Changing Commutes? Exploring the uptake of cycling to work through an agent-based model focusing on social interactions and social norms

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Institute of Public Health

Abstract

This project stands to deliver high impact policy and practitioner relevant research on how to achieve a step-change in cycle commuting in the UK, through a novel use of existing data. Climate change necessitates a move towards a sustainable transport system, with around a quarter of transport's carbon dioxide emissions coming from the commute. Cycling could make a significant contribution to reducing these emissions, while simultaneously increasing the population's physical activity, thereby improving physical and mental health and well-being. Other benefits could include reduced congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution.

Government seeks to increase cycling with current initiatives including the Local Sustainable Transport Fund and the previous government's Cycling City and Towns programme. There are big variations in cycle commuting between cities in the UK, with evidence of an increase in cycling in some areas. However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of interventions and, where that exists, the population impact is small.

Improving our understanding of how behaviours change is an ESRC strategic priority area. Social science insights can direct attention to how locally specific cultures, social identities, and changing social processes, shape transport behaviours. Instead of focusing on discrete interventions in isolation, social science can help us look at transport systems and their dynamics.

Agent based modelling (ABM) is increasingly used in social science, but is underused in this area. ABMs have been used to show how complex and recognisable social systems can be generated from small scale interactions. In ABM agents, usually individual people, behave according to specified rules but can also learn and change how they respond to events. Agents interact with other agents in geographical space and/or in social networks. They act based on the information available to them about their environment and what other agents are doing.

ABMs are mathematical models but their rules can be constructed using qualitative data. Currently most ABMs used in transport look at route choice, rather than social relations. However, commuting behaviour is strongly driven by habits, social norms, and social interactions. People may be influenced by seeing different kinds of people cycling or not cycling, and learn from talking with neighbours, friends and colleagues. In the workplace, organisations (e.g. Bicycle User Groups) might affect behaviour. We will examine policy measures from the Visions 2030 Walking and Cycling Project to see how these might influence, and by influenced by, social interactions.

We will use qualitative studies to develop rules around how people make commuting choices. We have chosen to develop the model focusing on cycling and commuting in 3 English urban areas (Chester, Bristol and Cambridge). The first two have seen an increase in cycling but still have considerable untapped potential. The third, Cambridge, has the highest level of cycling in the UK. The choice of areas will allow us to consider how behaviours might change as cycling becomes more normal. We will use workshops and a Delphi approach with academics and practitioners to investigate how the rules might be generalised to other areas.

Our populations will be diverse with differences in age, gender, workplace, socio-economic position, and environmental attitudes (using DEFRA's sustainable lifestyles framework). We will use data from quantitative studies to represent these populations and test the model's predictions.

This project will build knowledge about how and why commuting behaviours change. We will develop outputs for practitioners, policy-makers, and academics, including academic articles, a project blog, and a final report. An online model will allow users to explore likely potential changes in cycling levels in relation to policy or other changes, using the three cities as examples.

Planned Impact

Our project will generate multiple Research Councils UK-identified economic and societal impacts:
-Improving health and well-being
-Evidence based policy making and influencing public policies
-Enhancing the effectiveness and sustainability of organisations
-Environmental sustainability, protection and impact
-Increasing public engagement with research and related societal issues

We have identified the following impact objectives to achieve these:
1. Build awareness of the project among practitioners and policy-makers whose work involves or is affected by transport modelling
2. Make transport modelling more pluralistic by using an innovative approach starting from social interactions
3. Contribute to a new generation of transport modelling focused on transition and achieving shift to active and sustainable modes
4. Build knowledge among 'behaviour change' practitioners about how socio-cultural factors shape responses to interventions

Immediate beneficiaries fall into two groups:
1. Policy-makers and practitioners who use, or whose activities are affected by, transport modelling
2. Practitioners interested in how our project can contribute to travel planning and behaviour change initiatives, particularly at a workplace level.

