Family background, educational achievement and labour market outcomes: A cross-national comparison

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Social Science

Abstract

It is a much commented upon fact that children from disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to do well at school, go to university and obtain a well-paid, professional job than their more advantaged peers. This problem has become a major public policy issue, with successive governments attempting to tackle the root causes of this low social mobility. This has led to cross-party discussions of how social mobility can be increased in England (http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm/cmallparty/register/social-mobility.htm) with the current coalition government setting this as a top social policy goal (http://www.dpm.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/news/social-mobility-strategy-launched). Policymakers have shown particular interest in the lessons that England can learn from other countries about how this might be achieved. For instance, the Deputy Prime Minister (Nick Clegg), Secretary of State for Education (Michael Gove) and Leader of the Opposition (Ed Miliband) all recently spoke about how disadvantaged young people in Australia and Canada have much better prospects in life than those in England and the United States (http://www.suttontrust.com/research/social-mobility-summit-research-findings/). For England to become a fairer and more cohesive society, it is vital that we understand why this is the case; are there certain things other countries are doing to help poor children that we are not?

This project shall examine how family background shapes later lifetime outcomes across a range of developed countries. I will first of all investigate whether 'those who are born poor are more likely to stay poor and those who inherit privilege are more likely to pass on privilege in England than in any comparable country' as has been claimed by leading politicians (Michael Gove). To do so, I will examine the strength of association between a person's family background, the skills they develop and the pay they receive in later life, using new data on over 100,000 individuals from more than 20 industrialized nations.

This will be followed by an investigation of the different pathways young people take during the teenage years, and how this varies across four English speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the United States). This will include the important decisions of when to leave school, whether to go to university, and the chances of suffering an extended spell of youth unemployment. For instance, although we know that children from disadvantaged homes have difficulty in accessing higher education in England (particularly 'elite' institutions like Oxford and Cambridge), does the same hold true in other supposedly more socially mobile countries like Canada and Australia? If not, then what do these countries do differently to us? Is it that they provide more financial assistance, have lower tuition fees or is it simply that in other countries children's achievement in school are more equal? To answer these questions I shall investigate the school-to-work transitions made by over 40,000 children from across these four countries, using a different data set from each. The project will use this large-scale data and apply quantitative analysis methods, with the likely findings offering significant benefits to a number of groups. Young people will gain an insight into the consequences of undertaking different educational and occupational pathways, encouraging them to carefully consider the right option for them. Academics and educationalists will have a better understanding of how socio-economic inequalities emerge across different countries and the reasons why opportunities differ so markedly between children from rich and poor homes. Finally, policymakers will benefit from the recommendations the project shall make about how to equalize opportunities amongst advantaged and disadvantaged groups (an important policy goal).

Planned Impact

Three broad (non-academic) groups will benefit from this work:

1. Public and Third sector organisations

Government departments, think-tanks and charities have all shown interest in academic research into socio-economic inequalities, including how Britain compares to other industrialized nations in this respect. This project will therefore be of interest to:

i. The Department for Education
ii. Cabinet Office
iii. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
iv. Office for Fair Access
v. The Sutton Trust
vi. The Social Mobility Foundation
vii. The Pearson Think Tank
viii. The Fabian Society
ix. Civitas
x. Centre Forum
xi. New Economics Foundation

The first strand of the project attempts to clarify the 'big picture' of how the link between family background, labour market skills and earnings compares in the UK to other developed countries. Claims that such associations are particularly strong in Britain have grabbed the attention of many of the above groups - yet the robustness of the existing evidence remains a controversial issue (Gorrard 2008, Saunders 2012). By producing new insight into this matter, I hope to provide a more stable foundation upon which public policy can be reliably based. This will clearly benefit policymakers within government departments, while also providing direction for charities and think-tanks in their own research.

Academics are also making very different recommendations to policymakers as to how intergenerational inequalities can be reduced. Whereas some promote early intervention in order to raise scholastic achievement (Chowdry et al 2012, Cunha et al 2006) others suggest that intervention later in life (e.g. financial support to complete higher education) may be more effective (Jackson et al 2007). The project's second research strand will offer new insight into this important issue. This will benefit the aforementioned groups by helping them understand the role school achievement plays in generating socio-economic inequalities, and whether this factor is more important in the UK than other developed nations (and thus why intergenerational associations may be stronger here than elsewhere).

