A Full House: Developing A New Socio-legal Theory of Global Gambling Regulation.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Kent
Department Name: Kent Law School

Abstract

Studies of gambling law reform provide insights for policymakers and academics concerned with the regulation of risk and speculation. Previous studies of gambling law and political economy have largely taken casinos and lotteries as the key research sites. This project seeks to make a substantial contribution to empirical and theoretical debates about gambling and the regulation of speculation by using a different lens: bingo.

Although bingo is a markedly under-researched site, it is a globally significant and extremely profitable gambling form, played in many countries and increasingly popular online. As a key site for working class women's gambling, bingo reveals the resilience of gendered and class-based gambling cultures: in the UK commercial bingo halls outnumber casinos by a factor of five, and they employ more people than casinos do. Bingo is also enmeshed with law and political economy in distinctive ways. For example it is a key site for charity fundraising, and even when played commercially it is associated with community and social welfare more often than risky profit-making. Two pilot studies conducted by the PI have revealed that this legal and social position, at the intersection of risk and welfare, poses significant challenges for regulators, and raises important questions about how the governance of speculation is related to concerns about social cohesion and non-profit activity. The proposed research will address those regulatory challenges, and provide answers to those key questions.

Using four case studies of bingo regulation (England and Wales; Canada; Brazil; and online play offered to residents of EU countries), the research will achieve two objectives:

1. provide a systematic account of how bingo is regulated, to ascertain the key legal and policy challenges involved, and to make recommendations to policymakers, the gambling industry, third sector stakeholders, and academics;

2. advance knowledge of a key site in global gambling liberalization debates, one which allows us to explore how the governance of risk and speculation are gendered, and related to concerns about charity and welfare.

The selected cases offer considerable variation in regulatory approach, including criminalization of bingo (Brazil), regulation through charity law (Canada), and regulation as both commercial activity and charity fundraising (UK). Moreover on-line gambling is a site of on-going legal contestation in the EU, leading to legal reforms in multiple jurisdictions. This will be the first project to track and analyse different approaches to bingo regulation, in cyber- and traditional space, and to use this knowledge to generate recommendations about how speculation and welfare are best regulated in contemporary market economies.

Research will involve mixed doctrinal and socio-legal methodologies including 1) review of the current legislation, licensing guidance, and case law shaping regulation of the sector, and 2) interviews with key stakeholders. Except in Brazil (where play is illegal), researchers will also observe bingo games to experience how rules and regulations are interpreted and enforced. Analysis will develop codes, concepts, and themes from the collected data, including via the use of textual analysis software.

The proposed research offers benefits to three UK user groups: policymakers, the bingo industry, and the third sector. Several key stakeholders have agreed to participate, and some were involved in the two pilot studies. User-group dissemination activities include a project website, a user-group workshop, a final report containing policy recommendations, and summaries of key themes raised in interviews aimed at non-academic beneficiaries in each jurisdiction. The project will also result in six academic publications, including a sole authored monograph and four articles in preeminent journals.

Planned Impact

The proposed research will benefit policymakers, gambling law practitioners, industry experts, and the third sector. Several key representatives from these groups have already agreed to participate in the research, and some were involved in the pilot studies, meaning that user involvement has shaped the project from the start.

The project will ascertain the objectives underpinning bingo regulation in key case studies; the perceived effectiveness of regulation; the key challenges involved; and the way in which this sector is understood to relate to (or be distinct from) other gambling sectors. It will also make policy recommendations on the basis of this evidence. This knowledge will be of particular significance for three groups of research users:

1. UK POLICYMAKERS. With the Gambling Act 2005, the UK is recognized globally as a leading site for innovations in gambling regulation. The Act aimed to harmonise regulation across sectors, and allow legitimate gambling businesses to flourish while providing protection for the vulnerable and preventing crime. The UK has since pioneered new approaches to remote licensing for online gambling. However Westminster policymakers recognise that they have a knowledge gap with regard to bingo (May-Chahal et al 2007, 56). The proposed research would fill that gap. At the national level, the research will provide guidance on the sector to the all-party parliamentary group on bingo, and to the Gambling Commission. At a local level it will benefit local and regional policymakers given its review of district council licensing practices and challenges. The study will also document the successes of the current regulatory approach and identify remaining challenges, ensuring that evidence-based policy recommendations can be provided to UK policymakers. Furthermore, it will provide an opportunity to disseminate the findings from the England/Wales case study to other jurisdictions, increasing knowledge of the UK's position internationally while providing UK policymakers with insights from other countries.

2. UK BINGO INDUSTRY. There are 784 licensed bingo venues in the UK, employing 17,896 people (Gambling Commission 2011, 16). The industry has lobbied Government over several regulatory concerns, and in 2009 66 MPs signed an early day motion to reduce taxes on the industry, as part of a campaign to revive bingo through changes to the Gambling Act 2005. Many of those MPs represented seaside areas, where bingo revitalization is of interest to those concerned with coastal regeneration. Clearly, then, it is important to know more about the impact of the current law on this distinctive sector of the UK economy. The Bingo Association, representing the interests of many commercial operators, has welcomed the research and granted access.

3. UK THIRD SECTOR. Charities are facing increasing oversight, and reduced state revenue, at the same time that their services are in greater demand with the central government shift to increase the role of the third sector in welfare provision. With spending squeezed, regulation increasing, and demand growing, innovative fundraising strategies are of crucial importance, raising key questions about the possibilities, and limits, of the current regulatory approach to charitable gambling. Nothing provides a better lens on this issue than bingo, played in well over 1000 unlicensed sites in the UK for an array of good causes. By offering a systematic study of commercial and charitable gambling, in the UK and abroad, the proposed research will provide the UK third sector with data on the views and concerns of various stakeholders who use bingo to fundraise, as well as lessons from other jurisdictions such as Canada where bingo plays a far more institutionalized role in charitable funding.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Exhibit of photographs by Andrea Shieber 
Description Andrea Shieber, a photographer, was invited to display her images of bingo players, taken for an advanced photography course at a local college, at the final report launch in June 2016. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The photographs were very well received at the event. They are subsequently being used as the basis for a co-authored non-academic output: Bedford and Shieber are writing a non-academic creative photo-essay piece for an academic journal (feminists@law), combining Shieber's images with extracts from interviews that Bedford conducted for the project. 
 
