Is the rate of domestic violence decreasing or increasing? A re-analysis of the British Crime Survey

Lead Research Organisation: Lancaster University
Department Name: Sociology

Abstract

Is the rate of domestic violence going up or down? After over a decade of decline (1995-2009) the rate of domestic violence as reported by the British Crime Survey appears to have stabilised or started to increase. The British Crime Survey is one of the best if not the best surveys in the world in its measurement of domestic violence over time. In addition to a single measure over two decades, there has been experimentation with improved wording and methods of asking questions. However, different ways of collecting the data are showing different results: one finding, based on the main survey, which asks questions face-to-face, is showing an upturn in the rate of domestic violence, the other, based on the self-completion module also shows an upturn but not at a statistically significant level perhaps indicating stabilisation.

Resolving this ambiguity in the rate of change in domestic violence has important implications for policy makers. Enormous creative energy and resource has been expended in improving the policy environment so as to reduce gender-based violence against women and girls. This policy goal has been consistent across the change of government. There has been extraordinary success in driving down the rate of domestic violence. So the data suggesting that the rate of domestic violence is either increasing or stabilising rather than continuing to decline is acutely challenging to governmental policy makers and NGOs, with implications for policy and practice.

Is the rate for some sub-groups changing more than that for others? Policy responses would be different if sub-groups could be identified where the rate of change was greater or in a different direction to others. Identifying more vulnerable sub-groups might enable the targeting of scarce resources. It would also help the development of a deeper understanding of the causes of the violence, and the potential for further key sites of intervention.

The project will investigate the evidence of changes in the rate of domestic violence through an examination of the raw data of the British Crime Survey. It will consider whether methodological differences and changes underlie differences in reported rates of domestic violence. It will address definitional issues: whether the different units in which the violence is counted, producing rates of incidents, victims and prevalance make a difference. It will consider whether there are changes in the types of violence reported: is it more or less severe or frequent; does the inclusion or exclusion of sexual assault and stalking by partners make a difference to the summary trends? It will investigate whether there are changes in some groups rather than others. Is the gender profile changing? Are there differences in household structure and whether survivors stay living with partners or move on? Are there changes in economic position, in employment and unemployment? Is there any evidence that changes in the wider economic and social environment, such as the recession, has made a difference?

The project would investigate whether the apparent cessation in the decline in the rate of domestic violence is robust; whether the finding that the rate is increasing is more or less robust than the finding that it is stabilising; and whether some sub-groups are more affected than others. It would engage with policy makers, responding to their specific concerns, and offer rapid dissemination of findings through already established networks of which we are part.

Planned Impact

The project aims to contribute to the development of policy and practice to reduce and eliminate domestic violence and violence against women and girls by analysing changes over time in domestic violence and violence against women using the British Crime Survey.

The project would engage with policy makers and practitioners who are already pursuing these goals and have already articulated needs for research-based information that are not currently met. For example, HM Government's refreshed 'Call to End Violence Against Women and Girls' launched in March 2012 has 100 action points, several of which could usefully draw on the data that this project would provide. Policy makers in this area need to know whether domestic violence is increasing, stabilised or decreasing, and the sub-groups who are most affected.

The team is already part of the relevant policy and pracitioner networks as a result of prior research that has been fruitfully used by these communities. Hence we can realistically anticipate rapid early policy and practitioner impacts.

Policy makers and practitioners to be engaged with include:
Government policy makers: policy makers on violence against women and girls in the Home Office, Ministry of Justice, Crown Prosecution Service, ACPO and other Departments that contribute to the Inter-Ministerial/Departmental Group on VAWG;
Local government: e.g. London Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime
Other relevant bodies: e.g. Equality and Human Rights Commission, All Party Parliamentary Group on Domestic and Sexual Violence; BCS team and user group;
Practitioners, including service providers and second tier organisations: Women's Aid, Respect, Ava, EVAW, Corporate Alliance Against Domestic Violence, Nia; the police.
European and international policy relevant bodies: EU Institute for Gender Equality, European Commission, European Parliament, EU Fundamental Rights Agency, UNESCO, UN Women.

It is intended to engage with policy makers and practitioners, through:
Contributing findings to meetings and conferences;
Organising a final workshop to disseminate findings to policy makers and practitioners;
Producing briefing notes for specific audiences and publishing in practitioner journals;
Developing a mini web-site and web-based materials.
 