Finally, despite the interest of research users in quantitative cross-national studies, the strengths and limitations of this approach remain poorly understood. The above groups will therefore benefit by developing a better understanding of cross-national research, and its use in public policy, via my specially designed training course.


2. The general public

Youth unemployment, access to higher education and the life chances of young people from disadvantaged homes are topics of great public concern. The project will benefit the general public by building awareness of these issues, and whether they really are bigger problems in the UK than other developed countries. Evidence produced as part of the second strand will have particular relevance for young people who are currently in school and making significant educational and labour market decisions. It is hoped that the project will help young people from disadvantaged backgrounds understand how important achievement in secondary school is for their prospects in later life.

3. International organisations

Since 2000, the OECD has implemented the highly respected PISA study - a cross-national investigation of 15 year olds academic ability. The OECD has previously shown interest in developing PISA into a panel study of youth transitions (see www.mzes.uni-mannheim.de/projekte/catewe/workshop/Report.doc). Discussions continue about including a longitudinal component in future PISA waves. The second strand of this project will benefit the OECD by highlighting the interesting questions that could be addressed if PISA were developed into a panel study, and the potential impact this could have upon government officials and public policy.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Strand 1: Family background, labour market skills and earnings
How does intergenerational mobility compare in the UK to other countries?
• The UK is ranked 19th out of 37 countries in terms of the strength of the relationship between family background and later lifetime income. It is broadly similar to a number of other OECD countries in this respect (including France, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Switzerland and Japan).
• Consistent with the intergenerational income mobility literature, family background seems to be a greater barrier to future economic success in Britain than in Scandinavia, Canada a handful of central European countries (Germany, Austria, Belgium and the Netherlands).
• On the other hand, intergenerational associations are weaker in the UK than in Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Romania) and the United States.
• The UK does stand out internationally in terms of the link between family background and low pay. Out of the 27 countries considered, only seven (mostly Eastern European) countries had a stronger association than in the UK.

How robust is the methodology used in cross-national comparisons of income mobility?

• One of the key methods (Two Sample Two Stage Least Squares - TSTSLS) economists often use in comparisons of income mobility across countries are subject to large and systematic bias.
• When using this methodology, the most commonly reported measure of income mobility (the intergenerational elasticity) is usually overestimated. In contrast, another (less frequently reported) measure of income mobility (the intergenerational correlation) tends to be downwardly bias when estimated using TSTSLS.
• Although often cited by policymakers, cross-national comparisons of 'social' (income) mobility are subject to a great deal of uncertainty (due to the data limitations discussed in this paper). Hence such comparisons should be interpreted with care.

Is there a link between income inequality, educational attainment and intergenerational mobility at the international level?
• The cross-national link between income inequality and intergenerational mobility (often known as the 'Great Gatsby Curve') can be replicated using alternative measures of intergenerational mobility and cross-nationally comparable data. The strength of the association depends, however, upon whether former Communist countries in economic transition are included.
• In all countries, it is educational attainment that is driving the link between parental education and offspring's earnings.
• There is a strong association between income inequality and both the direct and indirect effect of parental education on offspring's earnings.
• Although income inequality is associated with both access to education and its financial returns, the strength of the relationship seems to be greater for the former than the latter. This suggests that the intergenerational correlation of education may be the more important driver of the link between income inequality and the 'through education' component of mobility.
• The fact that the association between parental education, offspring's education and offspring's earnings varies by income inequality suggests that financial resources play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of advantage.
• High inequality countries have more private investment in education and less public investment. This further emphasises the important role of financial resources in the transmission of advantage in countries with greater inequality.

Strand 2: Family background and youth transitions across Anglophone countries

Parental education, household income and entry into post-secondary education
• Parental education gradients in access to university are large in four English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, England and the United States).
• Household income is also associated with access to university in each of these countries. However, after conditioning upon secondary school achievement, the relationship with income almost completely goes. This holds true within all four countries. This suggests it is not low income per se that limits disadvantaged children's access to university in these countries. Rather it is low school achievement, and factors (other than income) related to parental education, that is leading to their low post-secondary participation rates.
• In Australia, England and the United States, children with low education parents are no less likely to enter university than children with 'averagely' educated parents (conditional upon academic skills measured at age 15). Yet children with 'high' education parents continue to have a significant advantage relative to both these groups.
• Hence policy discussion about university access should focus upon closing the gap between the most advantaged in society and the majority of the population, rather than concentrating upon only the lowest socio-economic groups.