Increasing cycling could bring substantial population health benefits, reducing the burden of diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia and depression. Modal shift away from motorised transport can bring multiple environmental benefits (e.g. reducing local air and noise pollution). Increasing understanding of how a step-change in cycling could occur will generate significant benefits for those with responsibility for public health (including now Local Authorities) and environmental sustainability.

Our research can increase the effectiveness of public services and policy at a local and national level. Our first core user group centrally includes transport planners and engineers, and also groups such as public health professionals seeking to promote active travel and policy-makers with responsibility for meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets. DEFRA and DfT have expressed interest in our research (particularly our development of the Sustainable Lifestyles Framework to explore social factors shaping behaviour change).

Many within this user group recognise the limitations of traditional transport modelling approaches for addressing questions of transition and transport modal shift. We seek to build awareness of alternative and emerging approaches to modelling that encourage and enable progress towards such objectives. Our approach brings to the foreground social interactions and cultural change, and how these shape follow-on and longer-term effects of policy. This focus is in line with ongoing shifts within academic modelling, but as of yet has had limited practical impact on policy. Therefore, our second objective is to provide an example of an alternative approach that can be used to inform policy.

Our second key user group includes employers seeking to reduce their carbon footprint, and deciding upon travel plans, and considering how to evaluate these plans. Beyond the individual employer are local organisations promoting sustainable travel such as the Cambridgeshire Travel for Work Partnership (also a data provider). This organisation and others like it will benefit from the development of knowledge about interventions and behaviour change.

For similar reasons the research is relevant to cycling industries, including the growing number of organisations planning delivery of cycling infrastructure or training (e.g. Sustrans, Cycle Training UK) and other 'soft measures' (such as 'travel champions' at work). In developing interventions and their own business plans, these organisations can learn from our examination of how behaviour change is affected by context, shaped by interpersonal interactions, and how it might dissipate or continue over time.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description What have you discovered or developed through the research funded on this grant? Please explain for a non-specialist audience
The Changing Commutes project's findings at this point can be described under three main areas. The first two relate to our re-analysis of quantitative and qualitative data as part of the project. The quantitative data re-analysed is from Census 2001 and 2011, while the qualitative data re-analysed came from three research projects (Cycling Cultures, Cycling Cities and Towns Qualitative Data, and Commuting and Health in Cambridge). One of our published papers has been accessed thousands of times already this year. Future findings will be forthcoming through 2016.
1) Our first finding is that in areas in the UK where cycling has increased gender equity has not improved, and age inequalities have marginally widened:
In low-cycling countries, cycling is not evenly distributed across genders and age groups. In the UK, men are twice as likely as women to cycle to work and cycling tends to be dominated by younger adults. By contrast, in higher cycling countries and cities, gender differences are low or absent. Such places also lack the UK's steady decline in cycling among those aged over 35 years. Over the past fifteen years some UK local areas have seen increases in cycling. We analysed data from the English and Welsh Census 2001 and 2011 to examine whether such increases are associated with greater diversity among cyclists. We found that in areas where cycling has increased, there has been no increase in the representation of females, and a decrease in the representation of older adults. Creating a mass cycling culture may require deliberately targeting infrastructure and policies towards currently under-represented groups.
2) Our second finding is that use of safety clothing is described as primarily motivated by perceived motor traffic danger. There is substantial pressure on cyclists to wear safety clothing, although many are reluctant and even resistant. Policy-makers should consider carefully the role of safety clothing within a transition to a safer, high-cycling culture.
This qualitative research contributes to debates around cycle safety clothing, specifically helmets and high-visibility clothing. In England such items are widely promoted in safety campaigns and in broader cycling publicity, particularly for children. However, the impact of this approach on cycling safety and cycling uptake is unclear and contested. This article uses a combined analysis of three sets of qualitative interview data to explore talk about cycle helmets and high-visibility clothing.
Reported use of safety clothing was strongly associated with perceived threat from motor vehicles, but accompanied by scepticism about effectiveness. Many interviewees felt and/or exerted social pressure to wear a helmet, and, to a lesser extent, high-visibility clothing. Analysis identified a widespread dislike of safety clothing, sometimes linked to talk about cycling less because of the perceived need to wear such clothing. We found evidence of resistance to social pressure, expressed by complaining about inconvenience, discomfort (helmets), and personal appearance.
Our findings suggest that policy-makers and practitioners should carefully consider how promoting safety clothing might impact cycling uptake and experiences. Policy goals of increasing cycling and making it more 'normal' and subjectively safer might imply reducing or even avoiding the use of such accessories in everyday utility cycling contexts, and relying on alternative strategies to improve cycling safety.