Description 1. We generated significant new knowledge, across all four case studies, about the regulation of an under-studied gambling form with a distinctive demographic of players. We have produced a final report detailing the key findings in accessible terms. Most notably, we:
a) Identified the key law and policy debates, the relevant case law, and the key compliance challenges facing the commercial and non-commercial bingo sector in all case studies.
b) Discovered that, in the three case studies where bingo can be legally played, the dominant, addictions-focused approach to responsible gambling side lines concerns about substantive fairness for players.
c) Showed gambling researchers the value of diverse and comparative country case studies of regulation. For example, while many gambling scholars posit a global trend towards liberalisation, our research on Brazil and the EU shows a more heterogeneous landscape (including of re-criminalization, and continued protection of state or charitable monopolies).
d) Found that effective regulatory arrangements that differentiate bingo from other forms of gambling make a significant difference to the bingo sector, and to players. In Canada and England/Wales, and with online bingo in the EU, the failure to clearly differentiate bingo as a specific gaming form, distinct from lotteries, slot machines, and casino games, has led to game innovations and product mixes that increase risks to players.
e) Identified the unique mix of commercial and non-commercial actors involved in bingo. Most significantly, we excavated the hitherto under-researched mutual aid dimension of gambling, as distinct from charitable and commercial gambling.
f) Suggested how regulators can better respond to this diverse mix of stakeholders. For example, although larger charities (especially in Canada and the EU) often claim to speak for the community or public interest in gambling, our research also highlights the interests of smaller mutual aid organisations, where bingo players run games themselves.

2. Building on the knowledge above, we recommend a new approach to regulating bingo. Specifically:
a. Policymakers and researchers should expand the concept of 'responsible gambling' to focus more on fairness for players and workers.
b. Policymakers and researchers should take better account of non-commercial organisations that use gambling to fundraise, by including them in debates about regulation and by exploring how they use proceeds, how they are connected to players as donors, and how they mobilise volunteers.
c. Regulators should ensure that rules reflect the distinctiveness of bingo as a game, and as a playing environment.
d. Policymakers and regulators may have a role in supporting and preserving everyday forms of play like bingo.
e. Local governments that license low-level forms of gambling such as bingos should be better supported in their work, including through improved international collaboration.

3. Through our academic publications and conference events, we have brought together new research networks (see section 3 below), and opened up important new research questions about the intersections between gambling, law, and political economy. In England and Wales, we have revealed the intertwining of gender and mutual aid, including through the centrality of the working men's clubs movement to bingo regulation. In Canada, we have questioned the dominant charitable rationale for bingo regulation, bringing into view new stakeholders at the local and First Nations level. In Brazil, we have demonstrated the criminality risks associated with legalisation, and shown how global and domestic institutions may influence the visibility and political salience of such risks. In the European Union, we have uncovered online bingo as a key site of contestation in the gambling liberalisation process underway in many Member States. We have also charted the changing perception of bingo as a low-risk form of gambling as the game moves online.
Exploitation Route Academic pathways: Having succeeded in putting bingo regulation firmly on the radar of gambling studies, we envision further opportunities to influence the field through participation in conferences, and publications. More broadly, team members have also been invited to contribute the research to national and international networks on consumer law, political economy, and socio-legal studies. For example Kate Bedford has been invited to serve on the editorial board of a new Critical Gambling Studies journal, based in Canada, and her monograph on bingo regulation and feminist political economy is under review by OUP. Donal Casey is drafting a monograph proposal based upon the research into online bingo, to be submitted to Routledge in Spring 2018. Toni Williams' research and conference presentations on bingo and consumer protection have contributed to an invitation to serve on the International Editorial Board of Brazil's preeminent academic journal on Consumer Law, the Revisto de Direito do Consumidor. Furthermore, several team members are involved in research networks exploring the law and political economy of consumption (in the disciplines of law and politics, and in interdisciplinary networks such as the feminist network on everyday political economy).
Non-academic pathways. We produced policy briefs aimed at regulators and policymakers in all for case studies. Moreover, we envisage our outcomes being taken forward in the following ways: In England/Wales, we have shared our findings with bodies including the Gambling Commission, Bingo Association, Gordon Moody Association, Institute of Licensing, Working Men's Club and Institute Union, and Society for the Study of Gambling. We contributed to a recent parliamentary research report on gambling, and suggested that policymakers take better account of small scale mutual aid gambling, and fairness for players. Our findings on the need to involve non-commercial operators more systemically in debates about regulation might be taken forward by the WMCIU and the Gambling Commission. In Canada, we shared our findings with academics, regulators, and operators at the Alberta Gambling Research Institute (2016), and hope to pursue further impact opportunities in 2018. In the EU, the growing concern with substantive fairness (both at the national and EU level) is an area where our case study could have impact. We will endeavour to draft a guideline document on substantive fairness which could draw upon the existing EU consumer protection principles around fairness for consumer contracts and commerical practices.

In light of our findings that (i) the regulatory framework for legalised bingo left the retail bingo market vulnerable to capture by criminals, and damaged public confidence in the capacity of the state to act against corruption; and (ii) prohibition does not benefit Brazilians because illegality is costly and in any event clandestine play continues, the Brazil team aims to contribute to public policy debate about how Brazil can in the future create a trusted licensed bingo market through well-funded, robust regulation. Given the political and economic turmoil that Brazil is currently experiencing, the pathway to impact is not straightforward. Our strategy is to:
a) Build on the work we have already done with consumer law experts and policymakers to continue to stimulate interest in gambling regulation as a topic of importance that requires regulatory attention. Working with established consumer law groups (using publications, briefs, conference participation will allow us to benefit from within well-developed connections with influential regulatory bodies and from a wealth of expertise in Brazilian reform processes.
b) Continue to disseminate the work of the gambling project directly to lawmakers by communicating our results and making use of any consultation opportunities that arise.
Sectors Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Retail

