Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems Development in China and Russia

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Alliance Manchester Business School

Abstract

The advance of "Rising Powers" - including Brazil, China, Russia, and India - promises to be one of the major forces in global economic, political and social development in the 21st Century. Shifts in the distribution of technological and innovative capabilities underpin these changes. During the 20th Century, the United States along with Western Europe, Japan, and other established economies, led in the application of science and technology in fostering economic growth. In the present century, the Rising Powers are seeking to move beyond low-wage or resource-based strategies for development by expanding their science and technology capabilities. Critically, progress on this front requires not only building up R&D capacities and commercial applications, but also developing appropriate governance systems and institutional and corporate structures, building financial, human capital, management and related complementary assets, facilitating technological entrepreneurship, fostering demand and accessing international markets, and ensuring environmental, societal and political sustainability. If these countries are successful, it is likely that there will be major implications for the established developed countries. These include new opportunities through expanded markets, growth of talent pools and inventiveness, and prospects for scientific collaboration in addressing global environmental and societal challenges. The implications also include potential threats in terms of loss of technological leadership, increased international trade competition, shifts in the balance of military capabilities, and competition for scarce resources. Yet, if the Rising Powers (or at least some of them) fail in their efforts to develop and broadly apply advanced scientific and technological capabilities to further their economic and social development, growth expectations will be unmet or will proceed wastefully and societal tensions might rise, contributing to internal and international political instabilities.

This project aims to address scholarly, management and policy issues related to the causes, sustainability and competitiveness of advanced technological development in driving the growth of Rising Powers, and in so doing also explore associated issues of governance and equity. Our technological focus will be on the emerging domain of nanotechnology. Our Rising Power country focus will be on China and Russia, with significant consideration of not only internal developments but also the interactions and implications of the growth of nanotechnology in these two countries for the UK and other developed and developing economies. The project will be undertaken by an interdisciplinary team, involving units of the University of Manchester in partnership with colleagues from China and Russia, with attention to capacity development, building a new research network, fostering training, and engaging users.

Planned Impact

The beneficiaries of this research will include business, government, universities and research sponsors, business intermediaries, local innovation organisations, researchers, and other stakeholders interested in the development of nanotechnology and other emerging technologies in rapidly growing economies and implications for the UK and other countries.

Management insights will be developed and disseminated of value to enterprise managers, including those in advanced technology-oriented start-up and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), to business support programmes, and to those who undertake investment, financial, and procurement activities with innovative SMEs. Policy insights will be developed and disseminated to UK national (e.g. BIS, TSB, NESTA) agencies and local organisations (e.g. Local Enterprise Partnerships). Our work, especially on governance issues associated with the advancement of Rising Powers technological capabilities, will be of interest to organisations engaged in responsible innovation in the UK and elsewhere. We anticipate that interest in our findings will extend beyond the UK, including to the European Commission, the OECD, the US, China, Russia, and other countries. Methodological techniques (for developing business and policy intelligence about emerging technology development in Rising Powers such as China and Russia) will be of benefit to users in the academic and non-academic worlds, including other researchers, students, management analysts, and consultancies.

The user groups will benefit from the research if the findings from the project stimulate changes in management strategy and policy awareness and actions that result in (a) improved competitive strategies for UK-based advanced technology enterprises, especially as related to Rising Powers such as China and Russia; and (b) improved understanding of research priorities, institutions, policies, barriers, opportunities, and innovation system dynamics in China and Russia leading to additional research and innovation linkages between UK organisations and companies with these two countries. Major changes in management strategy and policy take time and effort; the contributions of this project to such changes will be through new knowledge generation, the international comparative elements (learning is often facilitated through comparison), the development of clear and actionable recommendations, the new information sources and methodologies developed, training activities and the development of a new cadre of young researchers (in the UK linked with Chinese and Russian peers) with research capabilities on international emerging technology and governance issues, and the active dissemination of results to the user groups directly (workshops and events) and indirectly (papers, media, blogs, web presence, and linkages with other organizations). The project will result in a significant deepening of collaboration between three leading innovation research institutes (in Manchester, Beijing and Moscow) providing a base and network for further research, training, and policy analysis.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Infographic Panels on Graphene Research 
Description Two infographic panels (developed by Philip Shapira, Abdullah G?k and Chao Li) formed part of the hands-on exhibition Graphene: A New Age at the Universeum in Gothenburg, Sweden. The exhibition was unveiled following an opening ceremony at the Universeum on June 24, 2014, during the European Graphene Flagship's Graphene Week 2014 in Gothenburg. The exhibition is now open to the public. Details for the whole exhibition are available at: http://www.universeum.se/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1286&Itemid=691. Pictures of our own contribution to the exhibition can be viewed at: https://www.dropbox.com/s/sm5kmugwe6rhfkf/Graphene-Exhibition-2014-06.pdf 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The Universeum is Scandinavia's largest Science Centre, with more than one-half a million visits annually by children, young people and adults. The invitation to develop the infographics panels opened up new networks and ways of communicating complex information, and hopefully will lead to other informal education activities. This engagement also strengthened relationships with graphene researchers at the University of Manchester, through whom the initial invitation was forwarded. 
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/sm5kmugwe6rhfkf/Graphene-Exhibition-2014-06.pdf
 