3) The research and academic team have developed methods, skills, and expertise in the project that have then been applied in further projects. These are, 'The National Propensity to Cycle Tool (NPCT)', 'A microsimulation model of the Health Checks programme' (Health Checks), and 'The Near Miss Project'.
The NPCT study (funded by the Department for Transport) is led by Dr James Woodcock with Dr Rachel Aldred as co-investigator. The project is developing a tool for national and regional transport planner to support decisions on where to invest in cycling; a prototype is available here www.pct.bike and the related impacts of cycling tool is available at www.pct.bike/ICT The project is high impact, and the prototype model resulted in the team being awarded second place in the London Cycling Design Awards for technical innovation in 2015. The models for this project are available under an open source licence. Version 1 of the full model covering all local authorities in England will be available from July 2016. Ali Abbas, researcher on the Changing Commutes project has contributed to the development of this project.
Parts of the spatial microsimulation methods used in the NPCT were, in particular the 'flow allocation' method, developed for the Changing Commutes project.
The Health Checks study, led by Dr James Woodcock, is funded by Public Health England. In the project we are developing an individual level model of the Health Checks Programme. The longitudinal simulation of individuals has benefited from the approach used in the Changing Commutes model. The model will be made available to health planner and the wider public with open source code in late 2016.
The Near Miss Project, led by Dr Rachel Aldred, is funded by the Knowledge Exchange Hub, Creative Exchange and the SME, Blaze. It explores cyclists' experience of near miss or non-injury incidents, and has been the first study to calculate a per-mile non-injury incident rate for UK cyclists. This is a project with high impact, which has just been funded for a second year. It has already led to two journal articles (one published, one under second stage peer review) and a high profile report and stakeholder launch event.
Exploitation Route Our findings feed into debates on promotion of cycling safety equipment.
Our model contributes to the growing interest both in using qualitative data to inform model development and in applying Practice Theories to modelling.
Our results are useful for questions on how growth in cycling relates to gender and age equity in cycling.
Sectors Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Transport