URL https://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/
 
Description Broadly speaking, our findings have been used in two main ways: 1. To help raise the profile of bingo within broader public conversations about gambling. 2. To inform on-going law and policy conversations about the most effective way to regulate gambling. 1. To help raise the profile of bingo within broader public conversations about gambling. Our findings show that bingo is a distinctive game, with a distinctive mix of stakeholders. In all four case studies, bingo's connections with self-organised mutual aid, and religious and charitable gambling mean that it involves a wider range of actors than straightforwardly commercial gambling forms. The player base is also often (although not always) distinctive, in gendered and classed terms. For these and other reasons bingo is often overlooked in broader debates about gambling. For example we found that in Canada bingo is often eclipsed by casinos, in the EU online environment by lotteries, poker and sports betting, and in the UK by fixed odds betting terminals in betting shops. Operators (especially smaller scale, non-commercial ones) are sometimes invisible to policymakers, and within broader public conversations about gambling. These findings have been used by non-academics to initiate new public conversations about gambling (see engagement activities). For example, as part of media coverage of our final report and conference a Times Higher journalist highlighted the need to include bingo in broader gambling debates. A BBC radio programme featured the research (alongside contributions from the trade association and a problem gambling expert) in an hour long phone-in segment on bingo. Moreover, our findings have been used within industry-focused gaming debates, to raise the profile of the game's distinctiveness. Online and land based gambling operators and industry-facing lawyers have been able to engage with the research through our participation in a number of industry-focused blogs and websites (including Bingo Life, Totally Gaming, Calvin Ayre, and Virtual Gaming). They have used the findings to help make their case that bingo merits public attention as a distinctive gambling form. 2. To inform on-going law and policy conversations about the most effective way to regulate gambling. One of our key findings was that bingo is a distinctive game requiring proportionate regulation that reflects its complex mix of sociality, mutual aid, and profit-making. Non-academics have used this part of research in a number of ways: i. Our final report and policy briefs urged policymakers and regulators in all four case studies to take better account of self-organised mutual aid gambling (organized by and run on behalf of non-profit groups, and where players control the use of proceeds), distinct from charitable lotteries and commercial gambling. When invited to give evidence on bingo to the UK's 2017 parliamentary research report on gambling, we suggested that non-commercial gambling operators such as the Working Men's Club and Institute Union were included more systematically in policy debates. (The final report was due in spring 2017 but has been delayed so we do not know if, or how, our contribution was incorporated). Kate Bedford repeated this advice in her response to a 2018 Gambling Commission consultation on gambling regulation. We consider the inclusion of these issues to be an important step forward in broadening law and policy debates. ii. Our findings have informed the on-going debate about gambling liberalization in Brazil. While we have been cautious about engaging directly with gambling operators, in order to ensure our research independence (see below on challenges), the Brazilian research team have widely disseminated their finding that the regulatory framework in place in Brazil from 1993 to 2007 left the retail bingo market vulnerable to capture by criminals, and damaged public confidence in the capacity of the state to act against corruption. While the current prohibition of the game does not benefit Brazilians (since clandestine play continues and illegality generates considerable costs), Brazil can only create a trusted licensed bingo market through well-funded, robust regulation. We hope that this argument will resonate with some involved in the on-going Senate debates about liberalization (see influence on policy). iii. Our research led us to encourage policymakers and regulators to emphasize fairness, rather than solely addiction, in debates about consumer protection in gambling. For a number of reasons, the UK's Gambling Commission has recently moved in the direction of emphasizing fairness; we have recommended a similar shift in the EU online gambling arena, and in Canada. Moreover, our research has added a crucial new consumer law interface to gambling debates in Brazil. Whereas previously gambling law debates in Brazil were about legalization, the Brazilian research team have used bingo to show the relevance of consumer protection concerns, and Brazilian consumer lawyers are now much more aware of this dimension (see engagement activities). Challenges overcome to achieve impact. i. Industry involvement in the context of broader stakeholder relations Our main challenge was the effective management of the diverse stakeholder interests involved in the project. Gambling studies is in a midst of a long overdue international debate about industry influence on research (see the Fair Game report on gambling research here: https://www.gold.ac.uk/gamblingineurope/report/). In this context, ensuring our reputation for independence was, and is, vital to our impact. We wished to involve voices from the commercial gambling industry without having our research focus solely shaped by their interests. To manage this challenge, we reached out to several non-academic communities of practice, including commercial gambling operators, lawyers, regulators, and third sector groups. Indeed the project was designed in conversation with this wide mix of stakeholders. For example discussions held with the trade association representing the UK commercial bingo industry shaped the selection of research sites in England and Wales, so as to adequately reflect a mix of large and small scale operators. Other user groups consulted as part of the funding bid included the UK Gambling Commission, the GREaT Foundation (for gambling research, education, and treatment); the Ontario Native Women's Association; the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Council; and the Ontario Charity Gaming Council. The project was assisted by a diverse, 16 member international Advisory Group drawn from industry, legal practice, the third sector, the UK's Gambling Commission, and five academic disciplines (law, history, sociology, criminology, and business/management studies). In year 2, we added a researcher associated with the UK's main association of working men's clubs, in order that voices from this sector were also heard. Our final report (available to download here: https://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/resources/Bingo_Project_report_final.pdf ) was geared to policy makers, regulators, and the bingo sector. It contained chapter-long summaries of each case study, detailing the scale of play, the current regulatory framework, the key legal cases, the key analytic themes that emerged from the research, and specific recommendations for policy makers and regulators. However, following advice from non-academic members of our advisory board we created policy briefs as well (available here: https://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/findings/case-studies.html ). These have been distributed to interviewees, regulators, commercial and non-commercial operators, and lawmakers in all the case studies, and are freely available to download on our website (in multiple languages). That said, however, while engaging industry alongside other actors we worked hard to ensure research independence, including through strict adherence to the project's ethics code (which, among other things, prohibited researchers from receiving free tickets or food from gambling operators). We refused to accept industry gifts at conferences, and we maintained necessary distance from industry lobbyists, including by turning down opportunities to speak at industry events. While this may have somewhat reduced our profile among commercial operators, it ensured that we were able to keep other stakeholders on board, and it helped us maintain a reputation for research independence. ii. Providing a critique of prevailing policy. Our policy recommendations involve a new way of understanding gambling, wherein currently dominant stakeholders (e.g. commercial gambling operators) and topics (e.g. addiction/problem gambling) are somewhat decentered, and space is created for other conversations as well. This approach is unlikely to result in quick policy changes. Rather, we understand our impact as involving the gradual accumulation of evidence required to provide alternatives to dominant policy framings. This is a longer term project, and positions us as an independent and critical friend to policymakers. For example, our findings led us to advise the UK's Gambling Commission against algorithmic approaches to regulating gambling. Kate Bedford articulated the reasoning behind this position in her 2018 response to the Gambling Commission's consultation on B2 stakes and prizes (see influence on policy). In short, our work on bingo in the UK and Canada suggests that cash is a responsibility-enhancing mechanism. Hence while Bedford agreed with the proposal that the government should bar contactless payments, following the same reasoning she disagreed with measures to shift to cashless play as a social responsibility measure. The key rationale behind cashless play - that it allows players to be tracked, and social responsibility interventions to be better targeted - is in our view unsupported by evidence. Despite widespread policy enthusiasm for player tracking (in part generated by research from companies offering new tracking products), player tracking algorithms are unproven in their effectiveness in terms of reducing excessive spending. For example, enthusiasm for player tracking technologies in land-based gambling environments is bolstered by the claim that online operators are potentially safer because they have delegated knowing their customers to algorithms. In our view, this ignores the role of frontline staff in problem gambling prevention and treatment, and it positions online gambling operators as at the cutting edge of responsible play - somewhat of an irony given the online sector's very late adaptation of rudimentary self-exclusion policies, and its widespread and extensive violations of customer protection. We therefore offered robust critique of the Commission's plans to invest in player tracking as a social protection measure. We are swimming against the tide in this regard, but consider this part of our pathway to generating longer-term impact as a critical friend.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Citation of Bingo Project report in systematic review of market cannibalization in the gambling industries
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
URL http://jgi.camh.net/index.php/jgi/article/view/3988
 
Description Gambling Commission Consultation on Gaming Machines and Social Responsibility
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/consultation-on-proposals-for-changes-to-gaming-machines...
 