Description The emergence of Rising Powers global players in key technologies, but also the need to look more closely at the differences between them, can be seen in China and Russia. Both of these countries have seen significant changes in their innovation systems over the past decades. From a historical perspective, these changes show significant parallels between the two countries. About 30 years ago, both countries had similar levels of investment into research, numbers of scientific publications and comparable institutions leading on research, in particular the respective national Academies of Science. Both countries have undergone periods of market reform and developed new strategic goals for their innovation policies that continue to show some similarities. For instance, both China and Russia have seen significant policy attention and government investment in nanotechnology, with business, research institutions and governments coming together in new ways to undertake research.
Despite these similarities China appears to be more clearly on a path to becoming a world-leading country on innovation than Russia. While China has continuously improved its performance on a range of innovation indicators, Russia now lags behind. One reason seems to be that China has been more successful than Russia in overcoming the path dependence on old institutional structures of innovation shaped under central economic planning, such as administrative practices and top-down oversight. Chinese researchers are stretching institutional boundaries, for instance through involvement in start-up enterprises, and China has developed greater openness to internationalisation and talent migration. In contrast, Soviet-style institutional arrangements continue to characterise the Russian research landscape. Research activities remain strongly centralised in Moscow and around the Russian Academy of Sciences, with relatively little exchange between scientists and the private sector. Russia also promotes internationalisation of research, but mainly through cooperation with Russian scientists based abroad, with less return migration of expatriate researchers. This appears to have limited Russian success in the field of nanotechnology, as reflected in a lower growth of scientific papers and patents in the subject area compared to China or India.

Detailed key findings from the project include the following:
• Government performs central roles in the innovation systems in China and Russia (as in other Rising Powers economies). There are multiple quasi-governmental institutional forms and large-scale large-funding technological programmes. Not all of these programmes are effective, but collectively they do boost technological and economic growth.
• Investment in R&D is a policy priority, particularly in China where R&D investment in both public and private sectors has increased dramatically in recent years. In Russia, the R&D system is undergoing transformation, with greater roles being assigned to leading research universities.
• Public policy and funding support accelerates entry into emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, next generation manufacturing, and synthetic biology. This is most evident in China, where the policy system more flexibly adapts to new technological priorities.
• Our analysis of research and innovation systems in both countries has revealed some indigenous forms that do not exist in Western countries, but function relatively well in fostering innovative development (such as CAS in China, or the RVC in Russia).
• There are evident national (and regional) characteristics of innovation systems and policies in each country. While Chinese firms learn from Western experiences, Chinese innovation strategies have differences, including co-relationships with government and the availability of financing. In Russia, there is a new focus on indigenous industrial and innovation policy and rebuilding of innovation capabilities.
• While large national companies are powerful in both China and Russia, there is a rise in the role and influence of highly innovative SMEs in emerging and advanced technologies. This is especially evident in China. There are regional dimensions to the emergence of SME clusters, with the most innovative entrepreneurial SMEs most evident in eastern Chinese city-regions (including Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen) and in selected Russian city-regions (Including Moscow and St Petersburg).
• National and sectoral systems of innovation have distinct and not necessarily complementary policy demands. They do not co-exist with one another effortlessly, and complementarity between them is not assured.
• Universities are evolving in their academic entrepreneurship efforts into a much broader and far-reaching set of initiatives, which incorporate a greater number of actors and stakeholders. In fostering academic entrepreneurship, path plasticity (the ability to be flexible and stretch across path dependencies) is important and is seen most strongly in China, with some early evidence in Russia about new approaches to academic innovation entrepreneurship.
• Processes of foresight, road mapping and planning remain strong in science and technology domains in both China and Russia. While regulatory frameworks are developed in both countries, as yet early consideration of societal aspects and responsible research and innovation in emerging technologies is not explicitly embedded.
• Innovation policy assessment processes in both China and Russia are often fuzzy and evaluations are not clearly defined or undertaken. There is a lot of experimentation and institutional entrepreneurship, especially in China but increasingly in Russia.
• Developing early stage researchers and innovators is key to fostering innovative knowledge-based systems. China has been able to do this strongly, with significant effects in research and innovation outcomes. Russia has suffered from a relative weakening in its support for early stage researchers and innovators, but is now paying policy and programme attention to this aspect.

