BULLYING, CYBERBULLYING, AND PUPIL SAFETY AND WELL-BEING

Lead Research Organisation: Goldsmiths College
Department Name: Psychology

Abstract

Pupil safety and well-being, including bullying and cyberbullying, are vital issues. Cross-national collaboration is limited, and contact between Indian researchers and European researchers almost non-existent. This network brings together 4 European research teams, and 2 Indian teams. We will share knowledge and expertise, and produce joint publications and resources for practitioners, in 5 topic areas: use and abuse of new technologies including cyberbullying; social networks in pupils including bullying roles and bystanders; life skills, health and risk-taking; influence of educational and cultural variables in measurement, explanation, and theory-building; and intervention strategies including teacher training, peer support and parent support.

Planned Impact

Not Applicable

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description As part of a wider network, the UK team has been particularly involved in two out of 5 themes concerned with bullying and pupil safety and well-being.
The first is looking at measurement issues around bullying in schools and young people. We were interested in how terms for this in India (in Punjabi, and Tamil) compared with terms in England (and some other countries). To this end we adapted a stick figure cartoon task, previously used in a number of countries, but not before in India. We piloted the cartoons, making some revisions to accommodate to some typical Indian school situations. The cartoon task was given to samples in England and India (2 sites). For wider comparison it will also be given in Australia, Brazil, Lithuania, Russia and Thailand. Data are currently being analysed, and will show the meaning profile of terms. For example in Punjabi, the terms 1.Dhakeshahi, 2.Pange laina, and 3.Baar baar tang karna, will be compared with English 1. Bullying 2. Teasing 3. Harassment. From the 40 cartoon scenarios, pupils aged 14 years say whether (yes/no) each is an example of each of these terms.
The second is a review of anti-bullying work in schools and
findings from a specially designed Bullying questionnaire for Punjabi and Tamil schools. Similarities and differences between the European and Indian definitions of bullying and the types of intervention used to prevent and respond to bullying in these different cultures were investigated. Findings from the Punjab and Tamil Nadu indicate that teachers had witnessed bullying in their schools; but few schools reported any formal anti-bullying intervention and teachers tended to respond to bullying incidents using a variety of sanctions, including involving the principal; meetings with students' parents and exclusion dependent on the severity of the incident. Most Indian teachers wanted more information and resources about bullying and anti-bullying interventions.
Exploitation Route The 40 cartoon set is on the website and it and the protocol for use are available for other researchers.
The findings comparing knowledge of and use of anti-bullying strategies in England and India can be useful for Indian educators and colleagues in informing school policies on bullying and cyberbullying there. Resources for teachers will be made available on the website as we finalise our analyses and reports.
Sectors Education

URL https://sites.google.com/site/cyberbullyingeuindian/
 
Description We have disseminated our work at open meetings associated with our workshops, in Munich (Germany), Patiala (India), Nice (France), Annamalai (India), Amsterdam (Netherlands) and London (UK). We did use our work as part of a basis for an application to the British Academy, ' Bullying, cyberbullying, and pupil well-being in schools', featuring UK, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Unfortunately the application was not successful. The findings from the wider network, including also colleagues from Australia, will feature in an edited book, 'Bullying, cyberbullying and pupil well-being in schools: Comparing European, Australian and Indian Perspectives', which has been accepted for publication by Cambridge University Press. The book will have 17 chapters of which the UK team will co-author 4. The PI (Professor Smith) is the lead editor of this book. It is 'in press' and will be published in summer 2018. More detailed results may be submitted to academic journals. Due to the delays in starting the project and some extensive pilot work required due to very different cultural circumstances, most data has only been gathered either in 2015 or still continuing into 2016, and much is still being analysed.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Education
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Erasmus+
Amount € 291,359 (EUR)
Funding ID 2017-1-UK01-KA201-036554 
Organisation erasmus + 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2019
 
