate students attended the event, which sparked discussion and increased interest in further collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited lecture (LSE, London, May 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards

n.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/events/events/2014/14-05-22-Omans-foreign-policy-under-Sultan-Qaboos.aspx
 
Description Invited lecture - University of Amsterdam (Sept 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Discussion about further research cooperations between University of Amsterdam and University of Exeter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://acmes.uva.nl/news-events/content2/lectures/2015/september/acmes-lecture-2---marc-valeri.html
 
Description Invited lecture - University of Oslo, Norway (Nov 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards (especially from oil practitioners and decision-makers attending the talk).

Discussion about further cooperation between Oslo and Exeter Universities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.hf.uio.no/ikos/english/research/center/islamic-and-middle-east-studies/events/friday-semi...
 
Description Invited talk (Sharjah, UAE, September 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description LSE workshop on research/teaching Gulf politics (London, March 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Workshop held at the LSE on researching and teaching Gulf politics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MESA (November 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://mymesa.arizona.edu/meeting_program_session.php?sid=e3eeba32dab035c90f556fa8f820e1cf
 
Description Media interview (Le Monde newspaper, July 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper interview regarding economic development in Salalah (Oman).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.lemonde.fr/festival/article/2017/08/12/a-oman-la-nouvelle-revolution-de-salalah_5171772_4...
 
Description Political Parties in the Middle East conference (Manchester, January 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentation sparking questions and discussions afterwards, and leading to collective publication in 2016-17
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_cHZMAbogIOYUxsbExXd0tNUUk/view?pref=2&pli=1
 
Description Seminar on hegemony and coercion (Paris, June 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/groupe/hegemonie-et-coercition
 
Description Sesamo Conference (Venice, Italy, January 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact N.a.

Decision to collaborate to a special issue of a peer-reviewed journal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sesamoitalia.it/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/CFP-SeSaMO-20151.pdf
 
Description The Sohar Paradox and the 'Omani Spring'. The Transformation of a Provincial Town into an Industrial Hub 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper at the 1st Gulf Studies Symposium on "Gulf Cities: Space, Society, Culture" organised by the American University of Kuwait (Kuwait, 22-24 March 2013)

Publication of a journal article in 2014 arising from this talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.auk.edu.kw/news/showNewsDetails.jsp?id=10880&ndate=1367136045799&newsType=E
 
Description University of Edinburgh lecture on state-business relations in the Gulf (Nov 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Public lecture which sparked questions and discussion afterwards, and some attendees expressed interest in coming to study at the University of Exeter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/literatures-languages-cultures/islamic-middle-eastern/events/imes-seminar-serie...
 
Description Working Group (Georgetown Qatar, October 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://cirs.georgetown.edu/research/gulf-security-main-page.html
 
Description Working group (Georgetown Doha, May 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and comments

Publication of an edited book
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://cirs.georgetown.edu/events-cirs/changing-security-dynamics-gulf-working-group-ii
 
Description Workshop on Regional/Global Dynamics in the GCC and Impact for the EU (Florence, EUI, April 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Publication of a policy paper in an e-book by the European University Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.eui.eu/SeminarsAndEvents/Events/2015/April/ConferenceontheGulfregionDomesticDynamicsandGl...
 
Description Workshop on regime change in the Middle East (Bergen, Norway, November 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Questions and discussion afterwards

N.a.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description World Congress of Middle East Studies (Ankara, Turkey, 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentation sparking questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014