For the UK, the evolution in Rising Power innovation systems and their engagement in new technologies presents new collaboration opportunities although it also heightens competition for leadership and global market success in emerging and advanced technologies. This is especially the case for China, which is seeing the largest growth in emerging technologies. There are opportunities for collaboration in nanotechnology as well as in other areas of innovation, including synthetic biology, bioinformatics, medical therapies, digital manufacturing, and green goods technologies. These opportunities are also present in Russia and other Rising Powers economies, at a lesser but still significant scale. UK collaborative efforts need to be founded on an understanding of respective national strategies in these technologies and on national and international governance approaches. Exchange and mobility among researchers and innovators is key. As the UK navigates a period of reconfiguration in its migration, scientific collaboration, research funding systems, and in its trading relationships, it will be increasingly important to consider how UK researchers and innovators can continue to be supported in, and motivated to engage with, international collaborations, including with Rising Powers economies. This includes ensuring that the UK is open to scientific exchange and mobility, as well as how more UK-based researchers and innovators can gain experience and networks in Rising Powers economies. As Rising Powers economies globalise, enhancing, the attractiveness of the UK for long-term knowledge-intensive foreign inward investment from these countries will be vital, as will corresponding efforts to support mutually-beneficial UK investment in innovative sectors in Rising Powers economies. UK universities are, and can be, bridges in forging these relationships, as seen in programmes, campuses and joint ventures between UK universities and Chinese counterparts, and in the growth of international research students within the UK. There are latent opportunities for UK small and medium-sized innovative enterprises (SMEs) to engage with innovative businesses and markets in China and, to a lesser extent (given current sanctions and restrictive internal policies) with Russia. However, UK SMEs would benefit from greater collaborative support, from UK public, private and third-sector organizations, to tackle these Rising Powers markets.
Exploitation Route Our findings have been communicated through workshops, briefs, blogs, social media, and peer-reviewed papers. Additionally, we are contributing in a leadership role to a further major international policy conference on the Rising Powers in Manchester in June 2017. The findings we have developed will be of use for for policymakers, business, researchers, and other intermediaries interested and involved in innovation systems change in emerging economies such as China and Russia. Insights about implications for the UK are of particular interest given increased UK needs to develop and strengthen trade and investment relationships with Rising Powers economies and to ensure the competitiveness of the UK knowledge-intensive economy. Specific findings related to particular technologies, including nanotechnology and graphene, are useful for those involved in research and innovation in these technologies, and also offer insights for the latest round of emerging technologies including synthetic biology.

As a result of this project, strong links were established with other projects and colleagues in other ESRC Rising Powers projects. This has led to new initiatives, in particular with the PI of one of the other projects and the leader of the ESRC Rising Powers network to develop work on global value changes and sustainable value creation.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other

