The Rising Powers, Clean Development and the Low Carbon Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Geography

Abstract

The involvement of Rising Powers in clean energy systems in sub-Saharan Africa is often obscured by popular images of resource- and land-grabs. Seeking to engage more closely with a number of African states, businesses and communities in pursuit of diverse economic and political goals, the Rising Powers have increasingly come to incorporate renewable energy projects into their aid and loan portfolios in Africa. The depth, drivers, and outcomes of this activity are complex and contested in terms of both development and the implications for international energy and climate governance. This interdisciplinary research project seeks to examine how, why and to what extent China and Brazil are enabling the transition to low carbon energy systems in Southern Africa and to assess the consequent implications for the affordability, accessibility and sustainability of energy services in the region. The project will develop new frameworks for analysis in order to systematically compare the roles that China and Brazil are playing in facilitating the transition to low carbon energy systems in Africa and in particular will analyse how they are shaping the provision of energy services for productive uses (e.g. for cooking, lighting and mobility). Further, the project also seeks to assess the implications for the wider governance of energy and climate change at the local, national, regional and global scales. Empirically, the research project will seek to understand the Rising Powers engagement with African energy systems by looking at the range of actors, institutions, partnerships and policy-making processes involved and by identifying the key interests and beneficiaries being served by this co-operation. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and community-based participatory research methods the research will also explore the dynamics of the transitions being created and enabled by China and Brazil in Southern Africa, which are uneven and differentiated technically, socially and spatially. Across the region they have each championed different technology sectors and energy services. Their impacts are also socially differentiated in that patterns of Chinese and Brazilian investment, innovation and infrastructure development benefit particular groups of society and have differential impacts on poverty and livelihoods. Further, the impacts China and Brazil are having on low carbon transitions appear to be spatially differentiated, not just between different countries in sub-Saharan Africa but also between urban and rural spaces within these countries. Thus the project seeks to examine the consequences of these dynamics for key issues of energy access and affordability, and in relation to wider development strategies.

Addressing three of the ESRC Rising Powers programme objectives (namely 'sustainability and competitiveness', 'well-being and equity' and 'global governance') the project will thus produce detailed knowledge on the nature of Rising Power's investment, innovation and infrastructure development in the renewable energy sector in Southern Africa. It will also provide a detailed analysis of how South-South technology transfer and technology cooperation between the Rising Powers and Africa can work, including insights about the implications for innovation capacity, the appropriateness of specific technologies and the impact of current investment strategies which will be of particular use for government and the private sector, within and outside the region. Involving collaborations with UK government departments, with academic research partners in Brazil and China and with partners from the academic and NGO community in Southern Africa the project seeks to build capacity, to foster knowledge exchange and policy dialogue and to build cross-disciplinary and transnational research networks concerned with the role of the Rising Powers in facilitating low carbon transitions in sub-Saharan Africa.

Planned Impact

The likely beneficiaries include government, private and civil society organisations. It will be of relevance to international policy initiatives with which we have links, including the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, the Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st century, the Clean Technology Fund of the World Bank, the South African Renewables Initiative and the Scaling Up Renewable Energy Programme for low income countries. It will also be of potential benefit to national, local and regional governments in China, Brazil, Mozambique and South Africa, and the UK as they seek to develop the low carbon transition alongside improving access to energy services in the region. We have established links with DECC and DfID to ensure that the research reaches these critical decisions makers, and will work with our partners to communicate our research findings to the Ministry of Mines and Energy (Brazil), the National Energy Commission (China), the Ministry of Energy (Mozambique), the Mozambique National Fund for Rural Electrification, the Department of Energy (South Africa), the South African National Energy Agency and the Southern Africa Development Community.