URL http://changingcommutes.org/
 
Description The Changing Commutes project's impact up to this point can be described under three main areas. The first two relate to our re-analysis of quantitative and qualitative data as part of the project. The quantitative data re-analysed is from Census 2001 and 2011, while the qualitative data re-analysed came from three research projects (Cycling Cultures, Cycling Cities and Towns Qualitative Data, and Commuting and Health in Cambridge). One of our published papers has been accessed thousands of times already this year, while the website for the project has had 1,380 unique visits to date, and generated contacts from interested policy-makers. 1) Our findings that increases in cycling in England and Wales did not lead to increased equity in cycling have helped shift policy approaches, leading to a greater acceptance that (i) infrastructure standards need to be higher and (ii) there is a need to specifically study and target the needs of currently under-represented groups. The analysis has been presented at practitioner conferences (e.g. Hackney Cycling Conference 2014, London Cycling Show 2015). This has led to Rachel Aldred being contacted by practitioners and increased interest expressed in addressing issues around cycling and diversity (for example, input into London Borough Cycling Strategies). The paper is the 4th most read (online) Transport Reviews article with 3453 views, and an Altmetric score of 121. It has also been cited by TfL in presentations (for example, to London Cycling Show 2015). The work was presented to a DfT analysts' seminar in 2015 and to Transport for London. 2) Our analysis of safety gear and the normalisation of cycling have contributed to a changing policy debate on how to market cycling. Many authorities including Transport for London and Bristol City Council now use a much more diverse range of images (people and clothing) and TfL now has a specific strand of work on 'normalising cycling'. We presented this work at the Public Health England Conference in 2014. Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents expressed interest in relation to the development of their policy on cycle helmets and we sent them an advance copy of the paper. Through the Centre for Science and Policy framework results were also presented to Jessica Matthew (Deputy Director, Road User Licensing, Insurance and Safety, Department for Transport). 3) The research and academic team have developed experience and relationships with policy makers that have contributed to the development of three related projects that are closely aligned to policy. These are, 'The National Propensity to Cycle Tool (NPCT)', 'A microsimulation model of the Health Checks programme' (Health Checks), and 'The Near Miss Project'. The NPCT study (funded by the Department for Transport) is led by Dr James Woodcock with Dr Rachel Aldred as co-investigator. The project is developing a tool for national and regional transport planner to support decisions on where to invest in cycling; a prototype is available here www.pct.bike and the related www.pct.bike/ICT The project is high impact, and the prototype model resulted in the team being awarded second place in the London Cycling Design Awards for technical innovation in 2015. The models for this project are available under an open source licence. Version 1 of the full model covering all local authorities in England will be available from June 2016. Ali Abbas, researcher on the Changing Commutes project has contributed to the development of this project. Further models are being developed for the DfT by Dr Robin Lovelace to extend this approach Parts of the spatial microsimulation methods used in the NPCT were, in particular the 'flow allocation' method, developed for the Changing Commutes project. The Changing Commutes project directly supported a collaboration with Cambridgeshire County Council in which we fed in to their Transport Joint Strategic Needs Analysis. The wider work of the NPCT has led to interest from multiple regional transport planning authorities, and a further EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant to work with Transport for Greater Manchester. We are also discussing using the NPCT to support the new Cycling Walking and Investment Strategy. The Health Checks study, led by Dr James Woodcock, is funded by Public Health England. In the project we are developing an individual level model of the Health Checks Programme. The longitudinal simulation of individuals has benefited from the approach used in the Changing Commutes model. The model is available to health planners and the wider public with open source code https://github.com/chjackson/healthchecks. The Near Miss Project, led by Dr Rachel Aldred, is funded by the Knowledge Exchange Hub, Creative Exchange and the SME, Blaze. It explores cyclists' experience of near miss or non-injury incidents, and has been the first study to calculate a per-mile non-injury incident rate for UK cyclists. This is a project with high impact, which has just been funded for a second year. It has already led to two journal articles (one published, one under second stage peer review) and a high profile report and stakeholder launch event. Dr Rachel Aldred has also been invited to join (and speak at an upcoming event for) the TfL Economic Case for Cycling Working Group with representatives from business, DfT, boroughs etc. One aim of this group is to collect, generate and disseminated evidence around the broader economic impact of cycling schemes. Challenges Various challenges had to be faced during the project. Two important secondary data sources that we reasonably expected to be able to access were not available. Firstly, and most significantly, the Cycling City and Towns baseline data was withdrawn by the Department for Transport due to problems with the data. The reasons for withdrawal were not immediately made clear and Dr Woodcock invested considerable time, over approximately nine months, trying to get hold of the update data which was to be released but has in fact not been released. The data would have provided detailed individual level travel and attitudinal data for our three intended settings. Although the Cycling City and Towns qualitative data was not affected by the same problems additional time was taken to access the data due to heightened concerns following the problems with the quantitative data. A second data set was from Bristol where detailed data on travel to work had been collected and was promised to the team. However, despite repeated requests to provide the data, changing personnel and priorities at Bristol City Council meant that in the end the data was not provided. In summary Our models and findings have been presented at multiple conferences and meetings to a range of audiences including academics, practitioners, and policy makers. Impacts have begun to change policy specifically around the cultural 'normalisation' of cycling and the approach taken to achieving a more equitable age and gender balance in cycling.
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Transport
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description DfT Expert Meeting on Climate Change Mitigation and Health
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The workshop is being used for the development of DfT policy on how to reduce transport emissions by mode shift.
 