URL http://www.risingpowers.net/projects/innovationsystems/
 
Description Our findings have been shared with policy analysts, companies, technology entrepreneurs, consultants, and third-sector organisations in the UK, as well as in China, Russia, and elsewhere. We have held focus groups and workshops in Manchester (on innovation and the Rising Powers), and in Beijing, Shanghai, and Moscow. We will share our findings at the major international conference on the Rising Powers that will be held in Manchester in June 2016. Our specific findings related to emerging nanotechnologies and graphene research and innovation have attracted attention from companies, consultants, and other stakeholders. Nesta has been interested in this work and has helped to disseminate it. Some of our graphene research and innovation work has been translated into Chinese. Attention has also been paid to the webscraping and data analytics tools that we have developed.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Education,Electronics,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Centre for Synthetic Biology of Fine and Speciality Chemicals
Amount £10,300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M017702/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 11/2019
 
Description Hallsworth Fund (K. Nhadvi, P. Shapira, R. Sinkovics)
Amount £25,692 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Description High-Tech Industrialism in Asia: Socio-Economic Institutions and Innovation Strategies
Amount £13,840 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 03/2017
 
Description Next Production Revolution: Institutions for Technology Diffusion
Amount € 9,000 (EUR)
Organisation Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 12/2015 
End 12/2016
 
Description Innovation Co-Lab 
Organisation Beijing Institute of Technology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution (1) We are designing an infrastructure for collaboration across the three institutions capable of facilitating research in science, technology and innovation analysis using large-scale databases and joint collaborative teams. We are using available systems and freeware to design this collaborative framework, which involves building shareable datamining capabilities and datasets, methodologies, and communication linkages. (2) We are extending and leverage research and research training capabilities, allowing (a) data-intensive international research projects in science, technology and innovation analysis to be undertaken more rapidly and effectively; and (b) providing new opportunities for research training of junior researchers and doctoral students. (3) We are also develop a model of collaboration that will be sustainable and scalable, and which can serve as a model for other China-US-UK strategic collaborations, also engaging additional partners.
Collaborator Contribution The other two partners have collaborated similarly through participation in collaborative research projects; exchanges; training; workshops & conferences.
Impact Outcomes from this collaboration include 2010, British Council seed funds; 2012 - involvement of HSE Moscow as an associated partner; 2012 - award of ESRC support for collaborative projects including the ESRC project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems; 2013, Designation of the Co-Lab as Innovation Base (Beijing Municipal Government); 2010-present, student exchanges; Conferences (IM2012, Beijing); Atlanta (2013); Academies (2013, 2014) and 2014 International Summer School on Emerging Technologies (Manchester). Collaboration is multidisciplinary, involving economics, policy, political science, management, information science, innovation studies, and other disciplines.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Innovation Co-Lab 
Organisation Georgia Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution (1) We are designing an infrastructure for collaboration across the three institutions capable of facilitating research in science, technology and innovation analysis using large-scale databases and joint collaborative teams. We are using available systems and freeware to design this collaborative framework, which involves building shareable datamining capabilities and datasets, methodologies, and communication linkages. (2) We are extending and leverage research and research training capabilities, allowing (a) data-intensive international research projects in science, technology and innovation analysis to be undertaken more rapidly and effectively; and (b) providing new opportunities for research training of junior researchers and doctoral students. (3) We are also develop a model of collaboration that will be sustainable and scalable, and which can serve as a model for other China-US-UK strategic collaborations, also engaging additional partners.
Collaborator Contribution The other two partners have collaborated similarly through participation in collaborative research projects; exchanges; training; workshops & conferences.
Impact Outcomes from this collaboration include 2010, British Council seed funds; 2012 - involvement of HSE Moscow as an associated partner; 2012 - award of ESRC support for collaborative projects including the ESRC project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems; 2013, Designation of the Co-Lab as Innovation Base (Beijing Municipal Government); 2010-present, student exchanges; Conferences (IM2012, Beijing); Atlanta (2013); Academies (2013, 2014) and 2014 International Summer School on Emerging Technologies (Manchester). Collaboration is multidisciplinary, involving economics, policy, political science, management, information science, innovation studies, and other disciplines.
Start Year 2010
 
Description From Rising Powers to Interdependent Futures: Final Conference, ESRC Rising Powers Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Final Conference, ESRC Rising Powers Programme, held over 3 days in Manchester, UK, 21-23 June, 2017, includes early career researchers presentations, and panels involving all Rising Powers projects (including the one I direct). Involved as steering committee member of conference, assisted in successful added Hallsworth funding application, and organized panel on rising powers and innovation. Academics, early career researchers, and policymakers invited. Key aspect is to consider next steps and changes in policy and academic research, given developments related to globalisation, shifting international power relationships, and the UK's own position v. Europe and the rest of the world, including with emerging economies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.risingpowers.net/
 