The project will be relevant to companies working in the energy sector (generation, infrastructure development, renewable energy technologies, energy suppliers), including those based in China and Brazil (e.g. Yingli Solar, LongYuan Power Group, Camargo Correa), Southern Africa (e.g. The Clean Energy Company, Electricidade de Moçambique, Eskom) and UK companies who may engage in the emerging market for renewable energy in the region (e.g. Renewable Energy Systems, Sun Biofuels). It will be of interest to civil society organisations concerned with achieving affordable, accessible low carbon energy services, including international organisations such as Practical Action, Oxfam, Action Aid and South African and Mozambican organisations suc as the Mozambican Action Group on Renewable Energies and Sustainable Development (GED), Sustainable Energy Africa and the Sustainable Energy Society of Southern Africa (SESSA). We have links with several of these organisations, and will seek to extend our as set out in our pathways to impact plan. We will specifically seek to engage with local communities through our participatory action research. Over the medium-long term, we expect the project will deliver the following principle benefits:

(1) Enhanced capacity to deliver the low carbon transition and affordable energy services in Southern Africa. The project will enhance capacity by: (a) developing the research capacity and skills of two leading organisations; (b) enhancing the knowledge base of a wide range of stakeholders operating in the region; (c) developing a community-based planning toolkit to realise the benefits of low carbon energy technologies in conjunction with development goals.
(2) Contributing to improved energy service and investment decisions in Southern Africa. The project will create insights regarding appropriate technologies and business models for meeting the energy service needs of communities and ensuring a low carbon transition in Southern Africa. Given the rapid rate of growth of energy service needs, this has the potential to foster new forms of green growth in the region, which could have benefits to UK companies seeking to engage in this market.
(3) Fostering effective policy-decisions for the international community and UK Government. Project findings will provide an indication of the potential synergies and conflicts between strategies for ensuring affordable energy services and for developing low carbon energy systems. It will also identify where the UK can add value and differentiate its contribution from other interventions in the region on these policy issues, contributing to the UK's strategic priority of realising low carbon transitions in developing economies.
 
Description The project developed a new theoretical framework to systematically compare the roles that China, India and Brazil are playing in facilitating the transition to low carbon energy systems in Southern Africa by bringing together insights from diverse literatures on socio-technical transitions and the political economy of development. This consequently enabled us to develop a more dynamic understanding of the multiple drivers of renewable energy investments from the 'rising powers which, in the case of China, include excess domestic capacity, the domination of domestic markets by state-owned enterprises (SOEs), the 'pull' of favourable policy environments in Southern Africa and the finance and support of agencies linked to government. This framework was informed by a database on 150 renewable energy projects in Southern Africa which explored the relationship between variables such as the roles of 'rising power' countries in different types of renewable energy projects, the scale of projects and levels of grid connectivity and the nature of financing and type of technology.

We found that the 'rising powers' are not the determining or dominant actors in any low carbon development sector in either country and that attributing involvement or project ownership in renewable energy to any one 'rising power' can be problematic. Low carbon development in both countries encompasses a mix of stakeholders from the public and private, international and national, and political and economic spheres. Companies from 'rising power' economies are often bound up in wider networks of construction companies, renewable energy development companies, technology providers and national and international investment coalitions as renewable energy project finance and development is highly complex and shaped by global and transnational supply chains for technology.

There are embryonic attempts in both Mozambique and South Africa to diversify the energy mix as well as increased interest on the part of 'rising powers' in investing in renewable technologies and infrastructures but there are concerns in both contexts as to who will benefit from the new investment. Progress with renewable energies in both countries has been inconsistent and often socially and spatially variable whilst remaining somewhat marginal to a fossil fuel based 'business as usual' trajectory. There is, however, no single regime or system in each county's energy transition. Instead there are multiple and fragmented regimes across which different forms of energy transition are unfolding. Low carbon transition remains low on the agendas of most actors in both countries and concerns about the need for cheap and secure energy (for export or domestic consumption), energy access, new technology markets and the need to satisfy local political priorities are more prominent.

Problematically for policy, we found a mismatch between the way low carbon transitions are assumed to be emerging in the design of global policy instruments around technology, finance and carbon markets and the reality of how transitions are unfolding in Southern Africa where the key drivers of change lie beyond technology transfer or carbon markets, but do imply a key role for the state in generating and steering forms of public and private finance for its development needs.
Exploitation Route Project findings provide important insights for government and private sector organisations (both in the UK and in Southern Africa) regarding the appropriate technologies and business models which can provide the basis for meeting the energy service needs of communities and ensuring a low carbon transition in Southern Africa. In the UK, the research might be taken forward by government departments (principally DfiD, DECC and the FCO) with whom we have been in contact and UK businesses seeking to develop policy or investment strategies for Southern African energy systems.