Description 1.Substantive findings:

The rate of violent crime is increasing. The rate of domestic violent crime is increasing. The rate of violent crime against women is increasing. The change from decline to increase occurred in 2008/9. It is important to distinguish between changes in the number of victims and the number of incidents. The category that is worst affected is that of the number of incidents of domestic violence against women. The answer to the question as to whether the rate of domestic violence is now increasing varies according to the decision taken on methodological alternatives, reported below. The ONS published data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales (formerly the British Crime Survey) 'caps' the maximum number of incidents in a series at 5, so further recorded incidents are not included in official estimates. Analysis of CSEW for 2011/12 finds that when the cap is removed there are 60% more violent crimes: violent crime against women (70% increase) rather than men (50% increase) and on violent crime by domestic relations (70% increase) and acquaintances (100% increase) rather than by strangers (20% increase).

2. Methodological finding:

While counting all reported crimes is necessary in order to discover the extent to which violent crime is perpetrated by domestic relations, acquaintances or strangers, and against men or women, this creates difficulties for year-to-year comparisons by introducing some volatility due to small numbers of high frequency victims. We have developed the solution to this dilemma that avoids the current ONS practice of excluding the high frequencies of some victims. Our solution reduces both bias and volatility. This is to use three year moving averages. In addition we used advanced quantitative methods to analyse the raw data from the survey in order to produce a resolution to this dilemma. Among these was the use of a quasi-Poisson distribution to assess variability in count data, and the combination of this method with change-point detection methods to assess the statistical significance of variations over time in incidents and victims of domestic violence.

3. Collaborations:

The findings from our analysis have been used to inform other policy-relevant analyses in the Home Office, and the Office for National Statistics (ONS), through membership of the ONS Domestic Abuse Statistics Steering Group and the ONS Consultation on Methodology to Address High Frequency Repeat Victimization in Crime Survey for England and Wales estimates, and membership of the Eurostat Task Force on the Development of a Survey on gender-based violence in the EU. In addition there has been engagement with non-governmental organisations including Women's Aid, Safe Lives and Women against Violence Europe. This has extended the impact of the project and set up new avenues for collaborative research. There has been considerable interest in the research project from public interest bodies, such as the Police Foundation, and a new research agenda on violent crime is being co-constructed with Lancashire Constabulary.
Exploitation Route Our analysis of the survey is providing authoritative up to date data on domestic violence that is of use to the Home Office, Government Equalities Office, Police Foundation, European Institute for Gender Equality and non-governmental organisations developing policy in this field.

Our findings on the methodology of the survey will be of relevance to the further development of and analysis of the Crime Survey for England and Wales and the discussions in Europe on future surveys in this area.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other

