Rising Powers, Labour Standards and the Governance of Global Production Networks

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Environment, Education and Development

Abstract

China, India and Brazil are amongst the leading economies on the world stage today. China is known as the 'factory of the world'. Brazil has grown rapidly in recent years with its exports of primary commodities while Indian firms have acquired some of our best known British brands (from Tetley tea to Jaguar and Land Rover cars). The continuing dynamism and resilience of these emerging economies, or Rising Powers, is underlined by their sustained growth rates during the current, and on-going, global recession. These countries are now seen by many as the new engines of global growth. As they continue to flex their economic muscle, China, India and Brazil are challenging existing forms of global economic governance and power. This has important consequences for us in the UK, in our ability to compete in the global economy, and in terms of the welfare and wellbeing of our workers and consumers. This project is interested in understanding whether, and how, these Rising Powers are changing the 'rules of the game' and with what consequences.

We focus on one particular set of 'rules' that have become increasingly important to global trade relations over the past two decades - global labour and social standards. Western, and especially British, consumers are increasingly made aware of how the foods they eat, the clothes they wear and the goods they consume are produced, and under what conditions workers produce such goods. For many leading Western brands ensuring that their widely dispersed global suppliers conform to accepted norms on good working conditions, such as the exclusion of child workers, not using forced labour, and providing a safe working environment, is important for protecting the integrity and image of their brands and avoiding consumer boycotts. Meeting such globally recognised labour standards has become an important agenda in the world of global production relations. However, with the growth of leading manufacturing firms from the Rising Powers and the rapid expansion of middle class consumption within these economies there is a persistent fear that there will be a 'race to the bottom', marked in particular by declining global labour standards and diminishing concerns with working conditions in global production. We intend to examine this. Our hunch is that rather than a race to the bottom, we are likely to observe a new era of more differentiated labour and social standards as the Rising Powers take an increasingly more active role in the global economy. This will have consequences not only for Rising Power states, workers and consumers, but also for us in the UK and OECD economies.

We aim to study this through research undertaken in Brazil, China, India, the UK and the EU. We focus our attention on a range of actors. First, we will study the ways in which large firms (including the new multinationals) as well as small and medium enterprises from the Rising Powers engage with, and shape, labour and social standards in their systems of globalised production arrangements. Second, we will investigate how civil society bodies in these countries affect this process and if and how they shape local attitudes and norms on working conditions. Third, we will examine the ways in which governments in the Rising Powers define and implement labour standards within the domestic economy as well as how they interact in leading global institutions where many such international standards are formulated. Fourth, we will identify what these developments imply for the ways in which globalised production arrangements will most likely be organised in the future and how subsequent generations of global labour and social standards are likely to be shaped. Finally, we will consider what the implications are of the dynamism of the Rising Powers, and the ways in which they interact with global labour and social standards, for other developing countries, and in particular for us in the UK and for the competitiveness of UK and EU firms.

Planned Impact

This project fits within the ESRC's strategic objective of understanding how changing global dynamics will affect 'economic performance, sustainable growth and a fair society for the UK'. It also falls within the wider, and growing, policy and academic concerns in the UK on how the Rising Powers, especially China, India and Brazil, are impacting on the governance of global trade and the consequences of the associated shifts in global power that arise from this.

Through the earlier ESRC funded Rising Powers and Global Standards Research Network we have already begun to systematically explore this agenda. In doing so we have undertaken preparatory activities through the network grant process leading up to this ESRC stage two application. We mounted regional workshops in China (Hong Kong), Brazil (Rio), India (Delhi) and UK (Manchester) involving constituents such as labour unionists, activists, academics, industry leaders and government representatives. Our proposal is thus strongly influenced by the close scrutiny of key beneficiary groups and target audiences and is considerably refined. Building on successful outcomes from these workshops (scoping papers, case studies and industry feedback) we will further strengthen academic and practical payoffs of our research agenda.