They are also useful for government and business actors in South Africa and Mozambique to inform thinking about how best to attract low carbon investments in ways which align with national development objectives. These include the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources or the National Fund for Rural Electrification (in Mozambique) or the Department of Energy (in South Africa) along with the national electricity utilities such as Electricidade de Moçambique (EdM) and Eskom (South Africa) given their central role in rural electrification strategies. Our research would provide these agencies with an indication of the potential synergies and conflicts between strategies for ensuring affordable energy services and for developing low carbon energy systems.

Finally the findings will likely be taken forward by a number of national and international civil society organisations concerned with achieving affordable, accessible low carbon energy services, including international organisations such as Practical Action (a collaborating partner on the project).
Sectors Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other

URL http://community.dur.ac.uk/the.rising.powers/briefing-papers/
 
Description The Mozambican power utility Electricidade de Mozambique (EDM) has expressed an interest in discussing with us in further detail our policy recommendations concerning rural electrification. This dialogue in ongoing. EDM are currently looking at ways to accelerate electrification and at the various models and management structures that will enable that and we have made all the results from our research available to them and have had a number of meetings and conversations with them about our recommendations going forward. EDM has also recently been awarded World Bank funding for a study about how best to accelerate the electrification process and we have been invited to contribute to this study and to participate in the process. We have also been working with the Fundo de Energia (FUNAE) in Mozambique (which forms part of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources) to share our research findings and policy recommendations concerning the use of renewable energy technologies in rural areas. Specifically, we have been discussing with FUNAE the role that such technologies can play in enhancing rural electrification and we have shared with them our evaluations of some of the rural energy projects that FUNAE has been running (based on the site visits we undertook in phase two of our field research). At present it is difficult to know with certainty what impact this will have on FUNAE's work but conversations with them are ongoing and we hope to arrange follow up visits to meet with FUNAE and EDM officials in Maputo in the coming months. In both cases our research is being used by these Mozambican state agencies in their attempts to develop and operationalise strategies that will help meet international commitments around extending sustainable energy access by 2030. The UK renewables company Videre Global have also requested copies of the project database and all our project outputs in developing their company strategy for entering the Mozambican market. The project PI has also been invited to participate in an UKTI trade delegation due to visit Mozambique in May 2016 in which Videre Global will be involved. The project PI has had a number of conversations and meetings with Videre about the current state of play around renewable energy in Mozambique and this has had a direct impact on the development of Videre's commercial strategy for the Mozambican market. We have also been working closely with the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (in Dutch: Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - abbr. PBL). This is a research institute that advises the Dutch government on environmental policy and regional planning issues. PBL have recently been modelling different scenarios for energy futures in sub-Saharan Africa. Project Co-I's Harriet Bulkeley and Peter Newell attended and contributed to a PBL workshop in the Netherlands in September 2015 co-organised with the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The workshop explored the roles of different actors in Africa's energy transition and we presented results from our research. In this sense our research has had (via PBL) an impact on the development of the Dutch government's international environmental policy in relation to Southern Africa and we feel that this is a very promising avenue for further developing the impact of our research. We have also been working closely with three UK government agencies (Department of Energy and Climate Change, Department for International Development and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office) to share our research findings and policy recommendations as they relate to Southern Africa and our two case study countries in particular but it is too early to say with certainty specifically what impact this has had on the work of these agencies. Finally the UK based NGO 'Practical Action' (who acted as a consultant partner on our project) have been using our research findings (specifically those relating to Mozambique) to develop their country strategy and to enhance their policy dialogue with the Mozambican government. Again it is too early to say with certainty what the impact of this will be in the medium to longer term. Practical Action have also produced a short film and a series of technical briefing papers that draw on our research which will in due course be hosted on their website. Again in the longer term we anticipate that this will impact on the work of the organisation as a whole but specifically on their work around enhancing sustainable energy access in Africa. Further updates on the development of these different pathways to impact will be provided in due course.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Contribution to the formulation of a National strategy for the acceleration of electrification (developed by the national public utility Electricidade de Mocambique with World Bank support).
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Title Clean Energy Investment Database (Southern Africa) 
Description A database of clean energy investments involving the Rising Powers in Southern Africa (specifically in Mozambique and South Africa) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The database has been used to inform some of our early project publications and also our choice of field sites for the second phase of our data collection in Southern Africa. 
 