URL http://wwp.lancs.ac.uk/violence-and-society-unesco-centre/projects/
 
Description Narrative Impact: 30 September 2015; supplemented on 10 March 2016 and 6 March 2017 Changes in the rate of domestic violence have potentially wide social repercussions, so there has been significant interest from policy makers, service providers and the public in our research, which has implications for public policy. In addition to our substantive findings, our research has contributed new methodologies to more accurately measure this violence, which have generated engagement from policy bodies amid interest from the wider public. The ONS initiated a review of their methodology for measuring high frequency victimisation in the Crime Survey for England and Wales following an invited presentation at a meeting of the UK Statistics Authority that generated substantial press interest, which was based on our published findings in The Sociological Review, mediated by a short research briefing note. We submitted a response to the ONS 'Consultation on Methodology to Address High Frequency Repeat Victimization in Crime Survey for England and Wales estimates' based on the findings from this research project. The ONS has agree that the methodology for estimating high frequency repeat victimisation will be revised and discussions are on-going as to the specifics of the new methodology which will be enacted for all future crime estimates using CSEW data, and the production of new crime estimates for all previous CSEW sweeps using the new methodology, once agreed. We have been invited onto the steering committee of a wider ONS review of domestic abuse statistics. We have been invited as independent experts to the Eurostat Taskforce which will develop and deliver a new survey on gender-based violence across the EU. We are consulted for the best statistics on domestic violence by a range of UK public bodies, including the Women's Aid Federation. The work has contributed to a new policy agenda for the development of data on gender-based violence led by European bodies, including the Council of Europe and the European Institute for Gender Equality. The initial impact stems from the first two publications from the project ''Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence' The Sociological Review (2014), assisted by the production of a short research briefing note that communicated the main findings to a non-academic audience entitled 'The decline in the rate of domestic violence has stopped: removing the cap on repeat victimisation reveals more violence' and a short note in The Conversation 'Official statistics mask extent of domestic violence in the UK' and the British Journal of Criminology article, published in 2016 'Is violent crime increasing or decreasing? A new methodology to measure repeat attacks making visible the significance of gender and domestic relations'. We have a programme of speaking engagements that has taken the findings directly to academic, policy and practitioner audiences, delivering papers at over twenty different academic conferences (British Sociological Association 2014 and 2015; British Society of Criminology 2014; European Society of Criminology 2014, 2015 and 2016; American Society of Criminology 2014, 2015 and 2016; Lancaster University Violence and Society Research Days 2014 and 2015; Royal Statistical Society North West Local Group; Loughborough University Crime Drop meeting; FIRB 2015), technical, stakeholder and policy-maker meetings and events (UK National Statistics Office 2015; Crime Survey Users Group 2013 and 2014; UNESCO Gender Chairs Programme Colloquium 2014; Police Foundation conference, 2014; the European Parliament 2014; Security Lancaster 2013; London School of Economics 2014; Tacking Interpersonal Violence: A partnership Approach in the Age of Austerity seminar series, University of Sunderland 2015); participating in discussions and consultations with professional practitioners and stakeholders (UK Office for National Statistics; UK Statistics Authority; UK Home Office; Swiss Government). Publication of the article 'Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence' in The Sociological Review led, among other impacts, to an invitation to speak at a UK Statistics Authority conference on Better Statistics, Better Decisions on 9 June 2015. The audience comprised academics, professional practitioners, including from the Office for National Statistics, policy makers and press. The talk we delivered to this meeting 'Improving the Measurement of Domestic Violence' based on the article in the Sociological Review generated significant press interest, especially in the issue of capping the data used in the official analysis of national crime data. For example a piece in the Guardian on 6 June 2015 by Damien Gayle 'Violent Crime against Women "understated"' quotes our findings extensively. Articles appeared in a number of national newspapers and other online and print publications in June and July 2015, including: the BBC online, the Guardian online, the Mail online, the Telegraph online, and the Forensic and Policing Services Association on 9 June; The Guardian, The Times and The Telegraph on 10 June; ,The Telegraph and EVAW (End Violence against Women Coalition) on 11 June; The Police Professional and the Huffington Post UK on 12 June; the Mail online on 14 June; The Conversation and Lancaster University on 15 June; the Huffington Post UK on 19 June; and the Guardian online letters on 7 July. Additional Narrative Impact 10 March 2016 Following the publication of our second major article entitled 'Is violent crime increasing or decreasing? A new methodology to measure repeat attacks making visible the significance of gender and domestic relations' in the British Journal of Criminology in December 2015, our findings article were taken up by the British and international press, including The Guardian, The Guardian Online, Women's Hour. In the two weeks following the launch of the article, the findings were disseminated in twenty different media sources. The findings from this second article were also cited in Parliamentary Questions by Kate Green (Shadow Women and Equalities Minister) in Women and Equalities Questions on 14 January 2016. We are continuing our programme of speaking engagements which takes the findings directly to academic, policy and practitioner audiences, including: Women's Aid Conference 'Domestic Abuse: Understanding and Facing the Challenges Ahead'; and 'What do we know about Domestic Violence? New findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales' Exploring Evidence-based Policing, N8 Policing Research Partnership. We continue to participate in further discussions and consultations with professional practitioners and stakeholders (UK Office for National Statistics; UK Statistics Authority; UK Home Office), including sitting on the Steering Committee for an ONS Review of Domestic Abuse Statistics and as invited experts to the Eurostat Task Force on the Development of a Survey on gender-based violence in the EU.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Advice on Monitoring Forced Marriage in Switzerland
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Contribution to improvement in the quality of a government survey concerning domestic violence
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Eurostat Task Force on the development of a Survey on Gender-based Violence
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Invited discussion of the Crime Survey for England and Wales with the UK Home Office concerning its structure and improvement
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact We contributed to the improvement in the quality of an important government survey and also contributed to the development of the methods to ascertain the cost of violence against women.
 
Description ONS Review of Domestic Abuse Statistics
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The impacts of being a member of the ONS Steering Committee on the Review of Domestic Abuse Statistics are on-going.
 