The link between family background and access to high status universities
• There are large socio-economic differences in access to elite universities in Australia, England and the United States.
• Although academic achievement in secondary school makes an important contribution to family background differences in elite university access, other factors also play a key role.
• Conditional upon secondary school academic achievement, the socio-economic gradient in elite university access is very similar across these three countries.
• There is, however, a notable difference in the United States between access to elite public sector universities and elite private sector universities. After controlling for academic achievement in secondary school, family background matters significantly more for access to the former than for the latter.

The link between private schooling, continuation into post-secondary education and early labour market outcomes
• Private school pupils are more likely to enter university, attend a high-status institution and work in a professional job than their state school peers. This holds true across Australia, England and the United States.
• Only around half this difference is due to 'sorting' effects (in each of the three countries). The other half is mainly due to higher levels of academic achievement in secondary school - though other 'unexplained' factors also pay an important role.
• Similar broad patterns (in terms of explaining the private school advantage) hold across Australia, England and the United States.
• The magnitude of the private school advantage that is not explained by either social selection or higher school attainment is very similar across these thee English-speaking countries.


What were the most significant achievements?
• Producing five academic journal papers and one book chapter. These articles span across social science disciplines (education, economics, sociology) and have been published in leading international journals including Social Forces and Higher Education.
• Completing a secondment at the OECD. This enabled me to form international networks, and also showcase my research on the world stage.
• Being able to disseminate evidence from my research into government and third sector organisations. This includes giving evidence as part of the Education Select Committee inquiry into working class educational disadvantage, and being a key note speaker at the Sutton Trust conference on improving access to university.
• The formation of international collaborative partnerships and establishment of a formal international network. During the funding period I have collaborated on projects with other early-career researchers from Spain, Australia, Canada and the United States. Together we have now established a group of scholars who specialise in international comparisons of educational attainment and youth transitions.
• Receipt of co-funding to disseminate my work from various groups, including the OECD, Open Society Foundation, Jacobs Foundation and the British Academy.

To what extent were the grant objectives met?
In my original proposal I set out the following ten objectives. I discuss below how these have been met during the funding period (and, where applicable, where these objectives have only partially been met):
1. To provide clarity as to how the association between family background and average earnings compares in the UK to other OECD countries.

This objective has been met. As part of the fellowship I have written a paper comparing the link between family background and labour market earnings in the UK to more than 30 other countries. This was published in 2015 by the journal Fiscal Studies.

2. To provide new insight into how the link between family background and adult earnings varies across the earnings distribution. For instance, is there a particularly strong association in the UK between family background and high rates of adult pay?
This objective has been met. The Fiscal Studies paper cited above includes quantile regression estimates, where I investigate the link between family background and adult earnings across the earnings distribution. These estimates have been produced for multiple countries, with results for the UK placed in a comparative context.


3. To develop academic and policy understanding of how the association between family background, educational attainment and labour market skills varies across developed nations.
This objective has been met. As part of the fellowship I have produced a paper investigating how the link between income inequality, educational attainment, labour market skills and earnings varies across countries. This is available as a working paper and is due for publication in Social Forces.
I have been able to develop policymakers understanding of this issue via my three month secondment at the OECD. I worked on this project during this period, with the working paper available on the OECD website.

4. To provide new evidence on the magnitude of socio-economic gaps in England, with respect to the different pathways young people follow as young adults (e.g. university entry, youth unemployment, leaving school early).