Description "Renewable energy manufacturing and South Africa's minerals-energy complex" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Lucy Baker gave a paper presentation on "Renewable energy manufacturing and South Africa's minerals-energy complex" at the annual conference of the International Initiative for Promoting Political Economy, Naples, 16-18 September 2014.

We were able to develop our connections with relevant European academic networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description '(Re)conceptualising energy Transitions in Southern Africa: the role of the 'Rising Powers'' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Marcus Power presented a paper to the Centre for African Studies at Edinburgh University on November 20th 2013 entitled '(Re)conceptualising energy Transitions in Southern Africa: the role of the 'Rising Powers''.

We were able to develop our connections with relevant academic communities in Scotland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 'Energy Transitions in the Global South: the Role of the "Rising Powers" in Southern Africa' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Joshua Kirshner and Lucy Baker presented a paper entitled 'Energy Transitions in the Global South: the Role of the "Rising Powers" in Southern Africa ' at the Royal Geographical Society's annual conference in London, 30 August 2013. Their presentation, based on a paper co-authored by the project team was on a panel entitled, New Energy Frontiers: Perspectives on the Global South.

We were able to disseminate some of our early project findings to relevant academic audiences in Geography.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://conference.rgs.org/AC2013/253
 
Description 'Governing transformation? Climate Finance in South Africa's electricity sector' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Lucy Baker gave a paper presentation entitled 'Governing transformation? Climate Finance in South Africa's electricity sector' at the Royal Geographical Society's annual conference in London, 30 August 2013. Her presentation was on the panel, New Energy Frontiers: Perspectives on the Global South.

We were able to disseminate our preliminary findings to UK academic audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 'Low carbon transitions in South Africa's minerals-energy complex? The case of the wind industry' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Lucy Baker presented a paper at the annual conference of the International Initiative for Promoting Political Economy Conference in The Hague (9-11 July 2013). Her presentation, entitled 'Low carbon transitions in South Africa's minerals-energy complex? The case of the wind industry' was on a panel organised by the working group on minerals-energy complex and comparative industrialisation.

We were able to disseminate some early project findings on South Africa to relevant European academic audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 'South Africa's minerals-energy complex: rising powers and renewable energy'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact On 3 July 2013 Lucy Baker gave a seminar at the University of Sussex's Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) on 'South Africa's minerals-energy complex: rising powers and renewable energy'. This was followed by an animated debate on definitions of political economy and its relevance for socio-technical transitions, and some of the differences between 'low-carbon' development and pro-poor energy.

We were able to present some early project findings on South Africa to relevant UK academic communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=3-jul-2013---lucy-baker.pdf&site=25
 
Description 'Towards energy transitions in Southern Africa' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented by Dr Lucy Baker in a workshop organised by the Business School and Global Change and Sustainability Research Institute at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa

We were able to make good connections with local academic communities and networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description (Re)conceptualising energy Transitions in Southern Africa: the role of the 'Rising Powers' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Our presentation was to the Earth Systems Governance conference on 'Access and Allocation in the Anthropocene' held at the University of East Anglia July 1st-3rd 2014. The presentation was given by Harriet Bulkeley, Peter Newell and Lucy Baker

We were able to develop our connections with relevant academic networks in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description A Transição de Baixo Carbono em Moçambique: Implicacões na Area de Gênero" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact "A Transição de Baixo Carbono em Moçambique: Implicacões na Area de Gênero" [The Transition to Low Carbon in Mozambique: Gender Implications] presentation at 'Approaches to Gender in the Energy Sector: Workshop on the Adoption of Renewable Energies,' Ministry of Women and Social Action and Ministry of Energy, Maputo, Mozambique, 8 October 2013. The paper was presented by Dr Joshua Kirshner.

Ministry officials asked for further information on specific topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description As Transições de Baixo Carbono na África Austral: Uma Visão de Moçambique" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact As Transições de Baixo Carbono na África Austral: Uma Visão de Moçambique" [Transitions to Low Carbon in Southern Africa: a View from Mozambique], Renewable Energy Research Group, Physics Department, University of Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique. The paper was presented by Dr Joshua Kirshner.