We identify three distinct categories of beneficiaries from this research. These are: First, the academic community - in the UK, within the Rising Powers and also internationally. This includes in particular academics working in the cognate disciplines of development studies, business studies, economic geography and international politics. The PI and CoIs have already developed extensive links with networks of researchers through the Just Supply Chains research network organised by MIT and Stanford, the Capturing the Gains network run out of Manchester and Duke Universities and through the network activities undertaken by the RPGS.

Second, the policy community - in international organisations (such as the OECD, ILO, UNIDO, World Bank, and the WTO), in international, regional and national NGOs, trade unions and civil society organisations (including bodies such as OXFAM, the ETI, the Clean Clothes Campaign, the Asia Monitor Resources Centre), in key UK policy departments (DFiD, BIS, FCO), and governments in the Rising Power states as well as in OECD countries. Through the earlier workshops of the RPGS we have already canvassed a great deal of interest in our proposed research from a range on international agencies (such as ILO, UNIDO and the World Bank) and from NGOs (such as the AMRC and CCC).

Third, private sector firms - including emerging MNCs and SMEs from the Rising Power states as well as large firms from the UK, EU and other OECD economies. This project will seek to build links through the research team's extensive contacts within UK, international and RP firms to inform and involve them in the research and its findings.

The beneficiaries of this research will gain in a number of ways. They will benefit from the empirical research and insights into the workings of global production networks led by Rising Power large lead firms, the implications for SMEs, the role of civil society organisations within the RPs and the nature of international, national and regional levels of state regulation on labour and social standards in production. They will also be informed by the implications of these developments for the competitiveness and organisation of OECD led GPNs and for the future evolution of global labour and social standards. Finally, the academic community, in particular, will gain from the conceptual and methodological advances that the project will provide through its integration of the international business (IB) and GPN frameworks and the associated teaching resources that will be generated from this conceptual advance.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This project sought to understand how firms, civil society and the state within the Rising Power economies of Brazil, China and India were engaging with, and shaping, global labour and social standards in production. It undertook research on a total of 75 leading multinational firms from the Rising Powers (China - 23 firm case studies, Brazil and India 26 firm case studies each) including detailed primary interviews with some 30 firms. Interviews were undertaken with over 25 key leading civil society (trade unions, NGOs, key informants) actors in each country location as well as interviews with relevant public sector actors in Brazil and India. Detailed analysis was undertaken of secondary documents addressing public regulatory frameworks on labour and social standards pertaining in each country. In the EU interviews were carried out with five leading international MNCs operating in these countries, with officials of key UN bodies (ILO, UNCTAD and WTO) and with the EU Secretariat. Work was also done on the ways in which rising power economies were negotiating trade agreements, and the role of labour and social standards within such negotiations. This aspect of the study focused on the European Union-India Free Trade Agreement which has yet to be completed. In order to address small and medium sized enterprises and their engagement with social and labour standards, distinct studies were undertaken in the Chinese garment cluster of Changshu, and in the Indian garment cluster of Tirruper and the jewellery cluster of Surat. A focused study was undertaken on the long-standing negotiations between India and the European Union on a free trade agreement (and the role of social and labour standards within this). Finally, two distinct PhD projects were completed directly linked to the project. One studied the development of the Trustea labour and social standards developed by international and Indian corporate, NGO and public actors for the large and growing Indian domestic tea market. The other studied the role of the Chinese state and of business associations in the development and implementation of CSC9000T, the Chinese labour and social standards for the textiles and garment sector.