Description Manchester Doctoral Students Workshop on Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Doctoral students from the University of Manchester presented their PhD research at the Manchester Doctoral Students Workshop on "Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures", held at the Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, Manchester Business School on December 10, 2013. The workshop brought together researchers associated with the ESRC Rising Powers Research Programme projects at the University of Manchester "Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems Development in China and Russia" (PIs: P. Shapira, A. Harding, I. Miles) and "Standards and the Governance of Global Production Networks" (PI: Khalid Nadvi, Institute for Development Policy and Management), and the Centre of International Business Research at MBS (Rudolf Sinkovics).

As a result of the workshop, students (and researchers) from the two Rising Powers projects at Manchester were much more familiar with each other's research themes and topics. Additionally, doctoral students received significant feedback on their doctoral research topics and approaches.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Manchester Forum on Data Science, Tech Mining and Innovation (November 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop stimulated understanding of novel methods for analyzing technological innovation, including through use of bibliometrics and unstructured big data.

Improved recognition of community of scholars and practitioners in the UK and other European countries engaged in data and text mining in science, technology and innovation analysis and policy domains, leading to informal and formal follow-up activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Manchester Forum on Data Science, Tech Mining and Innovation (October 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Manchester Institute of Innovation Research in conjunction with the Innovation Co-Lab, the Project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems Development in China and Russia, the VP Institute and Search Technology organized the 2015 Manchester Forum on Data Science, Tech Mining and Innovation. The Forum brought together active users of data science, tech mining, modelling and visualization methods who are applying these methods to science and innovation policy, technology transfer, technology intelligence, and technology and innovation management. A scientific advisory committee was associated with the Forum. The Forum was proceeded by open hands-on training sessions related to data mining and innovation. 43 participants attended from multiple countries, with about 20 presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Manchester International Summer School on Emerging Technologies, June 8-13, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A major educational aim of Year 2 of the project was to offer an international training programme for early career scholars interested in emerging technologies and innovation systems change. We accomplished this by successfully organizing and delivering the Manchester International Summer School on Emerging Technologies, June 8-13, 2014. The Summer School provided advanced training, researcher development, and networking opportunities for early career researchers interested in real-time research and innovation systems assessment, new methods, frameworks of responsible research and innovation, and policy development for transformative emerging technologies. Among the emerging technologies we considered graphene and synthetic biology. The Summer School was attended by 29 doctoral and early career researchers (selected from more than 80 applicants) from 11 countries. Several of the student participants also came from our Rising Powers project partners (BIT, HSE, & Georgia Tech) and from Manchester. About a dozen faculty, from the UK, elsewhere in Europe and the US, served as instructors.

The Summer School provided participants with enhanced capabilities to conceptualize and use advanced methods of analysis to probe and anticipate research and innovation trajectories and their outcomes. Particular attention was given to strategies for linking research questions,
methods, and results with broader concerns related to research, management, and policy in emerging and convergent technology
domains including science networking, commercialisation, and responsible research and innovati
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://bit.ly/MISET2014
 
Description Policy Seminar: Innovation and the Rising Powers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Held October 6-7, 2016, Manchester. The broad theme of the workshop was Rising Powers and global innovation, with a focus on how China, Russia, India and Brazil engage with innovation and with what implications for these countries, the UK, and other economies. Researchers from among the several Rising Powers projects that have a focus on innovation aspects presented their findings, including through presentation of policy briefs, reflections upon policy implications, and engagement with participants. Consideration was given to cross-cutting implications and to further publication and other dissemination possibilities. The workshop was organised by the project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems Development (PI: P. Shapira) in conjunction with the ESRC 'Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures' network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.risingpowers.net/medialibrary/docs/How%20do%20Rising%20Powers%20Shape%20Global%20Innovati...
 
Description Principal Investigators Workshop 'Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The first Principal Investigators workshop of the 'Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures' programme brought together around 20 researchers associated with the 12 research projects funded under the programme as well as representatives of the ESRC. All of the projects were represented with one or more team members, out of which 9 were the Principal Investigators. The Project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems was represented by the PI (P. Shapira) and by and by other team members.