Title Actions on bullying questionnaire 
Description This questionnaire was designed for use in Indian schools, to find out what actions they take to prevent or respond to bullying. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is now available on our website. Findings from our Network will appear in a chapter in the edited book. 
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Title Indo-European Survey Questionnaire 
Description This survey was designed for use with Indian and European samples, covering demographic information, access to and use of electronic devices, risky online behaviour, things that have happened to them, and coping and support. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is now available on our website. Findings from our Network will appear in a chapter in the edited book. 
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Title Revised 40-item cartoon task 
Description A 40 scenario stick figure task to examine meanings of terms similar to bullying, in different languages. An earlier 25-item set was published, as Smith, P.K., Cowie, H., Olafsson, R. & Liefooghe, A.P.D. in collaboration with 17 additional authors (2002). Definitions of bullying: a comparison of terms used, and age and sex differences, in a 14-country international comparison. Child Development, 73, 1119-1133. This revised version both updates (e.g. scenarios for cyberbullying, such as 'Keely tells everyone on Facebook not to talk to Patricia'; and includes scenarios relevant to Indian pupils especially (such as 'Felix sneers at the kind of food Trevor eats'). (N.B. names are changed to suit the culture, UK examples here). We have used 14-year old pupils though the task is suitable for a range of ages. Pupils are shown each scenario one by one for a few seconds, and are asked to say yes/no as to whether this is an example of X, where X is a term similar to 'bullying' in the language (in English we have used bullying, teasing and harassment as 3 terms). This will give the meaning profiler of each term across the 40 scenarios, which vary in aspects such as intent, repetition, imbalance of power, mode (physical, verbal, exclusion, cyber) etc. The results are important for understanding cross-national comparisons. In non-English cultures, 'bullying' will be translated into a native linguistic term. It is important to know how well such terms correspond in meaning to 'bullying'. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Besides being used in England and in two Indian sites, the cartoon task is being given in Australia, Brazil, Russia and Thailand. The comparative findings will be published as a chapter in an edited book: 'Bullying, cyberbullying and pupil well-being in schools: Comparing European, Australian and Indian Perspectives', submitted to CUP. 
URL https://sites.google.com/site/cyberbullyingeuindian/protocol-for-use-of-cartoon-set
 
Title Teacher training questionnaire 
Description This is a short questionnaire designed for institutions training teachers (initially, in India and Europe), regarding the teaching of anti-bullying strategies. There is also a version of the same questionnaire in French, on the website. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is now available on our website. Findings from our Network will appear in a chapter in the edited book. 
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Collaboration with Australian colleagues 
Organisation Flinders University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We invited Australian colleagues to collaborate with us. Professor Phillip Slee gave an invited address 'Work on bullying and cyberbullying in Australia' on October 12th 2012 at our first meeting in Munich, Germany. This led to 4 other Australian colleagues also coming to our second meeting in Patiala, India, in April 2013, plus 1 or 2 coming to all subsequent meetings. Our Network opened up new contacts and opportunities for the Australian partners and they obtained funding to both attend our meetings and carry our related projects with the Indian teams.
Collaborator Contribution Several Australian collaborators have attended our meetings and contributed to presentations and discussion. They contributed greatly to our discussions. One collaborator, Dr Alison Wotherspoon, produced video-films of our visits in Indian schools. Another, Dr Barbara Spears, assisted us in developing more qualitative methods in our research.
Impact Presentations by Australian collaborators at our conferences (listed separately). The edited book 'Bullying, cyberbullying and pupil well-being in schools: Comparing European, Australian and Indian Perspectives' to be published by CUP includes Dr Spears as an editor, and has substantial contributions (with Australian co-authors of 7 chapters).
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Brazilian colleagues 
Organisation Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing the protocol of the cartoon test, and the 40 cartoons
Collaborator Contribution This team gave the cartoon test task to pupils in Brazil
Impact The data will form part of the comparative study, to be published in a chapter in the edited book planned from the Network.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Lithuanian colleagues 
Organisation Klaipeda University
Country Lithuania 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We shared the methodology of the 40 cartoon test to examine meanings of bullying-related words in Lithuanian
Collaborator Contribution They gave the cartoon test to pupils in Lithuania and shared data with us.
Impact The data will form part of the comparative study, to be published in a chapter in the edited book planned from the Network.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Russian colleagues 
Organisation Tomsk Polytechnic University
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing the protocol of the cartoon test, and the 40 cartoons.
Collaborator Contribution This team gave the cartoon test task to pupils in Russia.
Impact The data will form part of the comparative study, to be published in a chapter in the edited book planned from the Network.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaborator in Thailand 
Organisation Prince of Songkla University Thailand
Country Thailand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We invited Dr Ruth Sittichai, Research and Graduate Studies Vice-Dean at Prince of Songkla University, to attend our first Network meeting in Munich, where she gave a talk on October 24th 2012 on 'Bullying and cyberbullying in South-East Asian countries'. She was also able to attend the second network meeting in Patiala. Our Network has invited Dr Sittichai to carry out similar studies to ours, in Thailand, and she is currently gathering data on the cartoon task (Theme D) for comparative purposes.
Collaborator Contribution Besides her presentation in Munich, Dr Sittichai has helped develop our network website. She is also gathering cartoon task data for comparative purposes.
Impact Presentation at Munich meeting. Help in development of website. The cartoon task data will appear in one chapter of the edited book 'Bullying, cyberbullying and pupil well-being in schools: Comparing European, Australian and Indian Perspectives', to be published by CUP. Dr Sittichai will be a co-author of this chapter.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Conference in Amsterdam, Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This conference had presentations by 6 Network participants, from India (2), Netherlands, UK and Germany. The audience was mainly of educational practitioners and teachers, but also some researchers.