Exploitation Route For academics the project has already generated over twenty publications, including five journal special issues. Further outputs detailing firm level evidence from Brazil, China and India; on the role of civil society organisations in shaping the discourse on labour standards in Rising Power countries; and on southern sustainability standards (building on the work undertaken by the two PhD students on the project) are currently under review or being prepared for publication. Findings from the project were presented at key international fora geared to academic and policy communities working on labour, social and sustainability standards in Brazil (at the Ethos 360 Conference, Sao Paulo, 26-27 Sept 2017), China (7th International Industrial Relations Conference, 28-29 Nov 2015, Renmin University, Beijing) and India (India and Sustainability Standards Conference, 16-18 Nov 2016). Dedicated workshops presented key findings to selected academics and policy actors in Hong Kong, 15-16 Sept 2017 (jointly with City University of Hong Kong) and Sao Paulo, 25 Sept 2017 (jointly with University of Sao Paulo and the Fundacion Getulio Vargas). A UK workshop targeted findings to UK and EU based commercial, NGO and public sector policy actors, in particular to consider how social and labour standards need to be shaped for southern end markets, especially within the Rising Powers.
Drawing on the work undertaken in this study, and more broadly through the Rising Powers and Integrated Futures programme, four new grant funded research activities have emerged:
First, the PI was awarded an EU H2020 Marie Curie International Fellowship award on 'SUSTINNO: Sustainability Innovations in Global Production Networks- Addressing socio-ecological challenges in the global economy' (H2020 MSCA-IF-2017- proposal # 799041). This award supports a named post doc - Dr Annika Surmeier. The award, for Euro 203,200, runs for 3 three years from October 2018. This study investigates how southern lead firms and service providers - specifically in South Africa, develop and build social innovation strategies into their business models and supply chains.
Second, the PI is part of a team that was recently awarded an ESRC-GCRF Decent Work grant on 'Decent Work and Regional Value Chains in sub Saharan Africa' (ESRC reference: ES/S000453/1). This study, which will run from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020, builds on the work undertaken in the Rising Powers grant on the growing emergence of South-South trade and regional value chains. It focuses on understanding how Southern lead firms (in this case South African and Kenyan retailers and supermarkets) organise their regional supply chains and growing regional end-markets, the influence of regional trade agreements on these sourcing and retailing patterns, and the implications that arise for decent work and the implementation of ethical and labour standards geared to regional markets in sub-Saharan Africa. The project is being undertaken jointly with the University of Cape Town and the University of Nairobi. Furthermore, the project has an innovative take on impact by bringing in the Ethical Trading Initiative as a co-Investigator on the study, involved in all stages of research, so as to develop an effective ethical trading platform for sub-Saharan Africa.
Third, the PI has been awarded internal funding from the University of Manchester, bringing in colleagues from the Alliance Manchester Business School (including Co I Sinkovics) as well as the School of Environment, Education and Development and the Fundaçion Getulio Vargas (FGV) in Brazil, to develop a new research network and research agenda on global value chains and the sustainable development goals. Two seed corn network development grants were awarded, that ran from Aug-Sept 2018 and then from Jan 2019-July 2020. The total sum awarded through internal resources is just over £16,834.
Fourth, Co I Sinkovics was successful in obtaining funding from the British Council Newton Fund for a Research Links workshop grant aimed at strengthening early career researchers through a workshop held jointly with the Fundaçion Getulio Vargas (FGV) in Sao Paulo, Brazil focusing on the subject of Global Value Chains and the Agenda 2030 in Brazil. The funding for this workshop grant is £19,020.
Sectors Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other