A video was produced in which the PI briefly explained the Project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems. This video is publicly posted. http://www.risingpowers.net/videoplayer/?source=YouTube&id=BPUwlQxe6mU
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Project Kick-Off Workshop: Project on Emerging Technologies and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems Development in China and Russia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Kick-Off Workshop reviewed the project's approach and methods, considered key elements of the innovation systems in the target countries, discussed the study; propositions, and updated and refined the project workplan. A doctoral student/junior research panel was included, with participants from all partners. Training plans were also discussed. The workshop involved research team partners from the University of Manchester (Manchester, UK), the Higher School of Economics (Moscow, Russia), the Beijing Institute of Technology (Beijing, China), and associates from Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta, USA).

After the workshop, team members from all four countries involved had improved co-understanding and familiarity, and this was particularly used to leverage activities for the first year of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Reversing the International Flow of Innovation: the Chinese Market as a Source of Global Innovation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This open seminar was hosted at the Manchester Institute of Innovation Research. The keynote presenter was Dr Simone Corsi, Research Fellow - Department of Entrepeneurship, Strategy and Innovation at Lancaster University Management School, and Programme Manager - Lancaster China Catalyst Programme. Recognizing China as the one of the most prominent emerging economies, the seminar looked at how the Chinese market can influence the innovative activities of foreign MNCs and become a source for global innovation. Four case studies of foreign MNCs with R&D activities in China were presented and analyzed. These confirm an evolutionary path of foreign R&D activities in China from an exploitative to an explorative nature, although we move away from a framework where host countries affect MNCs' subsidiaries innovation activity based on their technological richness and diversity stepping into a context where Chinese subsidiaries can be considered as interpreters of local market characteristics, whose inputs configure unique innovation sources. The results showed how the Chinese competitive context can trigger global innovation if stimuli are properly received at both local and corporate levels. Finally, insights for future research agenda were provided.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures' - Doctoral and Early Career Researchers Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This workshop brought together a group of early career researchers, including PhD students and post-docs, associated with the 12 research projects funded under the ESRC 'Rising Powers and Interdependent Futures' programme. Doctoral students associated with the project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems were among the student presenters. The PI (P. Shapira) chaired one of the panel sessions.

Doctoral students participating and presenting at the workshop were able to see the broad scale and scope of the ESRC Rising Powers research programme; and learn about the methods and approaches used by others, useful for comparison. All students received feedback on their presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Roundtable Forum on Innovation Systems Transformation in China 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This Forum considered issues of innovation systems transformation in China and the development of China as a rising innovation supervisor. Keynote invited presentations: Science & innovation with Chinese characteristics: prospects for the next five years (James Wilsdon, Sussex University); Nanopolis, Suzhou Industrial Park, and China's Silicon Valley (Richard Appelbaum, University of California, Santa Barbara and Rachel Parker, Science and Technology Policy Institute); and Science, Technology, and Innovation in China: Progress, Problems, and Prospects (Cong Cao, University of Nottingham).

An improved and shared understanding of innovation development in China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Seminar - Reversing the International Flow of Innovation; The Chinese Market as a Source of Innovation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This seminar at the Manchester Institute of Innovation Research was led by Dr Simone Corsi, Programme Manager, Lancaster China Catalyst Programme, Lancaster University. A new typology of reverse innovation was put forward, identifying multiple patterns of innovation where emerging economies play an important role and framing the new concept within a global innovation setting. Four case studies of foreign MNCs with R&D activities in China were presented and analyzed. The results showed how the Chinese competitive context can trigger global innovation if stimuli are properly received at both local and corporate levels. Insights for future research were discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Update for fieldwork participants (September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact An electronic update, sent by email, to all interviewees and other participants in the Project on Emerging Technologies, Trajectories and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems Development in China and Russia. The update (c. 1050 words) was sent in Chinese to Chinese participants and in Russian to Russian participants. It updated them on the status of the project and subsequent developments since first rounds of in-country fieldwork in Spring of 2014. This sharing of this update allowed us to maintain contact and maintain goodwill.

We anticipate that the goodwill generated by this information update will assist us in 2015 in making further information and interview requests and in obtaining referrals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014