We were able to make good connections with local academic networks and with some key Mozambican government agencies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Bergen Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The talk led to various collaborations with other Norwegian academics and policy makers

After my talk the Summer Research Organisers reported the very positive feedback from postgraduate students and there were several requests from stusdents for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.uib.no/en/rs/bsrs
 
Description British Council Workshop, Istanbul 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation given by Professor Marcus Power on June 28th 2016 to a British Council funded workshop at Bogazici University in Istanbul, Turkey. The presentation was entitled:'The Rising Powers, Clean Development & Low Carbon Transition in Southern Africa'. The workshop was jointly organised by Durham and Bogazici Universities and was part of the Newton Fund's Researcher Links Initiative. The workshop was entitled 'Energy Infrastructure: Security, Environment and Social Conflict'. The audience was primarily made up of invited early career researchers and postgraduate students working on energy issues in the UK and Turkey. Members of the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources was also present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description COP21 Paris: Scaling Up Clean Energy Investment in Developing Countries 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Many policies and donor initiatives specifically target renewable energy and energy efficiency in low and middle-income countries, yet investment levels and business activity remain muted. The challenges of rapidly scaling-up private investment flows into clean energy go hand in hand with the breadth of actors influencing the picture worldwide and the risk profiles of each. Thus many efforts have emerged to better understand, mitigate and manage risk profiles and the finance and policy gaps that contribute to them - in effect de-risking markets.

REEEP, the Institute of Development Studies and ETH Zurich's Energy Politics Group co-hosted an official side event at the Paris COP21 to look at some of these ongoing efforts across the spectrum of stakeholders.

Our project Co-I Professor Peter Newell was invited to speak at this event. His presentation sparked considerable debate and discussion afterwards about how best to scale up clean energy investment and we were able to feed the results of our research into this process.

After the talk we received a significant number of requests from policymakers seeking further information about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.reeep.org/events/cop21-paris-scaling-clean-energy-investment-developing-countries
 
Description Clean Development and Low Carbon Transitions in Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Peter Newell and Josh Kirshner presented an overview and initial findings from the project to a high-level workshop in Brasilia on April 23rd hosted by project partner CGEE. It was attended by over 25 high-level people from across the Brazilian government as well as some leading private companies and researchers from the biofuels sector in Brazil. The event provided a valuable opportunity to receive feedback, stimulate debate and engage key stakeholders with the project.

Key stakeholders in Brazil have sought further information about our research project and key finidings to date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Durham Energy Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on June 22nd 2016 given by Professor Marcus Power to the Durham Energy Institute entitled 'The Rising Powers, Clean Development & Low Carbon Transition in Southern Africa'. The audience included a range of UK based policymakers, practitioners and industry representatives many of whom are part of the DEI's Advisory Board.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Emerging Powers and International Development 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Peter Newell (Co-I) and Lucy Baker (RA) contributed to a module entitled 'Emerging Powers and International Development' that is part of the MA in Globalisation and Development run by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex.
The module outline is as follows:

"Emerging economies are widely regarded as driving global growth. With growing economic strength, these economies are being referred to increasingly as Emerging Powers with global importance and influence. For some, they bring new international development voices and perspectives, perhaps distinct from those of Western Powers. Emerging Powers are engaged on their own continuing development journey, wrestling with inequities and exclusion. They are also important international development actors. This module explores the development trajectories of the Emerging Powers and the international development implications.

Key questions considered in this module include:

· Where do the Emerging Powers fit within the field of development studies?

· What can we explain and understand by 'development' as it is understood and practiced by these Powers?

· What are the economic, social and political costs and benefits associated with the various development processes?

· Where do these countries, as growing Powers, investors, consumers and donors engage with specific regional and global development regimes?

This module seeks to develop a sound understanding of the domestic and international development issues central to the emergence of these Powers. It explores domestic development implications of their high-speed growth. The module assesses their impact upon trade and investment and growing role as international donors.

This activity provided an opportunity for two project team members to communicate the key findings of our research and to contribute to a related postgraduate degree course followed by a large number of UK and international students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/study/pg/2014/taught/3915/30424#course
 
Description Emerging Trends in International Development Aid and Policy 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Professor Peter Newell took part in a workshop organised by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex entitled 'Emerging Trends in International Development Aid and Policy'. This event was attended by some of the leading national and international scholars concerned with development co-operation (including some colleagues also involved in projects funded by the ESRC Rising Powers programme).