Description DfT Working Group on Academic Input into WebTAG
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Health as the pulse of the new urban agenda: United Nations conference on housing and sustainable urban development, Quito, October 2016 Cited by World Health Organization on 01 Jan 2016
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/250367
 
Description McKinsey's Obesity review
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/economic_studies/how_the_world_could_better_fight_obesity
 
Description Participation to two policy workshops on strategies to promote cycling with civil servants from the Department for Transport.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Propensity to Cycle Tool Training
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://www.pct.bike/
 
Description CILT Seed Corn Funding (Rachel Aldred, with Phil Jones Associates)
Amount £7,500 (GBP)
Organisation Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 04/2015
 
Description DfT provision of research programme into cycling, propensity to cycle tool
Amount £365,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RM5019-SO-7766 
Organisation Department of Transport 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 03/2017
 
Description EPSRC Impact Acceleration Account
Amount £42,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 02/2016
 
Description ESRC Impact Acceleration Award
Amount £16,868 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/M500409/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 10/2016
 
Description Health Systems Research Initiative Trial Development Grant
Amount £104,000 (GBP)
Organisation Joint Health Systems Research Initiative MRC/ESRC 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Description Modelling 'Health Checks Programme'
Amount £65,000 (GBP)
Organisation Public Health England 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 05/2015
 
Title Changing Commutes model 
Description Agent based model of cycle commuting for three different English contexts. The model represents the dynamics of social influence, social learning and road traffic incidents on the loss and accumulation of cycling safety gear, on associations of cycling with danger, and on the number of cyclists. The model will be made publicly available on OpenABM with the publication of the article describing it. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact To be determined. Model has been presented to multiple research groups and at conferences. 
URL http://changingcommutes.org/
 
Title Impacts of Cycling Tool 
Description The Impacts of Cycling Tool is a model and web tool for analysing travel surveys and comparing the outcomes of increases in the likelihood of cycling amongst different population groups. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have presented the ICT to DfT and international stakeholders. 
URL http://www.pct.bike/ict
 
Title Propensity to Cycle Tool 
Description The PCT is a model and on-line tool to evaluate areas and routes with the greatest cycling potential. It also estimates corresponding health benefits (through increased phsyical activity) and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The PCT is an open source tool funded by the DfT and is now being used by many local authorities in planning on where to invest in cycling 
URL http://www.pct.bike
 
Description Ruth Hunter NIHR fellow advisory board 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborating on development of agent based models in fellowship New partnership. The project will include placements in Cambridge for the researcher.
Collaborator Contribution Queen's are leading the development of the the agent based model
Impact New partnership. The project will include placements in Cambridge for the researcher.
Start Year 2015
 
Description BBC Radio 4' Right of Way: Cycling and the City 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact James Woodcock / CEDAR featured on BBC Radio 4' Right of Way: Cycling and the City. 15/01/2014


To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03pjfj3
 
Description Campaign for Better Transport roundtable 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Organised by the Campaign for Better Transport, a NGO which promotes sustainable transport policies, in association with a number of other organisations. The round table comes from discussions with officials at the Treasury, who want to understand the evidence base on Government interventions and programmes, to inform the forthcoming Spending Review and the development of the Cycling & Walking Investment Strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Changing Commutes website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Website created for Changing Commutes project. Regularly updated with information about the study and presentations given.

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://changingcommutes.org/
 
Description Changing Commutes work in progress seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given to modellers and others at Manchester University and MMU, organised by the Centre for Policy Modelling as part of their regular series.

Made connections that led to organisation of webinar and to invitations to speak at later events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Changing Commutes: Presentation to University of Surrey workshop on practice theory and agent-based modelling 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to University of Surrey workshop on practice theory and agent-based modelling, 'Modelling Social Energy Practices'. Rachel Aldred and James Woodcock also participated in panels held at the event.