Description Letter to Brazilian Senate about current policy debates on bingo legalisation, to accompany copies of the Final Report and the Brazilian policy briefs.
Geographic Reach South America 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Parliamentary review of gambling policy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Reference to bingo research by Bedford in Alcohol Concern report.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
URL http://www.drugsandalcohol.ie/24360/1/Roehampton-Uni-research-Alcohol-Gambling.pdf
 
Description Brasilcon
Amount R$ 2,308 (BRL)
Organisation Brasilcon 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Brazil
Start 05/2016 
End 05/2016
 
Description Faculty Research Fund: Starting and Open
Amount £4,949 (GBP)
Organisation University of Kent 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 01/2020
 
Description Socio-Legal Studies Associtation Research Grant
Amount £2,710 (GBP)
Organisation Socio-Legal Studies Association 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 09/2020
 
Title Nvivo Dataset, on Server Version 
Description Our dataset involved: 1. a collection of over 1000 legal cases related to bingo, stretching back to 1845. 2. thousands of pages of political debate about bingo, in transnational, national, and provincial political fora, stretching back to 1936. 3. 217 interviews, most of which were transcribed 4. legislation and regulatory guidance 5. media coverage of bingo. We made it available to the UK Data Archive in 2017, as an Nvivo Server file. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None as yet (2018). 
 
Description Commercial bingo collaboration (EU Online) 
Organisation Online Bingo Summit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Online Bingo Summit: this is an industry event for the online bingo sector. We hope to present our findings at the 2017 event.
Collaborator Contribution Online bingo summit: We received a full fee waiver for the May 2014 summit (£499 plus VAT), and a discount of £195 on the post-conference materials. We received a £100 discount for the June 2015 summit.
Impact None
Start Year 2014
 