URL http://www.risingpowers.net/projects/rising-powers-labour-standards-governance-global-production-networks/
 
Description This project ended in Sept 2017. During the final year of the project a number of presentations of core findings were made to non-academic audiences in Brazil, India and Hong Kong, China as well as in the UK. Research undertaken via this project has been presented to wider policy audiences in India and China and been reported in local and UK media. In addition, as part of the impact strategy linked to the project a number of non academic outputs were produced. These include a series of policy briefs and the publication of a widely circulated policy impact document. The findings of the project were also reported in the media in Brazil (in Globo) and in the UK (Evening Standard and Huffington Post). In addition the PI (Khalid Nadvi) was asked to comment on on-going issues around labour conditions in global value chains to the media. Finally a series of video and audio podcasts were produced linked to the project and widely disseminated through the project website and via social media (twitter and facebook). The project produced a series of publications geared to the academic community. This included five distinct journal special issues (Oxford Development Studies, 2014; International Business Review, 2014; International Labour Review, 2014, Critical Perspective on International Business, 2015 and Global Networks, 2018) and a large number of individual articles (over 15) in key journals that cut across the disciplinary boundaries of economic geography, international business and development studies. Linked to the project a an edited volume was produced (edited by CoI Prof Keshab Das) on 'Globalisation and Standards: Issues and Challenges in Indian Business', Springer 2016, plus three book chapters. Workshops were held with academic and policy audiences at the Watson Institute, Brown University, US, Sept 2015; University of Cambridge (Sept 2016), and Manchester June 2017. PI and members of the team presented findings at key international conferences including India Sustainability Standards Conference, New Delhi Nov 2015 and Nov 2016; 7th International Industrial Relations Conference, Beijing, Nov 2015; Ethos 360 Sustainability Conference, Sao Paulo (Sept 2017), and ISEAL Alliance Global Sustainability Conference Sao Paulo Sept 2017. Media outputs included of a radio series 'Rising Powers Special: The BRICs Uncovered' which involved five episodes with key individuals speaking in an interview format with Stephen Sackur (from BBC Hardtalk). These episodes included Lord Jim O'Neill (on the BRICs), Yukon Huang (on China, Alex Schwartsman (on Brazil), Kaushik Basu (on India) and Sergei Guriev (on Russia). These episodes were recorded as podcasts, and are available on the University of Manchester Global Development Institute website and on Stitcher, iTunes, Soundcloud, Castbox, RSS, tunein and most other leading podcast services http://blog.gdi.manchester.ac.uk/rising-powers-special-the-brics-uncovered/ Media coverage of the project have included interviews of the PI and team members in Huffington Post (July 2015), Evening Standard (Nov 2016). The Rising Powers website (www.risingpowers.net) has had over 21,889 viewers with a total of 16,671 unique viewers. The twitter profile (@powers_rising) tweeted 664 times during the project and was followed by 316 followers. It uploaded 51 photos and videos of various Rising Powers events, workshops and conferences. In August 2017 the project ran an online social media campaign to further highlight emerging research outputs. This included promoted You Tube videos. This resulted in a total of 227,827 views of the You Tube videos, 183,482 Facebook engagements. During this campaign, we gained the following data via Twitter: Impressions 141100; Link clicks 80; Retweets 47; Likes 115; Video Views 51100/ From Facebook we obtained the following date on the social media campaign: Engagement 183482, Likes 999, Comments 36, Reactions 5329, Shares 256, Views 176727, Likes + reactions 6328 In total, for the period of August 2017, there were a total of 227,827 views of YouTube videos outlining the findings from our 'Rising Powers' and Global Labour Standards project. The primary aim of our research has been to engage with wider policy audiences, including civil society actors, firms as well as government agencies, especially in Rising Power countries (most notably in Brazil and India and in Hong Kong - it has been much more difficult to access such audiences within China) to draw attention to our findings and to help shape thinking on the agenda on labour standards and the governance of global production networks within Rising Power economies. The uptake of this agenda has been most notable in Brazil where there has been enthusiasm to use the results to further profile Brazil's relatively stronger position on labour standards and labour standards enforcement. APEX Brasil, the government's main export promotion agency invited the PI and CoI to present results from the project in May 2018 at an invitee only meeting held in Brasilia. This brought together many of the leading Brazilian government policy actors. Similarly in India, through our engagement with project partner Center for Responsible Business we have effectively engaged with Indian civil society, corporate and state actors especially through the annual India Sustainability Standards Conference. Finally, at the international level PI Nadvi was invited by the ISEAL Alliance to join their Stakeholder Council and has been engaging directly with ISEAL members on labour and sustainability standards in emerging economies.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Stakeholder Council Member- ISEAL Alliance
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.isealalliance.org/about-iseal/meet-team/governance
 
Description GCRF Decent Work: Decent Work in Regional Value Chains: Promoting Public-Private Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa
Amount £694,336 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/S000453/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2020
 
Description Strategic Investment Research Fund (SIRF), Faculty of Humanities, University of Manchester
Amount £57,828 (GBP)
Funding ID FB00222 
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description Sustainability Innovations in Global Production Networks- Addressing Socio-Ecological Challenges in the Global Economy - European Commission Horizon 2020 - Marie Curie Individual Fellowship - Global Fellowship
Amount € 203,200 (EUR)
Funding ID H2020 MSCA-IF-2017 799041 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Title Rising Power Lead Firms - Secondary Data Firm Case Reviews 
Description This database provides detailed firm case reviews for Rising Power lead firms. I draws on secondary data (company reports, CSR and sustainability reports, and published journal and media articles). The case review is organised around firm history, business models and firm engagement on corporate social responsibility, labour and social standards. This database will be made publicly accessible. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database is currently being used for further analysis of primary and secondary evidence collected via the project. The database was not used for impact activities. 
 