These were mainly research-based presentations, but there was lively questions and discussion from the audience both after each presentation, and at the end of the symposium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Conference in Annamalai, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Conference was entitled 'Safe Schools: Preventing Bullying and Harassment' and featured two keynote addresses, six team presentations, and one special session. These shared information widely among the participants (from India, UK, Netherlands, France, Germany and Australia) and led to lively discussion.

The meeting was reported in the local media.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Conference in London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Half-day conference associated with Indian-European Network, on Bullying, Cyberbullying, Pupil Safety and Well-being
Six papers were presented at this conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Conference in Munich, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Network contributed an invited talk on Work on bullying and cyberbullying in Australia, open to school psychologists and students in Munich. This was followed by discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Conference in Nice, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Network contributed a whole-day conference on October 9th, with 10 presentations.
Conference presentation, INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP AND CONFERENCE
October 8th - 11th, 2013
In the presence of the Ministerial Delegate for the prevention of violence in schools in France,
Ministry of National Education, Pr. Eric Debarbieux.
40 minute presentations by each team [London, Paris, Amsterdam, Munich, Patiala, Annamalai].

The audience was primarily school teachers and educational professionals, who heard about the work of the Network and particularly the range of interventions against bullying and cyberbullying used in each country. Feedback (informal) was very positive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Conference in Patiala, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This first Network meeting in India included an Inaugural session on April 8th 2013, introduced by the Vice-Chancellor at Patiala University. Presentations were made by all 6 teams in the Network to a varied audience of researchers, professionals, and the media.

The meeting was reported in the national press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Keynote address, European AntiBullying Network conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote speaker, 'Cross-national differences in bullying: how we can measure them and how to explain them', EAN conference, Città di Castello, September.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.antibullying.eu/article/729/4th-international-conference-european-anti-bullying-network-e...
 
Description Presentation at ENSEC conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote address 'Cyberbullying in young people: an overview of its nature and impact', ENSEC conference, Stockholm/Helsinki, June.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://enseceurope.org/?page_id=240
 
Description Presentation at ISSBD workshop for early career researchers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Keynote address 'The Asian context and issues in cross-cultural comparisons' at ISSBD South East Asian International Regional Workshop, Thailand, Feb-March.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://issbd.org/ContentDisplay.aspx?src=regionalworkshops
 
Description Presentation at international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation: 'Investigating and understanding cross-national differences in bullying', European AntiBullying Network conference, Malta
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.antibullying.eu/
 
Description Presentation at international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote presentation on topic: Investigating and understanding cross-national differences in bullying, Bullies, Bullied and Bystanders conference, Dublin, June
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.eciu.org/news/bullies-bullied-and-bystanders-conference
 
Description Presentation at international workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote address, 'Anti-bullying interventions in different cultures', Workshop on Aggression, Oradea, November
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.clinicalpsychology.eu/
 
Description Presentation at university seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited address, 'Investigating and understanding cross-national differences in bullying'. Conference on Bullying, cyberbullying and gender-bullying in a cross-national context. Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway, February.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentations in Qatar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talks, 'School bullying'; 'Bullying Interventions in Schools'; and 'Cyberbullying in young people'. Cyberbullying, Bullying and School Safety Conference, Qatar Ministry of Education, Qatar, December. Audience from Qatar but also other countries in the region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Symposium at Congreso Mundial y Politicas Publicas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A symposium was held to represent the work of the Network at this international conference. Three papers were presented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjeWJlcmJ1bGx5aW5nZXVpbmRpYW58Z...
 
Description Talk and workshop at International Bullying Prevention Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote Panel Research Forum, plus Workshop on 'Cross-national differences in bullying: how we can measure them and how to explain them', International Bullying Prevention Association conference, Nashville, USA, November.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://ibpaworld.org/events/conferences/nashville/
 
Description talk and workshop in Dubai 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote speaker: Cyberbullying in young people: an overview of its nature and impact', plus workshop 'Anti-bullying interventions in different cultures', International Psychology Conference, Dubai, October.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://waset.org/conference/2017/11/dubai/ICPPH