Description Commercial bingo industry collaboration (UK) 
Organisation Clarion Events
Department ICE Totally Gaming
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Bingo Association: we have shared all of our findings with the association, including via attendance at their annual meeting, and we invited them to put the industry case directly during the public debate on bingo regulation in London (Oct 2015). The CEO of the organisation made a presentation, and several bingo executives who are members of the association also asked questions to the regulator. The video and photographs that we commissioned from the event were shared with the partner, for their own use. In autumn 2015 the PI wrote an accessible summary of the findings so far for Bingo Life, a trade magazine (https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new). Kate Bedford participated alongside commercial gambling lawyers in a Virtual Roundtable on new developments in Gaming Law, with proceedings subsequently published by Corporate LiveWire ((http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Collaborator Contribution Bingo Association: the PI sought input from the organisation as the grant was being developed, seeking their advice on key regulatory concerns for the industry. They not only shared these, but also suggested that a key research site (South Wales). 2 key members of this trade association (representing commercial land based bingo operators) served on the advisory group of the project, giving feedback on preliminary findings, helping secure access, attending the public debate on the future of bingo regulation in London and the final conference, granting access to materials and key staff, and giving us the opportunity to attend their annual meeting to network. We were given free access to the members' section of the Bingo Association website (which would normally cost £120 a year). ICE provided us with discounted access to the conference, to network and speak with participants, in 2016. We received a discount of £699 plus VAT on the price of admission to the Feb 2016 event. Online bingo summit: We received a full fee waiver for the May 2014 summit (£499 plus VAT), and a discount of £195 on the post-conference materials. We received a £100 discount for the June 2015 summit.
Impact Bingo Life article (see above): https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new Public debate (London, Oct 2015) Video clips of stakeholders speaking about the significance of bingo (http://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/case-studies/England%20&%20Wales.html) Corporate Livewire Article: http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Commercial bingo industry collaboration (UK) 
Organisation Corporate LiveWire
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Bingo Association: we have shared all of our findings with the association, including via attendance at their annual meeting, and we invited them to put the industry case directly during the public debate on bingo regulation in London (Oct 2015). The CEO of the organisation made a presentation, and several bingo executives who are members of the association also asked questions to the regulator. The video and photographs that we commissioned from the event were shared with the partner, for their own use. In autumn 2015 the PI wrote an accessible summary of the findings so far for Bingo Life, a trade magazine (https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new). Kate Bedford participated alongside commercial gambling lawyers in a Virtual Roundtable on new developments in Gaming Law, with proceedings subsequently published by Corporate LiveWire ((http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Collaborator Contribution Bingo Association: the PI sought input from the organisation as the grant was being developed, seeking their advice on key regulatory concerns for the industry. They not only shared these, but also suggested that a key research site (South Wales). 2 key members of this trade association (representing commercial land based bingo operators) served on the advisory group of the project, giving feedback on preliminary findings, helping secure access, attending the public debate on the future of bingo regulation in London and the final conference, granting access to materials and key staff, and giving us the opportunity to attend their annual meeting to network. We were given free access to the members' section of the Bingo Association website (which would normally cost £120 a year). ICE provided us with discounted access to the conference, to network and speak with participants, in 2016. We received a discount of £699 plus VAT on the price of admission to the Feb 2016 event. Online bingo summit: We received a full fee waiver for the May 2014 summit (£499 plus VAT), and a discount of £195 on the post-conference materials. We received a £100 discount for the June 2015 summit.
Impact Bingo Life article (see above): https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new Public debate (London, Oct 2015) Video clips of stakeholders speaking about the significance of bingo (http://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/case-studies/England%20&%20Wales.html) Corporate Livewire Article: http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Commercial bingo industry collaboration (UK) 
Organisation Online Bingo Summit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Bingo Association: we have shared all of our findings with the association, including via attendance at their annual meeting, and we invited them to put the industry case directly during the public debate on bingo regulation in London (Oct 2015). The CEO of the organisation made a presentation, and several bingo executives who are members of the association also asked questions to the regulator. The video and photographs that we commissioned from the event were shared with the partner, for their own use. In autumn 2015 the PI wrote an accessible summary of the findings so far for Bingo Life, a trade magazine (https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new). Kate Bedford participated alongside commercial gambling lawyers in a Virtual Roundtable on new developments in Gaming Law, with proceedings subsequently published by Corporate LiveWire ((http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Collaborator Contribution Bingo Association: the PI sought input from the organisation as the grant was being developed, seeking their advice on key regulatory concerns for the industry. They not only shared these, but also suggested that a key research site (South Wales). 2 key members of this trade association (representing commercial land based bingo operators) served on the advisory group of the project, giving feedback on preliminary findings, helping secure access, attending the public debate on the future of bingo regulation in London and the final conference, granting access to materials and key staff, and giving us the opportunity to attend their annual meeting to network. We were given free access to the members' section of the Bingo Association website (which would normally cost £120 a year). ICE provided us with discounted access to the conference, to network and speak with participants, in 2016. We received a discount of £699 plus VAT on the price of admission to the Feb 2016 event. Online bingo summit: We received a full fee waiver for the May 2014 summit (£499 plus VAT), and a discount of £195 on the post-conference materials. We received a £100 discount for the June 2015 summit.
Impact Bingo Life article (see above): https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new Public debate (London, Oct 2015) Video clips of stakeholders speaking about the significance of bingo (http://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/case-studies/England%20&%20Wales.html) Corporate Livewire Article: http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Commercial bingo industry collaboration (UK) 
Organisation The Bingo Association
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Bingo Association: we have shared all of our findings with the association, including via attendance at their annual meeting, and we invited them to put the industry case directly during the public debate on bingo regulation in London (Oct 2015). The CEO of the organisation made a presentation, and several bingo executives who are members of the association also asked questions to the regulator. The video and photographs that we commissioned from the event were shared with the partner, for their own use. In autumn 2015 the PI wrote an accessible summary of the findings so far for Bingo Life, a trade magazine (https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new). Kate Bedford participated alongside commercial gambling lawyers in a Virtual Roundtable on new developments in Gaming Law, with proceedings subsequently published by Corporate LiveWire ((http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Collaborator Contribution Bingo Association: the PI sought input from the organisation as the grant was being developed, seeking their advice on key regulatory concerns for the industry. They not only shared these, but also suggested that a key research site (South Wales). 2 key members of this trade association (representing commercial land based bingo operators) served on the advisory group of the project, giving feedback on preliminary findings, helping secure access, attending the public debate on the future of bingo regulation in London and the final conference, granting access to materials and key staff, and giving us the opportunity to attend their annual meeting to network. We were given free access to the members' section of the Bingo Association website (which would normally cost £120 a year). ICE provided us with discounted access to the conference, to network and speak with participants, in 2016. We received a discount of £699 plus VAT on the price of admission to the Feb 2016 event. Online bingo summit: We received a full fee waiver for the May 2014 summit (£499 plus VAT), and a discount of £195 on the post-conference materials. We received a £100 discount for the June 2015 summit.
Impact Bingo Life article (see above): https://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_021_high_res_new Public debate (London, Oct 2015) Video clips of stakeholders speaking about the significance of bingo (http://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/case-studies/England%20&%20Wales.html) Corporate Livewire Article: http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Invitation and presentations to the Commercial Gambling conference in Brazil 
Organisation Clarion Events
Department ICE Totally Gaming
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Invited participants in the 2nd Brazilian Gaming Congress organized by ICE Totally Gaming in May 2016. Toni Williams and Maria Luiza Kurban Jobim each presented papers and Jobim also gave the "Chairwoman's opening remarks" and Chaired the plenary and panel sessions on the second morning of the conference.
Collaborator Contribution ICE Totally Gaming is the organizer of the world's largest gaming exhibition and the event in May 2016 was the second commercial gaming congress it had organized in Brazil.
Impact One paper (Bingos no Brasil: fardo ou legato? Reflexões críticas e contribuições para a regulação dos jogos na atualidade) was solicited for publication in "Revista Inteligência Empresarial" a Brazilian trade journal and several participants indicated interest in receiving the final report of the Brazil case study.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Journal of Critical Gambling Studies 
Organisation University of Alberta
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Fiona Nicoll (U of Alberta) used the final conference of the Bingo Project to discuss plans to launch a new Journal of Critical Gambling Studies. In 2018 she invited Kate Bedford to join the founding editorial board, in part as a result of the research conducted as part of the Bingo Project.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Nicoll has set up the journal.
Impact Journal of Critical Gambling Studies
Start Year 2016
 
Description Non-commercial and charitable bingo collaboration (UK and Canada) 
Organisation Ontario Charitable Gambling Association (Canada)
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution WMCIU: invited them to the Oct 2015 debate on bingo regulation (they sent 2 representatives), and the final project conference (the representative was unable to attend due to ill-health). OCGA: Kate Bedford was invited to present findings in June 2016 meeting to North American charity gaming regulators; she was unable to attend since the event clashed with the final conference of the Bingo Project, but she aims to attend in 2017.
Collaborator Contribution WMCIU: access to archives and help with access; free copy of their members' guide; their executives made contributions to the video of the public debate in Oct 2015, featured on our website. OCGA: help with access; free access to members' area of website
Impact public debate (Oct 2015) videoed interviews with stakeholders
Start Year 2014
 
Description Non-commercial and charitable bingo collaboration (UK and Canada) 
Organisation Working Men's Club Institute & Union Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution WMCIU: invited them to the Oct 2015 debate on bingo regulation (they sent 2 representatives), and the final project conference (the representative was unable to attend due to ill-health). OCGA: Kate Bedford was invited to present findings in June 2016 meeting to North American charity gaming regulators; she was unable to attend since the event clashed with the final conference of the Bingo Project, but she aims to attend in 2017.
Collaborator Contribution WMCIU: access to archives and help with access; free copy of their members' guide; their executives made contributions to the video of the public debate in Oct 2015, featured on our website. OCGA: help with access; free access to members' area of website
Impact public debate (Oct 2015) videoed interviews with stakeholders
Start Year 2014
 