Description 7th International Labour Regulations Conference Renmin University Beijing Nov 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The project co-hosted the 7th International Labour Relations Conference 'Regulating Labour Relations and Government Labour Policy' at the School of Labour and Human Resources, Renmin University, Bejing 28-29 Nov 2015 The conference attracted Chinese and international scholars working on labour regulations and labour organisation. The project presented a panel at the conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Ethos Institute 360 Sustainability Conference - Sao Paulo 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Ethos 360 Sustainability Conference is Brazil's leading conference on sustainability standards. It is organised by the Ethos Institute which works directly with businesses and with standards bodies in promoting sustainability and labour standards in Brazil. Ethos supported the project by providing a number of key informant interviews and making introductions to corporate respondents. The project was an academic partner of the 2017 Ethos 360 Conference. The project presented a panel at which interim findings from the study, including findings from the Brazil research (presented by Prof Afonso Fleury, University of Sao Paulo), the India research (Prof Rudolf Sinkovics, University of Manchester) and an overview of the project's core findings (by Prof Khalid Nadvi, University of Manchester) were given.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ce2017.org/cesp17
 
Description Evening Standard 8 Nov 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in Evening Standard 8 Nov 2016 titled ' Tougher, not Weaker, Labour Laws are Key to Upping Productivity' - drew on press release following Nov 2016 workshop at Cambridge University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.standard.co.uk/business/hilton-tougher-labour-laws-are-key-to-upping-productivity-a339041...
 
Description Globo write up on Rising Powers project findings - from Ethos 360 Sustainability Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Globo is Brazil's leading media publication. This article which was published on the online edition of Globo on 27 Sept 2017 came out of the presentation made at the Ethos Conference in Sao Paulo and summarised some of the key findings from our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.epocanegocios.globo.com/Empresa/noticia/2017/09/como-empresas-brasileiras-encaram-respons...
 
Description Huffington Post - Myth of the Ethical Shopper- July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As PI on the project Nadvi was interviewed extensively for an extended piece in the Huffington Post on Labour Standards in Global Production, and the implications arising from emerging markets in the Global South. The article drew on on-going research and extensive quotes from Nadvi.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://highline.huffingtonpost.com/articles/en/the-myth-of-the-ethical-shopper/
 
Description India Sustainability Conference 2015 - New Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This annual conference is organised by the Centre for Responsible Business (CRB), New Delhi. CRB was a research partner on the project. CRB's Chairman Dr Bimal Arora also worked as a Research Associate on the project.The project co-hosted a dedicated round-table on Indian Multinationals and their internationalisation strategies and their engagement with sustainability standards. The round table also considered collaborative sustainability initiatives in India and globally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sustainabilitystandards.in
 
Description India and Sustainability Standards Conference 2016 - New Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This is India's largest annual sustainability conference.It is organised by the Centre for Responsible Business in New Delhi. CRB was a research partner on the project and worked closely with the research team in implementing aspects of the India research. Dr Bimal Arora who was a Research Associate on the project is also the Chairman of CRB. The India sustainability conference is a high profile event,targeted at businesses, industry, non-governmental organisations, Indian government bodies working on standards as well as international standards organisations (ISEAL, Rainforest Alliance, Forestry Stewardship Council etc.). The conference lasts over 3 days and involves an opening plenary day followed by two days of parallel sessions organised around themes and sectors followed by a closing plenary. Opening plenaries include presentations by leading national level Indian government Ministers. A side 1.5 day academic conference was also held prior to the conference. Our project participated in the plenary sessions, hosted a panel, participated in the academic conference held alongside this event and gave four presentations on aspects of the research. These were by: Rudolf Sinkovics (Social value creation of MNEs as constraint alleviation), Natalie Langford (Trustea: an Indian Sustainability Standard), Peter Knorringa (Civil Society in the 'Rising Powers': a comparison) and Keshab Das (Indian Civil Society, Trade Unions and Standards). The keynote presentation was heard by the full plenary audience of the conference (@500 people). Participation at the side academic conference was around 80 academics and researchers as well as key government and local and international NGO officials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sustainabilitystandards.in/speakers-2016/
 