This objective has largely been met. The project has documented the magnitude of socio-economic gaps in England in a number of dimensions. This includes education attainment in school, labour market skills, university access and completion and labour market outcomes (e.g. earnings). This has considered socio-economic status considered in different ways - both through parental characteristics (e.g. parental education and social class) but also by type of school attended (private school versus state school). One minor area where progress towards this objective was limited was early labour market outcomes. The primary dataset I used in the second strand for the project for England (the LSYPE / Next Steps) only currently has information on respondents up to age 20. In my proposal I expected to be able to consider outcomes up to age 25; though this will become possible the data is not yet available (and hence could not be analysed as part of this project).
5. To describe how these socio-economic gradients vary across four English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the United States).
This objective has largely been met. All five papers (and one book chapter) written as part of this project document the socio-economic gradient in at least three of these countries. Hence I have produced evidence on SES gaps in educational attainment, university entry, access to a professional job and labour market earnings in each of Australia, England and the United States. One challenge I have faced in two of the papers is accessing the Canadian data (data access agreements changed from the proposal through to completion of the project). Hence, unfortunately, I have not been able to produce comparable results for Canada for some of my analysis.

6. To understand the extent to which these socio-economic gradients (and the differences observed across countries) can be explained by young people's academic ability towards the end of secondary school.
This objective has been met. In most of the papers produced as part of this project, I have investigated the association between family background and various outcomes both with and without controlling for respondents' educational attainment. Thus I have been able to establish the extent to which the association between socio-economic status, various educational transitions and labour market outcomes is mediated by prior educational attainment.

7. To gain experience of working in a non-academic research environment (e.g. a government department or think tank) to enhance my professional network and knowledge exchange skills.

This objective has been met. During the fellowship I completed a three month secondment to the OECD in Paris. This is a major international, non-academic organisation specialising in cross-national comparisons of educational attainment. As a result of my time spent in this institution, I have widened my professional network and knowledge of datasets I frequently use. Likewise, it has provided invaluable experience of how to exchange knowledge with such organisations, and development my skills in this area (particularly in terms of public engagement). Moreover, I am now part of an 'alumni' network with this organisation, with plans to collaborate in future work.
8. To gain experience of working at an overseas academic institution.
This objective has partially been met. In my initial proposal, I planned to spend 10 weeks visiting the university of Melbourne. However, due to the length of time I spent abroad on secondment to the OECD, and changes to my personal circumstances, this was not possible. However, I was able to complete a visit to the University of Barcelona during the fellowship, with a group who I have continued to collaborate with.

9. To develop my research management skills by taking responsibility for a large budget and a research assistant.

This objective has been met. As part of the project I have employed a full-time research assistant (co-funded with another project) and have acted as their line manager. Likewise, I have been responsible for the finance on this project, with all outputs delivered on budget.

10. To gain experience of organising and hosting an 'impact seminar' to be attended by at least 50 people.
This objective has been met. As part of the fellowship, I received co-funding from the British Academy to organise an international event for early career researchers. I have tied this into my FRL fellowship by organising a one-day conference entitled 'Inequalities in education in an international context.'
Exploitation Route Strand 1: Family background, labour market skills and earnings

•Throughout my work I have stressed the challenges with producing robust estimates of intergenerational mobility which can legitimately be compared across countries. This has highlighted an important direction for future work - a consistent methodological approach across countries must be applied.
•On England's comparative position in the intergenerational mobility rankings, I believe it will only now be possible to take this work forward if new data become available. For instance, were administrative data become available upon individuals' income, one might be able to estimate income mobility in England, and then draw more robust comparisons to other countries where such data is available (e.g. Sweden, Finland, Singapore).
•On the cross-national link between income inequality and mobility, future studies may attempt to investigate this relationship longitudinally. In particular, by drawing upon a range of international studies, it may be possible to investigate whether change in income inequality is linked to change in intergenerational mobility. This would help to move the evidence from correlational towards causal. This work should be taken forward by academics working in this field (at the time of writing, I am discussing such work with a colleague within my international network).

Strand 2: Family background and youth transitions across Anglophone countries

•The big picture is that this work could be furthered through collection of internationally comparable data on youth transitions. For instance, a longitudinal follow-up of the PISA cohort across a number of countries. This project has driven forward this agenda by illustrating the range of interesting and important academic and public policy questions such a study could address. An international organisation (such as the OECD) would need to take such a project forward, in order to get a sufficient number of countries involved (and at a high level of engagement). A study of this nature could extend the analysis I have completed in this project by including other countries, enhancing the comparability of estimates (through greater cross-national co-ordination at the stage of data collection) and addressing a range of new and interesting questions.
•As this part of the project focused upon four English-speaking countries, it was not possible to explore country-level factors associated with the magnitude of the estimated socio-economic gradients. Future work may extend my analysis to more countries (particularly if further data does become available). One may then be able to investigate more formally the country-level factors (including institutional structures in the education system and labour market) that are associated with socio-economic inequalities.