Description Problem gambling collaboration (UK, Canada) 
Organisation Gambling Research Exchange Ontario
Country Canada 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Share findings; access to data; invitation to participate in events to present views directly to stakeholders, The final report launch was attended by a wide range of non-academic bodies interested in gambling regulation and problem gambling (including the Belgian Gaming Commission; the Responsible Gambling Trust (RGT), the Bingo Association; Gambling Compliance magazine; and Gamcare). The project report was distributed to over 100 key stakeholders in Brazil, Canada, Australia, and the US in hard copy, and it has been uploaded to the RGT's 'info hub' of gambling research (http://infohub.gambleaware.org).
Collaborator Contribution - Help with access; sharing internal policy documents and grey matter (e.g. training tools for teaching bingo staff about problem gambling). - The final report of the Bingo Project was placed on the website of the RGT
Impact Improved information sharing about problem gambling and responsible gambling in bingo.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Problem gambling collaboration (UK, Canada) 
Organisation Responsible Gambling Council
Country Canada 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Share findings; access to data; invitation to participate in events to present views directly to stakeholders, The final report launch was attended by a wide range of non-academic bodies interested in gambling regulation and problem gambling (including the Belgian Gaming Commission; the Responsible Gambling Trust (RGT), the Bingo Association; Gambling Compliance magazine; and Gamcare). The project report was distributed to over 100 key stakeholders in Brazil, Canada, Australia, and the US in hard copy, and it has been uploaded to the RGT's 'info hub' of gambling research (http://infohub.gambleaware.org).
Collaborator Contribution - Help with access; sharing internal policy documents and grey matter (e.g. training tools for teaching bingo staff about problem gambling). - The final report of the Bingo Project was placed on the website of the RGT
Impact Improved information sharing about problem gambling and responsible gambling in bingo.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Problem gambling collaboration (UK, Canada) 
Organisation Responsible Gambling Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Share findings; access to data; invitation to participate in events to present views directly to stakeholders, The final report launch was attended by a wide range of non-academic bodies interested in gambling regulation and problem gambling (including the Belgian Gaming Commission; the Responsible Gambling Trust (RGT), the Bingo Association; Gambling Compliance magazine; and Gamcare). The project report was distributed to over 100 key stakeholders in Brazil, Canada, Australia, and the US in hard copy, and it has been uploaded to the RGT's 'info hub' of gambling research (http://infohub.gambleaware.org).
Collaborator Contribution - Help with access; sharing internal policy documents and grey matter (e.g. training tools for teaching bingo staff about problem gambling). - The final report of the Bingo Project was placed on the website of the RGT
Impact Improved information sharing about problem gambling and responsible gambling in bingo.
Start Year 2014
 
Description CICLO DE WÉBNARIOS - O DIREITO DO JOGO - GAMING LAW - 2ª Debate 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Luiza Jobim was invited by the Bar Association of Espírito Santo (a neighbour state of Rio) to participate in an online roundtable on gambling law. The link is here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Gley20lOm8 . The Association is interested in follow up activities on gambling law reform, although these will be dependent on the Covid situation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Gley20lOm8
 
Description 'The Bingo Project' ISRU/CCGP Frontiers Lecture with guest speaker Professor Kate Bedford - 20th of November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Blog post on 'The Bingo Project' ISRU/CCGP Frontiers Lecture with guest speaker Professor Kate Bedford - 20th of November 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://blogs.cardiff.ac.uk/isru/2020/01/13/the-bingo-project-isru-ccgp-frontiers-lecture-with-guest...
 
Description 16th International Gambling Studies Conference, Las Vegas. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Donal Casey presented a paper entitled "Risk and Welfare: The Regulation of Online Bingo in the European Union" at the 16th International Gambling Studies Conference (Las Vegas, 6-10 June 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2015 UFRGS Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Toni Williams and Maria Luiza Kurban Jobim. "Bingo Regulation in Brazil: a work in progress", March 10, 2015. Presentation and discussion sponsored by the University's CNPQ funded Research Group on Mercosul and Consumer Rights (O Grupo de Pesquisa CNPQ - Mercosul e Direito do consumidor). Presentation and discussion were in English and Portuguese. Consumer law is a very significant area of legal education and practice in Brazil but there is little knowledge or awareness of how consumer law relates to bingo (or any other aspect of gambling) regulation. The audience consisted of consumer law academics, students (postgraduate and undergraduate) and professional practitioners in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The purposes of the presentation were to create awareness of the project and its research questions, to foster interest in gambling regulation as an important aspect of Brazilian law and policy, and to get feedback and guidance from consumer law experts about the fieldwork research for the Brazil case study.

The discussions and questions were excellent and we received good feedback. Audience members (ca.25) and reported that it stimulated their thinking. Another result of the presentation is that Williams and Jobim were commissioned to write a case note on a significant Brazilian Supreme Court that is published in Brazil's main consumer law journal, read by practitioners and policy makers, as well as academics, see Maria Luiza Kurban Jobim and Toni Williams Comentários ao Recurso Especial nº 1.509.923 - SP. Análise crítica à luz dos pilares da legislação consumerista e do "The Bingo Project", (2016) Revista do Direito do Consumidor - RDC 103. A third result is that Williams and Jobim have been invited to speak about the Bingo project at the Brasilcon conference in May 2016. (BRASILCON - Instituto Brasileiro de Política e Direito do Consumidor - Brazilian Institute of Policy and Consumers Right is a NGO consisting of lawyers, judges, policymakers, regulators and students. It conducts and publishes research to promote the development of Consumers Right in Brazil, seeking to harmonize consumer protection and social-economic development).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ? Regulating Diverse Economies: Using gambling to explore connections between political economy, law, and gender 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 5/2019: invited and funded to present Regulating Diverse Economies: Using gambling to explore connections between political economy, law, and gender at a 2 day workshop on International Political Economy for the Next Century: setting an interdisciplinary research agenda (Kings, London).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description All Bets are Off: Reflecting Critically on Gambling Regulation Within and Across Borders workshop, Canterbury. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Donal Casey presented a paper entitled: 'Lotteries, Online Bingo and the Tension between Risk and Welfare in the European Union' at the All Bets are Off: Reflecting Critically on Gambling Regulation Within and Across Borders workshop. (University of Kent, Canterbury 23-24 June 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description All bets are off: final conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In June 2016 we hosted an international conference on socio-legal approaches to global gambling regulation at the University of Kent. The event featured 27 expert speakers, including 17 from outside the UK. The evaluations generally reported that the event was 'excellent', and several attendees reported that their views had changed as a result of hearing about the research. For example, responses to the question "what, if anything, have you taken away from the event?" included: "plenty, although I study gambling I hadn't studied bingo," and "Highlights - prevelance, interjurisdictional comparisons, historical role in the UK, gender/social." General comments included the following: "It was a wonderful event - extremely well run, great group, fascinating critical content. I am thrilled to have attended," "The best conference so far this year," and "Inspiring."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/Allbetsareoff_June2016.html
 