Description International Workshop: Labour in Rising Powers - China in comparison with India and Brazil, City University Hong Kong, 15-16 Sept 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact This two day international workshop was co-hosted with the City University of Hong Kong (CUHK). CUHK was a research partner on the project with CoI Chris Chan based at CUHK. The workshop brought together leading academics from Hong Kong, mainland China, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia and the UK working on labour and labour standards in China. To provide a comparative perspective evidence from India was also presented by CoI Prof Keshab Das and from from Brazil by the PI (Khalid Nadvi) and coI Prof Peter Knorringa. The workshop in particular considered the implications of the shift from the Hu Jintao regime (under which a series of pro-worker labour reforms were initiated) to the Xi Jinping regime (which has actively suppressed grass roots labour activism) for labour standards, labour organisation and labour agency in China. The conference had academics and postgraduate students as its primary audience but also brought in a range of civil society actors based in Hong Kong working on labour organisation and labour activism in mainland China. Presentations from project members included:
o Khalid Nadvi: 'Rising Power Firms and Global Value Chains: Implications for Governance and Standards'
o Peter Knorringa: 'Civil Society Organizations, Implementation of Global Standards and the Shaping of Southern Standards: Comparative Evidence from Brazil, China and India'
o Keshab Das: 'Trade Unions in Times of Global Production Networks: Reflections from India'
o Xue Hong: 'The Missing Link in Industry Upgrading: A Case Study of Garment Cluster in Changshu, China'
o Corinna Braun-Munzinger: 'Local Business Associations and Sustainability Standards in Global Production: the CSC9000T Initiative in the Chinese Apparel Sector'
The proceedings from the conference are currently being reviewed for publication in a special issue of the Journal of Chinese Studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at Suzhou Business School Xian-Jiatong Liverpool University, Suzhou 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of interim research findings on Rising Powers project to faculty and postgraduate students at Suzhou Business School, Xian Jiatong Liverpool University, Suzhou
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to staff and students East China Normal University Shanghai 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to faculty and students at Dept of Geography, East China Normal University, Shanghai.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Rising Powers and Labour Standards - presentation at Watson Institute, Brown University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a presentation to postgraduate students (Masters and PhDs) and Faculty at the Watson Institute, Brown University. The Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs is one of the leading US schools on area studies and international development, with a strong focus on India and China. The presentation was geared around interim findings from the Rising Powers and Labour Standards project, and to give an overview on the wider ESRC Rising Powers programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.watson.brown.edu/events/2015/khalid-nadvi-rising-powers-labour-standards-and-governance-g...
 
Description Rising Powers project presentation to students at FGV-EBAPE Rio de Janeiro, Sept 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a lecture to postgraduate students (Msc and PhDs) studying at the School of Business Administration, Economics and Law (EBAPE), Getulio Vargas Foundation in Rio de Janeiro. EBAPE is Brazil top postgraduate school in business, economics and law. The presentation was geared to providing key findings from the Rising Powers project to students and to open up a wider discussion on the implications of these for the Brazilian context.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ebape.fgv.br/en/node/5553
 
Description Social Media: via Twitter (@Rising_Powers), Facebook and YouTube 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We used two platforms for social media: (a) Twitter and (b) Facebook

Twitter: The project established a twitter profile in February 2014 called Rising Powers (@powers_rising) in order to engage with a broad public audience. It tweeted 664 times over the duration of the project, followed 248 twitter accounts and was followed by 316 Followers. Uploaded 51 photos and videos of various Rising Powers events, workshops and conferences.
In August 2017, we ran an online social media campaign in order to further highlight our research outputs. Specifically, we promoted YouTube videos (via social media) which had been made in order to document our final 'Rising Powers' and Global Labour Standards workshop, held on the 19-20th June in Manchester. During this campaign, we gained the following data via twitter:
Impressions 141100
Link clicks 80
Retweets 47
Likes 115
Replies 4
Video Views 51100