•Finally, the extent to which I have been able to investigate early labour market outcomes in England has been limited. This is due to data limitations, with the age 26 sweep of the LSYPE / Next Steps not yet available. Future academic work may update some of my analysis for England once these data become available.
Sectors Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

 
Description The main way that the research outputs and engagement activities from this project are being used outside of academia is in helping individuals and organisations understand the strengths and limitations of cross-national comparative research. For instance, the meetings that I have had with various groups (e.g. Department for Education, British Educational Research Association, Education Endowment Foundation, Early Intervention Foundation) have either helped people to understand the results from cross-national comparisons (either based upon my own work of those of others) and the caveats that need to be placed around the results. Another way my work has helped research practice is through sharing my expertise with government and third sector groups, such as Ofqual, the Department for Education, the Education Endowment Foundation and the Early Intervention Foundation. In many ways this impact has been through an indirect pathways, and has resulted from my willingness to share the knowledge, skills and expertise that I have developed during this grant with external organisations. A key lesson is that skills development has been a critical element of me being able to achieve research impact, and to be able to have a positive influence on wider society. Indeed, I have found that by being able (and willing) to share my knowledge and expertise of quantitative methodologies with external stakeholders, I have been able to make a valuable contribution to their work. The major challenges with achieving research impact is that, in many ways, it has occurred somewhat independently from the specific pieces of underlying research. Although government and third sector groups have found the academic papers produced in this project interesting and insightful, the greater benefits (in terms of non-academic impact) have stemmed from the engagement activities I have undertaken that were spillovers from this. In other words, via the stakeholder and engagement events I have organised and spoken at, I have made a number of contacts at organisations who I have followed up with (e.g. the OECD, EiF, EEF, DfE, Open Society). It is then by me working with these organisations, and helping them think through their own issues of current interest, where the greatest non-academic benefits have results.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Education
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Early Intervention Foundation research group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Education Select Committee. Written evidence on socio-economic disadvantage and educational attainment from PISA.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/education-committee/inqui...
 
Description International comparisons course
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact I develop and conducted a course on international comparisons of educational attainment, specifically using the PISA and PIAAC data. This has helped developed skills amongst government researchers and academics, enabling them to further analyse these data.
 
Description Member of the 'Shanghai-Exchange' steering group (Department for Education).
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description OECD Fostering Good Education for All project
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Participation in Ofqual Research Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description British Academy Rising Star Engagement Scheme
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description Sutton Trust Research grant
Amount £7,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Sutton Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description Thomas J Alexander Fellowship
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Organisation Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description Anglophone comparisons 
Organisation Australian Catholic University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration is between a number of early-career academics, all researching cross-national comparisons of educational attainment and labour market outcomes. It has led to a number of joint author journal papers.
Collaborator Contribution Joint writing and analysis to produce important academic papers.
Impact Outcomes include the papers co-authored by Jerrim, Parker and Chmielewski in my publication list tied to this grant. The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, including Sociology, Psychology and Education.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Anglophone comparisons 
Organisation University of Toronto
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration is between a number of early-career academics, all researching cross-national comparisons of educational attainment and labour market outcomes. It has led to a number of joint author journal papers.
Collaborator Contribution Joint writing and analysis to produce important academic papers.
Impact Outcomes include the papers co-authored by Jerrim, Parker and Chmielewski in my publication list tied to this grant. The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, including Sociology, Psychology and Education.
Start Year 2014
 
Description British Council 
Organisation British Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The British Council are exploring opportunities to develop new international comparisons of educational attainment across countries. I am an external expert who has had input into their thinking via a steering group.
Collaborator Contribution They are leading the project and have invited me as part of the steering group.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Centre Forum 
Organisation Center Forum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Centre Forum are interested in international comparisons of educational attainment, and how the UK compares to other countries. I am an expert in this area, and am helping their thinking in this area.
Collaborator Contribution Discussions around joint dissemination opportunities and events.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Department for Education Shanghai exchange 
Organisation Department for Education
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have been invited on to the steering group for the Shanghai teacher exchange programme. Here I am giving my views on the exchange programme, particularly around the quantitative results.
Collaborator Contribution They are running the Shanghai teacher exchange programme, this organizing the steering group which I now sit upon.
Impact None so far.
Start Year 2015
 