Description BBC radio interviews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As a result of the press release issued by the University of Kent about the final report of the Bingo Project, in June 2016 Kate Bedford was interviewed about the research on three BBC radio programmes, including on a syndicated show (the Mark Forrest show) that devoted an hour, and 3 guests (including Kate) to the topic. The show is broadcast on 39 stations and reaches an estimated 1.3 million listeners per week.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Bingo Life article (spring 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Kate Bedford was asked to write an accessible summary of the preliminary findings from the UK case study for Bingo Life, a print and online magazine for the bingo industry. It has just been released (in the winter 2015 issue), so the impact is as yet unknown.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://issuu.com/peterwhite3/docs/bingo_life_winter_2015?e=11578637/33119988
 
Description Bingo Project Final Report Launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact In June 2016 we launched the final report of the Bingo Project, an 80 page report summarising the main findings of the research for non-academic audiences. Over 50 people attended the launch, including members on the advisory group, academics, and representatives from other stakeholder groups (including the Responsible Gambling Trust, Gambling Compliance Magazine, Gamcare and the Belgian Gambling Commission). Over 100 hard copies have been distributed in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, Europe, and Brazil. The report is also available to download on our project website. We have had several requests for more information, some of which have led to additional impacts (see other engagement activities). The RGT attendee commended the team on "imaculate delivery of a 2 day jam-packed conference with lots of interesting presentations and research". GamCare's learning and development manager, who manages their education, training and awareness initiatives, wrote that the event "was engaging and left me with a thirst to know more." 2 days after the public event, we were contacted by the RGT with a request to upload the report to their 'info hub' of gambling research (http://infohub.gambleaware.org).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/resources/Bingo_Project_report_final.pdf
 
Description Contribution to Political Economy on Trial: Reflections After a Decade of Unforeseen Developments 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ? 3/2019: invited and funded to attend a 2 day workshop on Political Economy on Trial: Reflections After a Decade of Unforeseen Developments, organised by the editorial boards of Review of International Political Economy, and New Political Economy, with the Sheffield Political Economy Research Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Douglas College Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 50 minute presentation on the bingo research, followed by an hour long discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ESRC Britain in 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kate Bedford contributed an article on the Bingo Project to 'Britain in 2015', the ESRC's annual flagship magazine (ISBN: 05> 077 1756 057006, pp.106 to 109, http://www.esrc.ac.uk/news-and-events/publications/britain-in/). This piece was requested by the editors, as the feature article on culture media and sport. The magazine 'celebrates the diversity of ESRC-funded research and offers a readable, concise analysis of current issues concerning Britain today.' In the Culture, Media and Sport section they wished to include a feature on gambling - specifically bingo - and how it is regulated around the world. The piece was intended to raise awareness of the research project among the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.esrc.ac.uk/files/news-events-and-publications/publications/magazines-and-newsletters/brit...
 
Description European Association for the Study of Gambling Conference, Lisbon. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toni Williams and Donal Casey attended the European Association for the Study of Gambling Conference in Lisbon (13-16 September 2016). They distributed the Bingo Project final report to those attending and spoke about the findings of the report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Expert Opinion piece on the Bingo Duty Tax Cut 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The piece was disseminated via the University of Kent's Twitter feed (https://twitter.com/UniKentNews/status/446968929114935296 ) as well as via The Bingo Project's own Twitter (https://twitter.com/bingo_project/status/446966175969587200).

Was asked for more information by members of the advisory group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.kent.ac.uk/law/news/articles/kb_expert_comment_bingo.html
 
Description Gambling Commission announcement about research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We were asked to summarise the research project for the Gambling Commission, so that they could inform their local licensing authority partners about it.

As yet unclear (only published in september)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk/pdf/Licensing%20authority%20bulletin%20-%20September%202014.pdf
 
Description International Association of Consumer Law presentation, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact • Toni Williams presented a paper on Comparison of provider responsibilisation in gambling and consumer finance regulation at the XV Conference of the International Association of Consumer Law, Amsterdam, June 2015. About 40 people attended the panel and there was a good discussions of the paper's themes that explored the concepts of responsible gambling and responsible lending.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview with Calvin Ayre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A summary of the interview that KB and DC conducted on online bingo regulation, based on the Bingo Project's Final report, was published by Calvin Ayre (one of the world's largest gambling news publishers, with c400,000 monthly website visits). The publication is oriented mostly to the commercial gambling industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://calvinayre.com/2017/04/17/business/the-bingo-project/
 
Description Invited lecture at the UFRGS Law School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture drawing thematic links between gambling regulation and consumer protection law in Brazil, which was intended to raise awareness of implications for consumer protection law is gambling is legalised as per the reforms being debated in the Brazilian parliament.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Luiza Jobim participated in a roundtable to launch book on gambling that includes chapter co-authored by Jobim and Williams 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact participation sparked questions and discussion about the legalisation of gambling and Brazil
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Luiza Jobim presented a paper at the UGRGS Winter School on "New Trends in International and Consumer Law", Porto Alegre, RS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of Bingo project findings on "Legal aspects of gambling: comparative approaches" to students from all over the world attending the July 2016 Winter School at the UFRGS law School in Southern Brazil.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Luiza Jobim presented a paper at the workshop titled All Bets are Off: Reflecting Critically on Gambling Regulation Within and Across Borders. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper stimulated interest in the Brazilian case study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Luiza Jobim presented invited paper at the Las Vegas, 16th International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of paper titled , "Ready, Set, and Go Back: The Role of the Judiciary in Brazil's Bingo Ban" raised awareness of a previously unknown aspect of gambling regulation studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Luiza Jobim presented jointly authored paper at regional conference of international learned society 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Purpose was to raise awareness of the project with an entirely new audience of researchers. Presentation sparked interest in the topic and paper was subsequently selected for publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Online Bingo blog on online gambling regulation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact In January 2017 Kate was asked by an online gambling company, Lindar, to answer some questions about the implications of the Bingo Project research for online bingo operators. They got in touch after reading the final report. They run a blog where they ask academics to answer questions about gambling (see, eg. https://onlinebingo.co.uk/luck/david-hand-interview). Kate and Donal answered the questions they sent, and they published a blog piece on the implications of the research for online bingo.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://onlinebingo.co.uk/news/the-bingo-project
 