Description ONS Review of High Frequency Repeat Victimisation
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact There has been a change in the way that high frequency victimisation is to be estimated in official statistics as a consequence of our research.
 
Description Response to UK Statistics Authority calls for assesssment of Crime Survey for England and Wales data quality.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description '"Austerity" and domestic and gender-based violence', Counting and Addressing the Ccosts of Austerity on Domestic and Sexual Violence Services in the NE and Beyond September 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Sparked considerable discussion about the potential links between 'austerity' and domestic and gender-based violence in England and wales and importance of the way in which violence is measured.

Potential further collaboration with service sector in the NE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sunderland.ac.uk/research/areasofresearch/thecentreforpedagogy/seminarsandevents/events/e...
 
Description 'Changes in the rate of domestic violent crime' Presentation at Regional meeting of Royal Statistical Society at Loughborough University March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussions afterwards in this mixed academic and practitioner audience

Further contacts and requests for engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Changing the Rate of Domestic Violence: Moving Measurement, Theory and Policy From the Margins to the Mainstream', European Domestic Violence Conference, Queen's University, Belfast September 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Questions and discussions with this mixed academic and practitioner audience

Continuing engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Combating all forms of violence against women and girls: Renewing the EU strategy' Plenary Presentation to Italian Presidency of the EU conference on the EU Strategy on Equality between women and men, Rome, October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk contributed to discussions on the development of EU Strategic Policy on gender equality

I received questions and comments both following my talk in the session and later (since it was web-streamed)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 'Gender and Violence' presentation at the University of South Australia at Magil, Australia, November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussions afterwards

Discussions continued in other international fora
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 'Improving the measurement of domestic violence' UK Statistics Authority 'Better Statistics Better Decisions- Crime Statistics Seminar, London, 9 June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The contents of the talk were reported widely in the media. ONS initiated a review of its policy on statistics in relation to high frequency victimisation in in the Crime Survey for England and Wales, citing our research findings in their reasons for this review.

ONS visited the research team in order to consult them for their review of the 'capping' methodology.
Walby was invited onto the steering committee of the ONS Review of Crime Statistics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Mainstreaming gender into the theory and measurement of violent crime', University of Liverpool, May 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Sparked questions and discussion

continuing discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Measuring gender-based violence' conference of European Institute for Gender Equality, Brussels, February 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Questions and discussion.

Continued engagement with EU level policy makers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Measuring violence against women and domestic violence for the Council of Europe Istanbul Convention Article 11' Council of Europe, Paris, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Questions and discussion; engagement with policy makers on statistics on gender violence

Engagement with the Council of Europe policy makers concerned to implement Article 11 of the Istanbul Convention, which concerns data collection and analysis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Preventing gender based violence against women: Can this be mainstreamed?' Public lecture, National University of Ireland at Galway, May 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sparked questions and discussion

continuing discussions with academics and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'The boundary between violence and non-violence' Lancaster University Violence & Society Research Day III December 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The talk stimulated thinking and generated questions and debate on the issues raised

Increased requests for information and strengthened the Violence & Society research group links
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/arts-and-social-sciences/news-and-events/events-archive/5073
 
Description 'The gendered nature of violence: Challenging the conventional analysis of vioelnce crime' Lancaster University Violence & Society research Day II June 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact the talk sparked considerable discussion about the gendered nature of violence, mainstreaming gendered violence and specialised practices in the VAWGs field.

Colleagues asked for expert help in accessing violence data from the CSEW
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/english/event/4841/
 
Description 'Towards a composite measure of violence against women', presentation to conference of European Institute for Gender Equality, Brussels, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Questions, discussions and engagement on policy issues concerning new ways of measuring gender based violence

Contribution to policy development on statistics on gender based violence in the EU
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Using gender mainstreaming in the prevention of violence against women: potentials and pitfalls' presentation to NGO Forum at UN Commission on the Status of Women, 12 March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Questions and discussion

Continuing discussions with academics and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Violent crime' or 'course of coercive control'? Findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales' presented at annual conference of Women's Aid Federation at University of Aston July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Questions, discussions and continuing engagement.