TBA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Changing Commutes: presentation to the UWE Transport and Society Seminar Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation about the project as part of the UWE CTS Seminar Series by Ali Abbas, Rachel Aldred, and James Woodcock

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Changing Commutes? Frontiers in Transportation Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Invited talk about the project given at the Munich workshop, Frontiers in Transportation - Social Interactions, 31 July - 4 August 2013

TBA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Cycle Planning Awards 2016 - PCT - bikebiz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Propensity to Cycle Tool awarded Highly Commended in "Best innovation - use of technology or new technique category" at Cycle Planning Awards 2016. Reported in online specialist news reports http://www.bikebiz.com/news/read/london-wins-big-at-cycle-planning-awards/020144
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bikebiz.com/news/read/london-wins-big-at-cycle-planning-awards/020144
 
Description Cycle commuting in England Public Health and Sustainability Modelling working group 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk on the Changing Commutes model for Public Health and Sustainability Modelling working group workshop, held on 28th April 2014. This workshop is organized by Public Health at Cambridge network - http://www.publichealth.cam.ac.uk/.

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Cycling uptake and cycling systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop with students, academics, and practitioners in Lund University, focusing on developing knowledge about rules for model building, by exploring perspectives from higher-cycling contexts.

TBA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description ESRC Research Methods Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact ESRC Research Methods Festival Oxford, Using Secondary Analysis to Research Individual Behaviour; James Woodcock


To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ncrm.ac.uk/RMF2014/programme/session.php?id=A2
 
Description European Social Simulation Association Conference 2014 ESSA@work 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Cycling to work through an agent-­based model focusing on social interactions and norms

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bsc.es/essa/essa-work
 
Description Getting Women Cycling: invited talk at the London Cycling Show, 12th September 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Spoke at the London Cycling Show; presentation covered analysis conducted as part of the Changing Commutes project.

As with the Hackney Cycling Conference, this event generated contacts from practitioners interested in mainstreaming gender and age equity into cycle planning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited talk to the Transport Economists Group, September 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to speak on 'Is Transport Appraisal Failing Cycling' to the Transport Economists' Group. Continued my intervention into appraisal techniques which has now been strengthened by Yaron Hollander's work (ex-of TfL), who has published a report on the topic recently making related/similar points.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description LSTHM Transport and Health seminar series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact LSTHM Transport and Health seminar series, London "Cycle commuting in England: an agent based model of changing practices"". James Woodcock, Ali Abbas. 18/03/2014


To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://blogs.lshtm.ac.uk/transportandhealth/seminar-series/
 
Description Meeting with Andrew Limb Head of Corporate Strategy, Cambridge City Council) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussed data and models and their applicability to transport and health problems in Cambridgeshire
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/people/policy-fellows/
 
Description Meeting with Dr Claire Craig, Deputy Head, Government Office for Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion with Dr. Craig (facilitated via C-SaP, Centre for Science and Policy) which included dissemination of Changing Commutes project and progress.

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Meeting with Jessica Matthew: Deputy Director, Road User Licensing, Insurance and Safety, Department for Transport 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussed with Jessica (Deputy Director, Road User Licensing, Insurance and Safety, Department for Transport) her questions on road traffic injury risk and danger

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/network/jessica-matthew/
 
Description Meeting with Katy King Behavioural Insights Team 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussed insights from Changing Commutes project and use of Propensity to Cycle tool (NPCT)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/people/policy-fellows/
 
Description Meeting with Philip Rutnam, Permanent Secretary, Department for Transport 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meeting with Philip Rutnam who is a Policy Leaders Fellow at the Centre for Science and Policy.

Was provided with contacts in the Department for Transport around modelling using WebTag. These have been followed up and information has been shared around inclusion of morbidity in addition to mortality in assessment of physical activity benefits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Meeting with Tunbridge Wells Cycling Officers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A meeting to promote the use of the NPCT in Tunbridge Wells and to test the local accuracy of the results and to plan for a report including visualisations of streets with new cycling infrastructure and place making.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Member: TfL Cycling Economic Case Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member (representing academia) of TfL working group on the Economic Case for Cycling. Ongoing. Have presented, reviewed documents, attended events as part of this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Microsimulation of chronic disease, LSHTM workshop talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Microsimulation of chronic disease: current methods and future directions, London. Use of agent-based models in chronic disease modelling to evaluate the impact of complex public health interventions. Ali Abbas, James Woodcock. 27/02/2014

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Modelling Complexity in Public Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given by Dr Chalabi by Skype at '20 years of Public Health Education' event, LMU Munchen (Germany).