We were able to discuss our project findings with some of the leading international scholars in the field and to discuss and debate the changing face of aid and international development co-operation. We were also able to engage with other 'Rising Powers' ESRC grant holders working on related themes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Energy, urbanization and postdevelopment in Tete, Mozambique 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented by Dr Joshua Kirshner to the 2014 Annual Meeting of the Association of Amertican Geographers (AAG) in Tampa, Florida.

We were invited to submit a paper from our research to a special issue of a relevant academic journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://meridian.aag.org/callforpapers/program/AbstractDetail.cfm?AbstractID=57886
 
Description Final dissemination workshop (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The title of our final UK dissemination workshop was 'Realising the Transition: Addressing the challenges of low carbon energy and development in Africa'. It led to further requests from a range of policymakers and practitioners for further engagement and information about the project.

We were invited by UK government organisations such as DfID and the FCO to give further seminar presentations. We were also invited to attend meetings with the Dutch Environmental Agency PBL who are interested in learning more about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dogweb.dur.ac.uk/the-rising-powers/realising-the-transition-workshop/
 
Description Final dissemination workshop (Mozambique) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The title of our final dissemination workshop in Mozambique was 'Energy and Development in Mozambique: Opportunities and Challenges' It was attended by around 100 participants and led to to multiple requests for additional engagement and information about the project including from several Mozambican NGOs and government agencies along with the cross-donor group the Energy Sector Working Group (ESWG).

The chair of the Energy Sector Working Group (ESWG) requested further input on specific areas of our research with a view to informing ESWG policy. Several members of the Mozambican Ministry for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Mozambique National Energy Fund for Rural Electrification (FUNAE) sought additional information about the research with a view to informing government policy on clean energy and rural electrification.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dogweb.dur.ac.uk/the-rising-powers/energy-and-development-in-mozambique-workshop/
 
Description Final dissemination workshop (South Africa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Our final dissemination workshop in South Africa was called 'What are the hurdles to renewable energy supply at scale in South Africa'. The event brought together members of the renewable energy industry, national and local government, civil society and academia to discuss the challenges and opportunities of renewable energy development in South Africa. The workshop led to many additional requests for further information about the project and sparked lots of questions and discussion afterwards.

After the event several representatives of the renewable energy industry, national and local government and civil society asked for further engagement and information about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dogweb.dur.ac.uk/the-rising-powers/renewable-energy-symposium-cape-town/
 
Description Finance in South Africa's renewable energy sector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards

After the talk several academic researchers asked for further details of the research and for copies of outputs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IDS Rising Powers June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The event was hosted by IDS (University of Sussex) and the World Centre for Sustainable Development (RIO+ Centre), and brought together a high profile panel of academic and policy experts to discuss the contribution rising powers such as China and Brazil are making to international development progress, the critical role they have to play in in shaping a post-2015 world and how this understanding can inform and accelerate progress around the ongoing SDG, FfD and climate change negotiation and implementation processes. Our presentation made a valuable contribution to these dicussions and sparked questions and discussion.

Several policy experts and academic participants requested further information about our research. The event was filmed and can be found here: http://www.ids.ac.uk/events/the-role-of-the-rising-powers-in-making-the-sustainable-development-goals-a-reality
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ids.ac.uk/events/the-role-of-the-rising-powers-in-making-the-sustainable-development-goal...
 
Description International Geographical Union conference, Beijing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of a paper entitled 'China and the export of China's clean energy revolution' at the 2016 annual congress of the International Geographical Union in Beijing, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.igc2016.org/dct/page/1
 
Description Low Carbon Development - short course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lucy Baker taught the three hour module on 'low carbon development' as part of a short course on climate change and development held at the University of East Anglia (UEA). This 2 week residential course is attended by professionals from multi-lateral and bi-lateral agencies, NGOs and government ministries from all over the world who seek to gain a greater understanding of the implications of climate change for developing countries and of the processes, issues and debates surrounding adaptation and mitigation. It is aimed at building the knowledge base of individuals who do not have an existing specialism in the field but who may have new responsibility or interest in the integration of climate change management into development planning, projects and policy.

With a particular focus on energy as a central component of low-carbon development, the module explored some of the key issues and tensions relating to low-carbon development, including: definitions of low-carbon development; financing; energy poverty; energy policy and political economy; and the contradictions between 'sustainable' and low-carbon development. Lucy Baker's presentation also drew on project case study materials from South Africa.