Description Panel at the 16th International Gambling Studies Conference (Las Vegas). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We presented 3 papers on the project at a panel we organised on Bingo: From Margin to Centre. The papers were: 'Risk and Welfare: The Regulation of Online Bingo in the European Union' (Donal Casey); Jesus in Vegas: Bingo and the effective regulation of charitable, religious, and mutual aid gambling (Kate Bedford); Ready, set and go back: the role of the judiciary in Brazil's bingo ban (M L Jobim).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Parliamentary research report on gambling 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In February 2017 Kate was asked to contribute to a parliamentary research report on UK gambling regulation, to feed in advice from the Bingo Project's research. She was interviewed, and she subsequently provided additional feedback on the interview notes. The report is due out in spring.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at the annual conference of the Alberta Gambling Research Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kate Bedford gave a presentation on "The Bingo Project in Canada: Preliminary Results and Recommendations." It led to several questions about the project, and requests for further information about the research findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation on mutual aid, gambling, and alternatives to capitalism at Critical Legal Studies Conference (Warwick). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Kate Bedford presented on bingo and mutual aid practices as part of a panel on alternatives to capitalism at the Critical Legal Studies conference. Roughly 20 people attended, mostly postgraduate students and academics. There was a lively discussion after the presentation about the importance of studying leisure and consumption, and about the state role in supporting community organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation on the Canadian case study at the International Studies Association (Atlanta) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact KB gave a talk on bingo and bodily regulation as part of a panel on feminist political economy and regulation of the body. The audience included post graduate students and academics from several disciplines (including politics, geography, and sociology), and from several countries (including the US, Canada, UK, and Australia). I was asked to send a copy of the paper to 2 participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentations at "All Bets are Off: Reflecting Critically on Gambling Regulation Within and Across Borders workshop. (University of Kent, Canterbury 23-24 June 2016). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Four team members gave research presentations on the four case studies in the project.

Donal Casey: 'Lotteries, Online Bingo and the Tension between Risk and Welfare in the European Union'
Toni Williams: It's All about that Place: Commercial Bingo Regulation in Brazil
Kate Bedford: The Regulation of Bodies in Canadian Bingo
Maria Luiza Kurban Jobim: Ready, Set and Go Back: The Role of the Judiciary in Brazil's Bingo Ban
Practitioners, policy makers, business/industry experts and academics attended, which led to considerable debate about the project findings and follow up questions about future research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public debate (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Public debate on the future of bingo regulation in the UK, involving a presentation by the PI about the project's findings, a presentation from the regulator (the Gambling Commission), and a presentation from the trade association representing the commercial sector. Other participants included academics, politicians, legal professionals, local government licensing officials, representatives from the members' club sector, and third sector organisations working in gambling treatment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.kent.ac.uk/thebingoproject/case-studies/England%20&%20Wales.html
 
Description SASE presentation 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Maria Luiza Kurban Jobim presented a jointly-authored paper on "Chance developments: bingo regulation in Brazil" at the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (SASE), Second Ibero-American Meeting of Socio-Economics. November 2015 Porto Alegre. A revised version of the paper has been submitted to Anályse Econômica, a significant Brazilian economics journal. We were also invited to submit the manuscript to the "Journal of Business and Economics". Contact is still in progress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seascapes presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Kate Bedford presented a paper entitled 'Bingo and the Seaside Edge' at the COaST 2014 Conference on Seascapes: The Cultural Life of Coastal Towns - in the Turner Contemporary gallery in Margate on May 28th. The event brought together academics from several disciplines (including geography, leisure studies, and sociology), people working in museums and art galleries who were interested in seaside regeneration through culture, and consultants offering advice to local governments about tourism. As a result, the project received 3 requests for further information from participants, and a connection was established with the Leisure Studies Association (subsequently used to help advertise project events)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://coastcccu.wix.com/seascapes
 
Description Society for the Study of Gambling presentation, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Kate Bedford presented the preliminary findings from the UK case study to members of the Society for the Study of Gambling (November 2015), a group made up of industry representatives, academics, third sector groups working on gambling-related concerns (e.g. the Responsible Gambling Trust; Gordon Moody House);
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Summary of the online bingo regulation findings published by Totally Gaming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A summary of the Bingo Project chapter on online bingo regulation in the EU was published by Totally Gaming (an industry website), under the title "Why the EU needs to take more heed of 'distinctive' bingo game."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://totallygaming.com/news/bingo/why-eu-needs-take-more-heed-distinctive-bingo-game
 
Description Times Higher feature article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As a result of the press release issued by the University of Kent about the final report of the Bingo Project, Kate was interviewed by a Times Higher journalist who subsequently wrote a feature article about the research. It was published in the Times Higher (Bingo! Game gives researchers lessons in how to control gambling (Matthew Reisz) (https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/bingo-game-gives-researchers-lessons-on-how-to-control-gambling).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Toni Williams and Luiza Jobim gave presentations at an industry conference on the gaming industry in Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact purpose was to raise awareness of the research industry practitioners and professionals discussing the future of gambling if Brazil implements legalisation reforms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.brasiliangamingcongress.com/sites/default/files/3680_Brazilian_Gaming_Congress_2016_Onsit...
 
Description Toni Williams and Luiza Jobim jointly presented paper at the Law School of the Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Purpose was to raise awareness of the research and create interest in the topic of gambling regulation in Brazil, a subject that has no visibility in Brazilian law schools or within its legal practitioner community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description UFMG Presentation 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact • Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Toni Williams, "Bingo Regulation in Brazil: a work in progress", March 13, 2015 (in English). Presentation to the Morning Talk series of the postgraduate programme at the The purposes of the presentation were to create awareness of the project and its research questions, to foster interest in gambling regulation as an important aspect of Brazilian law and policy, and to get feedback and guidance from local informants about the planned fieldwork research for the Brazil case study. There was considerable discussion after the talk and during lunch, participants made suggestions about useful sources and requested future contact. The presentation and discussion sparked interest in the development of a collaborative research project between the Law Schools at the University of Kent and the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais that subsequently received funding from the British Academy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Virtual Gaming roundtable (2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact KB participated in a Virtual Roundtable on Gaming Law, alongside commercial gambling lawyers, to discuss recent changes in gambling regulation. The conversation was edited and published by Corporate LiveWire, a company specialising in information about business governance and regulation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.corporatelivewire.com/round-tables.html?id=gaming-law-2016
 
Description invited keynote lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact lecture to annual conference of Brazilian consumer protection lawyers to raise awareness of the implications for consumer protection law of proposals to legalise gambling in Brazil.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016