Description FFT Education datalab 
Organisation Fischer Family Trust (FFT)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am now seconding one day a week to this charity. We are collaborating together on international quantitative education research.
Collaborator Contribution They are experts in education data. They are helping to stimulate research ideas, and promote results from the research to consumers (e.g. schools, parents, teachers, policymakers).
Impact Co-produced reports and papers.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development 
Organisation Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am part of a network with the OECD using their international education datasets. My contribution has been to be an active member, promoting the network at conferences, helping to provide ideas and strategy.
Collaborator Contribution They are the organisation responsible for organising the PISA survey, and funding / co-ordinating the network of scholars. We work together on promoting the fellowship at conferences, and reaching pubic policymakers.
Impact Conference presentations Academic publication Media output
Start Year 2014
 
Description PISA estimates for London 
Organisation Greater London Authority (GLA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution In this project, I was contacted by GLA to estimate PISA scores for London. This work was completed, and turned into a report for the GLA.
Collaborator Contribution They provided the impetus for the piece of work, commented upon drafts and added in ideas. They also organised a round-table meeting to discuss the results.
Impact An academic paper is being produced based upon this collaboration.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Pathways group 
Organisation Jacobs Foundation
Country Switzerland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have presented at conferences and events as part of this collaboration. I have also co-authored papers as part of the output.
Collaborator Contribution Provided funding / resources to attended meetings and conferences. Helped me to form collaborations with other academics
Impact Academic papers Conference presentations international meetings
Start Year 2013
 
Description Invited guest to OECD seminar about the Thomas J Alexander Fellowship 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Helped lead to the first annual meeting of Thomas J Alexander fellows alumni.

.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Access to elite higher education institutions presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a key-note talk at the conference. It set the scene of the conference and lead to discussion (and media interest)

Follow-up emails from a number of participants about the presentation / report.
Discussion of possible further work on access to higher education involving personal statements
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.suttontrust.com/events/advancing-access-and-admissions-summit/
 
Description BBC world service about PISA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC world service on international comparisons of educational achievement, comparing across difference countries and cities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BERA roundtable chair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The event was to discuss the methodology behind cross-national comparative research. It was attended by around 60 people, and was held in conjunction with the British Educational Research Association. It led to much discussion around the subject, and resulted in broader understanding amongst stakeholders of key issues in cross-national education research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.bera.ac.uk/event/pisa-and-international-education-assessments
 
Description Barry Sheerman seminar on PISA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a seminar organised by Barry Sheerman MP, to discuss the relationship between PISA and policymaking. The event was run to inform the understanding of policymakers and politicians around the use of PISA. It led to me having further conversations with interested groups, including Pearson (a private education company).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Blog for the education datalab 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog about the PISA 2015 results for the Education Datalab. Its purpose was to disseminate results from the PISA 2015 study. It raised awareness of key findings behind the 'headline' figures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://educationdatalab.org.uk/2016/12/the-10-key-findings-from-pisa-2015/
 
Description Conference presentation University of Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I spoke at a conference organised by the University of Oxford about the release of the PISA 2015 results. This helped to disseminate the findings from cross-national comparative research, generating a better understanding of the results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://oucea.education.ox.ac.uk/events/pisa-seminar-2016/
 
Description Education Media Centre. Educational disadvantage and genetics - media briefing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I provided expert evidence to journalists on educational disadvantage - and, in particular, the role of genetics. This has led to further media requests for comments in this area.

After the event, journalists have contacted me several times regarding the issue of educational disadvantage - particularly regarding the role of genetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Education Select Committee. Oral evidence on socio-economic disadvantage and educational attainment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Provided written and oral evidence. Led to questions and discussion amongst MPs.

Follow-up requests for further details / clarification from policymakers and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/education-committee/inqui...
 