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Modelling Cycling: Health, culture and complexity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk for Modelling World 2014

Have discussed with representatives for Landor who organised the conference plans for future conferences focussing on active travel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Modelling Social Energy Practices, University of Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Modelling Social Energy Practices, University of Surrey Guildford Oral presentation "Presentation of Changing Commutes" James Woodcock, Ali Abbas

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Modelling on the move seminar 6 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact From Cross-Sectional to Dynamic Relationships at final Modelling on the Move seminar

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://modellingonthemove.org/cycling-and-transport-modelling-slides-and-audio-recordings/
 
Description Online news articles on Propensity to Cycle Tool 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article "Transport model offers a vision of future cycling routes" on the Propensity to Cycle Tool published in Transport Extra https://www.transportxtra.com/publications/local-tranpsort-today/news/48750/transport-model-offers-a-vision-of-future-cycling-routes and Get Britain Cycling http://getbritaincycling.net/tool-maps-future-shape-of-commuter-cycling/. Includes very positive quote by Shane Snow, who heads the policy team for improving the inclusivity of transport and the ease of travel across all transport modes at the Department for Transport.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.transportxtra.com/publications/local-tranpsort-today/news/48750/transport-model-offers-a...
 
Description PCT - As Easy as Riding a bike blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog post on "As Easy as Riding a bike" blog - "Propensity to Cycle, and the importance of main roads" https://aseasyasridingabike.wordpress.com/2016/05/26/propensity-to-cycle-and-the-importance-of-main-roads/ High level of online engagement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://aseasyasridingabike.wordpress.com/2016/05/26/propensity-to-cycle-and-the-importance-of-main-...
 
Description Presentation on Using Qualitative Data for Modelling 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given to the qualitative methods in health research masterclass series.

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Propensity to Cycle tool promotional video 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Organized video shoot in London by Cambridge FilmWorks on 23 May for Propensity to Cycle tool promotional video, with follow-up recording in Cambridge on 6 June. Unit researchers and comms team were heavily involved in drafting the script and planning the filming, and were interviewed in the video. Also provided comment during the editing process. Video https://youtu.be/58UaVb8ZCrc used on PCT website http://pct.bike/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://youtu.be/58UaVb8ZCrc
 
Description Public Health at Cambridge CSaP presentation on modelling 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation of public health modelling issues, uncertainties and trade-offs to mixture of academic and practitioner audience at Cambridge

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Summer School on Transport, Aalto University Finland, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited to speak (two slots) at Aalto University's annual Summer School on Transport. Later contacted by postgraduate students interested in my research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The Politics of Cycle Safety in London: talk to the European Transport Conference, Frankfurt, 1st October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Spoke at the European Transport Conference in Frankfurt.

Discussed research and modelling with colleagues at Goethe University Frankfurt which is leading to ongoing collaboration in relation to MSc student dissertation work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Towards Cycling for Everyone: presentation to the Third Hackney Cycling Conference, June 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote speaker at the third Hackney Cycling Conference talking about gender and age equity in cycle commuting.

Contacts from local authorities (including Lambeth, Brighton and Hove) asking for input related to diversity and cycling (e.g. for cycling strategy, for monitoring and evaluation).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.hackney.gov.uk/cycling-conference.htm
 
Description Transport modelling: what can qualitative methods offer? Talk by Rachel Aldred 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar in Lund University, Sweden, as part of a series on social and cultural issues in cycling.

TBA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Why has modelling often marginalised cycling? Talk by Rachel Aldred to Modelling World 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact TBA.

To be determined
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://landor.co.uk/modellingworld/2014/Conference/programme.php
 
Description meeting with Jonathan Ireland Deputy Director DECC Scottish Govt 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meeting with Jonathan Ireland on climate change mitigation and health and behaviour change
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/people/policy-fellows/