Invited to contribute to the development of the measurement practices of the Women's Aid Federation.
Asked for advice by Women's Aid on how to estimate the numbers in need of specialised services for review by the Department for Communities and Local Government.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A latent variable approach for dealing with heaping and "too many to count" in the yearly incidence of domestic violence in England and Wales. Firb workshop conference rome january 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact collaboration between statisticians and sociologists

new ideas generated for academic paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ESRC Postgraduate conference keynote talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Key note to ESRC research students 'Constructing statistics: Challenging the fall in violent crime'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Engage N8 Policing Research Partnership 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and engagement with police on improving their research capacity in relation to evidence based policing. The specific focus was domestic violence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Estimating Lifetime Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence: Are the current lifetime estimates too low? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation at Conference on the Future of Security and Protecting Science Conference hosted by Security Lancaster, with an audience of academics and policy makers.

There were questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Eve Saville lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact presented the annual Eve Saville lecture for the Centre of Crime and Justice studies 'Is violent crime increasing?'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gender-Based Violence Research Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The team organised and participated in (delivering the key note address and specialist papers based on the SDAI project work) this gender-based violence research day as a way to develop a local violence and society network in the North West (of England). This has been followed up with a further research day (trafficking) and planning for a third on defining violence).

Established a 'Violence and Society' research network based at Lancaster University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited discussion of the Crime Survey for England and Wales with the UK Home Office, concerning its structure and how it might be improved; and implications of findings. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The presentation and ensuing discussion is likely to have contributed to decisions being made as to how best to improve the quality of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. In addition there was discussion as to the implications of the strengths and weaknesses of the Home Office methodology for the measurement of the cost of domestic violence and other forms of gender based violence against women.


The engagement with the Home Office is on-going. We hope and anticipate that we are contributing to the improvement of the quality of the data that is necessary for effective decision-making to reduce domestic violence and other forms of gender based violence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited speaker: London School of Economics 'Is domestic violence changing' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Multiple requests to be added to our mailing list for publications and briefing sheets.
Multiple email enquiries following up on specific aspects of the talk.

There were several requests for further information, including by the Home Office, which has led to further engagement in policy matters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Is Domestic violence the exception to declining crime rates? conference presentation to American society of criminology, November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk generated a lot of questions and discussion

plans to write a research paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Measuring changes in domestic violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented to the annual British Crime Survey Users Group meeting. The talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We received requests for further information.
It introduced our research to experts in the field both professional and academic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description N8 Policing Research Partnership Training and Learning workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to the 'Data Analytics, Management and Mapping' workshop entitled 'The concept and measurement of violent crime'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Police Foundation Conference: 'What do we know about domestic violence: New findings from the CSEW' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact questions and discussion

Further requests for information.
Requests for future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description RSS Joint Official Statistics and Social Statistics panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited discussant on panel 'Capping of incidents of crime within the Crime Survey for England and Wales - a review of the methodology for addressing high frequency victimization in estimates'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=F2PufrVvD9k
 
Description Reappraising the Measurement of Domestic Violence Using the CSEW' Crime Survey Users Group December 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk sparked many discussions and led to networking opportunities with other academics in the field and with professional practitioners working on the design of the CSEW and the analysis of its data for official publication.

The Office for National Statistics confirmed its interest in our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SDAI project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Set up a website dedicated to the SDAI project

Requests for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/projects/domestic-violence/index.htm
 
Description Safe Lives 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to and discussions with Safe Lives NGO 'Violent crime is increasing not decreasing: the significance of domestic violence and violence against women'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Senior Learners Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to the lifelong learning 'Senior Learners Group' based at Lancaster University 'The politics of counting: Is violence increasing or decreasing in England and Wales?'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Strategic action at the European Union level: Ways forward to prevent violence against women 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Lecture given at the European Parliament for International Women's Day which was informed by work on domestic violence undertaken by the research project.

There was engaged discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description UK UNESCO Chairs Programme Colloquium: 'Gender-based violence: Developing policy-relevant research' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact questions and discussion

requests for further information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description UN Women 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact talk to UN Women at New York headquarters 'Crisis, Austerity and Inequality'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Violence against Women Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk to European practitioners 'Measuring Violence to End Violence: The concept and measurement of violence against women and men'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Women's Aid meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to discuss the concept and measurement of violence against women and men in order to help develop a new measurement framework for violence against women NGOs in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description public engagement - Woman's Hour 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on BBC 'Woman's Hour'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description talk to public group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to Soroptimists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017