Description Educational inequalities across the globe event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I organised this event as part of my ESRC funded award, along with additional funding I received from the British Academy. It was a full-day workshop, where presentations were given by a number of early career researchers on the topic of international comparisons of educational attainment and labour market outcomes. Participants were drawn from a number of countries, including Australia, Canada, United States and Germany. A number of UK-based think-tanks attended, including Centre Forum and the Sutton Trust. The event was also attended by a number of influential international third-sector groups, including the Jacobs Foundation and the Open Society. The OECD also participated in the event, giving one of the keynote talks. The event has led to on-going collaborations between the different academics who attended, and between the different third-sector groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International release of the PISA 2012 results (with the Education Media Centre) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was asked to talk about the results from PISA 2012. This led to several questions and discussion afterwards

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited keynote presentation at the opening of the ESRC-HEFCE funded research centre for Global Higher Education 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The purpose of this was to give a keynote talk at the opening of the ESRC-funded research centre on Global Higher education. The talk I gave was about access to higher education in England, Australia and the United States. Around 100 to 150 people attended in person, with the video also recorded and streamed. The presentation led to 45 minutes of lively discussion, and led to audience members and the media contacting me after the event to ask for more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited keynote presentation to the Fundación Ramón Areces Foundation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to Spain by the Fundación Ramón Areces Foundation to give a talk about international comparisons of educational attainment. The event was first a workshop attended by around 30 academics and policymakers, including a former education Minister within the Spanish government. In the evening, I then gave a public lecture, which was attended by more than 200 people. This was followed by coverage in the media. The event sparked much debate afterwards, and led for requests for further information. It has also led to future collaborations; I have been invited by the attendees to give a Keynote talk in June, with there also plans for events with the foundation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited seminar in Portcullis House by Frank Field MP 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The talked sparked discussion amongst policymakers and parliamentarians about the link between family background, educational attainment and labour market outcomes. The focus was on the change in family background effects as children age.

Has led to further academic work - and a special issue in a journal about socio-economic differences in children's educational attainment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited speaker to the All Souls group on education and social mobility (Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Led to discussion on the key issue of how education is linked to family background and labour market outcomes.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014
URL http://www.ioe.ac.uk/services/64985.html
 
Description Joint conference between IoE and George Washington university 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The session was about the link between income inequality and socio-economic differences in skills across countries.

Has led to further meetings, and discussion of potential collaborations, with the other participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Keynote Speaker at the Government Statistical Service annual conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Led to questions, discussions and conversations after the talk.

After the talk, I discussed the methodological issues raised in my talk with various government officials. The talk I believe stimulated their thoughts on the issue on the use of administrative data
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/about-ons/get-involved/events/events/gss-methodology-symposium-2014/ninete...
 
Description Meeting of PISA 2015 National Project Managers. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Led to further discussion afterwards, particularly on the measurement of educational attainment in PISA 2015. (And, therefore, also cross-national comparisons of the link between family background and educational attainment).

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Meeting with the social mobility commission 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Met with a handful of individuals from the social mobility commission to discuss their latest state of the nation report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Member of the 'Upreach' steering group on research into access to the professions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact My activity helped to drive forward their research and their project. It has gone from scoping to actually happening. The charity has subsequently received funding from the Sutton Trust.

The Upreach charity is now using the research (that I was in the steering group for) in their practise.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://upreach.org.uk/
 
Description My website www.johnjerrim.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The publication of my website has led to wide dissemination of my research. It has resulted in a number of exchanges and requests for further information.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.johnjerrim.com
 
Description National PISA conference for England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 70 individuals from schools, government and third sector organisations attended a conference in London. This led to dissemination of my cross-national comparative research, and a better understanding of the results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description National schools conference in Northern Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 70 individuals from schools, government and third sector organisations attended a conference in Belfast. This led to dissemination of my cross-national comparative research, and a better understanding of the results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Overseas Development Institute and DFID. Panel member 2015 indicators. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Led to in-depth discussion about the forthcoming replacement on the Millennium Development Goals. In particular, how educational attainment should be measures, including how to measure inequality in educational outcomes (particularly with regards cross-national comparability).

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation Institute of Education, University of London DoQSS seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk led to discussion and comments afterwards.