A weblink to the UEA short course is here: http://www.uea.ac.uk/international-development/dev-co/professional-training/climate-change-and-development

An NGO asked for a further presentation to be arranged.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.uea.ac.uk/international-development/dev-co/professional-training/climate-change-and-devel...
 
Description Mining and Extractive Urbanism: Postdevelopment in a Mozambican Boomtown 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Dr Joshua Kirshner gave a presentation entitled 'Mining and Extractive Urbanism: Postdevelopment in a Mozambican Boomtown' in the 'Geology for Global Development' seminar series at Durham University. The date for this was Wednesday 22nd October.

We were able to communicate early project findings from our research in Mozambique to a group of Geologists at Durham University concerned with development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.dur.ac.uk/geography/news/futureevents/?eventno=22220
 
Description Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We have been working closely with the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (in Dutch: Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - abbr. PBL). This is a research institute that advises the Dutch government on environmental policy and regional planning issues. PBL have recently been modelling different scenarios for energy futures in sub-Saharan Africa. Project Co-I's Harriet Bulkeley and Peter Newell attended and contributed to a PBL workshop in the Netherlands in September 2015 co-organised with the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The workshop explored the roles of different actors in Africa's energy transition and we presented results from our research. We have subsequently received requests for further information and engagement from PBL.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.pbl.nl/en/
 
Description Renewable energy and emerging markets in South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Research Seminar and roundtable discussion at the University of Witwatersrand (South Africa) entitled 'Towards Energy Transitions in Southern Africa'. The paper was presented by Dr Lucy Baker.

We vwere able to make good connections to local academic networks and to local policy and practitioner communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description SPRU blog post 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The blog post led to lots of additional queries about our research from various people in several countries

Adter the post we were invited to produce similar posts for other online fora
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/sussexenergygroup/author/lhb26/
 
Description The Conversation Africa blog post (Mozambique 1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This is a blog post written by the project PI on the challenges of rural electrification in Mozambique. Following publication I was contacted by the Chair of Mozambique's National power utility (Electricidade de Mocambique, EDM) with a view to further discussing policy recommendations and we are in ongoing dialogue about this now.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/mozambique-needs-a-community-driven-approach-to-electrification-50213
 
Description The Conversation Africa blog post (Mozambique 2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This was a blog post written by project RA Dr Joshua Kirshner on India's involvement in extractive ventures (coal and oil) in Mozambique. It received 36,000 reads in a fortnight, making it the most-read article produced by anyone at the University of York (where Dr Kirshner is now based), achieving more than twice the number of readers received by the second most-read article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/india-is-helping-mozambique-meet-its-energy-needs-in-good-ways-and-bad-5...
 
Description The Conversation Africa blog post (South Africa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The post was late picked up and reprinted by the CNBC Africa media outlet: http://www.cnbcafrica.com/news/special-report/2015/06/11/south-africa-renewable-energy-electricity/

After publication of the post we received lots of additional queries for further information about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/south-africas-renewable-energy-plan-needs-a-close-eye-42395
 
Description The Conversation blog post (climate commitments) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This is a blog post written by Professor Peter Newell on the theme of 'How to ensure governments stick to their Paris climate commitments'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/how-to-ensure-governments-stick-to-their-paris-climate-commitments-50354
 
Description UCD Dublin Global South Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I was invited to give a presentation at an event called 'Global South Day' organised for MSc students at University College Dublin. This was on February 22nd 2018 and was attended by 150 students. The presentation focused on China's role in energy transitions in Southern Africa and drew directly from our 'Rising Powers' project findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ucd.ie/geography/newsandevents/recentevents/globalsouthday/
 
Description Understanding The Rising Powers Contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This event, hosted with the World Centre for Sustainable Development (RIO+ Centre), brought together a high profile panel of academic and policy experts to discuss the contribution rising powers such as China and Brazil are making to international development progress, the critical role they have to play in in shaping a post-2015 world and how this understanding can inform and accelerate progress around the ongoing SDG, FfD and climate change negotiation and implementation processes. A video of the event (which featured project Co-I, Professor Peter Newell) is available from the URL below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ids.ac.uk/events/the-role-of-the-rising-powers-in-making-the-sustainable-development-goal...