During this campaign, we gained the following data via Facebook
Engagement 183482
Likes 999
Comments 36
Reactions 5329
Shares 256
Views 176727
Likes + reactions 6328

In total, for the period of August 2016, there were a total of 227,827 views of YouTube videos outlining the findings from our 'Rising Powers' and Global Labour Standards.
Below is a table listing the specific targeted videos and audiences for our facebook and twitter campaigns. Approximately 50 simultaneous adverts were run during the month of August 2016, and these were targeted at specific sets of audiences and countries. For example, for the '21st-23rd June 2017' video separate adverts were run for stakeholders including US policymakers, US academics, US business insiders etc and then the same for the other countries. This ensured very specific targeting to relevant groups of stakeholders.
We produced a series of short videos and podcasts. These were viewed widely from our website and through YouTube
Short Video/Podcasts Countries Audiences
Standards in Global Value Chains, with Prof Raphael Kaplinsky. UK Academics, NGO
The Rising Powers, UK and Brexit: Professor Alan Winters UK Academics, Policy Makers, Businesses
What do the Rising Powers mean for policymakers Brazil, US, India, Russia, South Africa, UK Policy makers
A 2017 perspective for academics Brazil, US, India, Russia, South Africa, UK Academics
21st - 23nd June 2017 Brazil, US, India, Russia, South Africa, UK Policy makers, Academics, Business insiders, NGOs, Tech
19-20th June Labour standards Overview Brazil, US, India, Russia, South Africa, UK Policy makers, Academics, Business insiders, NGOs, Tech
Governance of Labour Standards in the Rising Powers Brazil, US, India, Russia, South Africa, UK Business
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.risingpowers.net
 
Description Website www.risingpowers.net 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The website address for our project is http://www.risingpowers.net/projects/rising-powers-labour-standards-governance-global-production-networks/. This website will continue to be active even though the project has finished, and we will continue to update the website with regards to research outputs.
Website statistics were divided within two distinct periods. From July 2014 to January 2017, there was a total of 20,906 page views on the Rising Powers website, including 15, 921 unique page views. From the period November 2017 to January 2018 there was a further 983 views, of which 840 were unique page views.
Overall, the website was visited by 21,889 viewers, with a total of 16,761 unique viewers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.risingpowers.net/projects/rising-powers-labour-standards-governance-global-production-net...
 
Description Workshop on 'Labour Standards and Labour Law Reforms in the Rising Powers: Trends and prospects for public and private regulations', University of Cambridge, 5-6 Sept 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This workshop brought together researchers from two projects linked to the ESRC Rising Powers programme (Nadvi, PI, Manchester study and Deakin, PI, Cambridge study) to present interim findings from their research. The study based at Cambridge had focused on regulatory reforms in the Rising Powers, and their implications for labour standards, while the Manchester study investigated the role of Rising Power firms and civil society actors in engaging and shaping the discourse on labour standards and corporate social responsibility within the Rising Powers. This workshop attracted academics linked to the two projects, a range of leading UK based academics working on labour issues in the Rising Powers and policy specialists from the International Labour Organisation. The workshop was also opened to postgraduate students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop on Sustainability Standards and the Sustainable Development Goals - FGV and Univ of Sao Paulo, Sept 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a one day workshop organised jointly with the Sustainability Centre, Fundacio Getulio Vargas (Sao Paulo) and the University of Sao Paulo. The workshop aimed to present the emergent findings from the project with respect to Brazil, as well as comparative findings from China and India. The primary audience for the workshop were academics, postgraduate students, policy makers, state and central government officials, representatives from the ILO office in Brasilia. The opening keynote at the workshop was given by the Deputy Finance Minister of the Government of Brazil (Mr Mansueto Almeida) who had initially worked on the project and the earlier Rising Powers and Global Standards research network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.pro.poli.usp.br/risingpowers/