Led to a social media blog by one of the attendess afterwards: http://www.paulaprinciple.com/great-gatsby-curve/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation at Comparative and International Education Society 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked debate within audience about the link between income inequality, educational attainment and social mobility

Led to follow-up meetings with the Open Society Foundation (OSF)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at the Social mobility and the Child Poverty Commission conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The talk led to further discussion between academics and policymakers about the links between education and social mobility. In particular, how SES gaps in educational attainment change as children age.

This led to further presentations and engagement on similar issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation on link between income inequality and social mobility to OECD 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Led to discussion and comments on my work. Led eventually to an academic publication and an internal OECD working paper.

The OECD later further analysed the PIAAC data (which I used in my analysis) to further explore the link between income inequality and educational outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation to ARK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Led to further discussion about how to improve mathematics achievement, particularly amongst disadvantaged groups.

The working paper link to this work was reportedly read by a government minister (Nick Gibb - Minister for Schools). Source was contacts within the department for education.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to Nuffield College, Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk discussion and debate afterwards amongst those who attended

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.nuff.ox.ac.uk/Lists/Events/DisplayEvent.aspx?ID=252
 
Description Presentation to OFSTED 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Led to further discussion with OFSTED about educational disadvantage, including helping to inform their future annual reports. Also led to scheduling a further 'insights' session with OFSTED staff.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to mathematics department IoE (measurement of educational attainment internationally) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Led to further discussion about measurement of mathematics skills internationally - including the link between family background and educational attainment,

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2015
 
Description Presentation to the American Educational Research Association 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk led to discussion and a panel debate afterwards

Led to a number of requests for the paper, and future work with the Jacobs foundation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation to the Cabinet Office on the strengths of RCTs in the Social Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Led to discussion on how we should evaluate social science interventions for impact (including the use of RCTs). Led to further discussion / engagement on the issue with the Cabinet Office.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to the Education Endowment Foundation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact I gave a talk to this charity about results from the PISA 2015 assessment. This led to a lot of discussion about the results, and helped to increase interest, awareness and understanding in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to the Jacobs Foundation PATHWAYS group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Led to discussion about the link between income inequality, educational attainment and mobility. Has led to collaboration with other researchers.

Has led to collaborative work on joint papers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation to the department of education on the methodology behind PISA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Around 40 individuals from the department of education attended my talk. This led to a better understanding amongst those who attended of the methodology behind cross-national comparative research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Roundtable with Greater London Authority 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact To debate with Greater London Authority the PISA results, and in particular the performance of London. This led to increased interest and understanding of PISA amongst the participants, and to some changing in the views of how we see education performance in the capital.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Roundtable with the inter-American development bank 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To discuss international comparisons of educational achievement in particular, and the increasing interest in South America. The meeting helped influence decisions in participation in future PISA waves, and the use of the data to South American countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar at the Houses of Parliament with Barry Sheerman 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talked discussion and debate about cross-national comparisons of educational attainment and educational disadvantage.

Led to further discussion with education groups (e.g. Pearson)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Speaking at a national schools conference in Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Over 100 individuals from schools, government and third sector organisations attended a conference in Cardiff. At this conference, I spoke about the results from my cross-national comparative research, and gave advice on what it implies for education in Wales. This led to much discussion amongst attendees, and showed an increased interest in the topic and the use of educational research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description University of Cambridge talk about PISA for development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Around 80 people attended the event, to discuss educational data in developing countries. I highlighted the potential strengths and limitations of PISA data for this purpose, which raised questions and debate, and led to increased interest in the use of these data for this purpose.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Video for the Centre for Global Prosperity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We created a video talking about international comparisons of social science research. This was filmed in conjunction with the UCL Institute for Global Prosperity in conjunction with the world service.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit to OECD to discuss the link between income inequality, educational attainment and social mobility 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an initial meeting to discuss further collaborative work. It led (in part) to my Thomas J Alexander award.

Funding further work in this area - via my Thomas J Alexander fellowship. It has also helped me to establish collaborative links with the OECD.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.oecd.org/edu/thomasjalexanderfellowship.htm
 
Description Visit to OECD-Paris to discuss TJA fellowship 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a meeting organised by the OECD. It was designed to promote a better understanding of PISA, and international comparisons of educational attainment, among practitioners. The event led to a number of networking opportunities, and led to me developing further international collaborations for research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015