Exploring and explaining the role of disadvantage in crime causation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Criminology

Abstract

One of the most academically and publically discussed factors in crime causation is the role of social disadvantage (a comparative lack of social and economic resources). In fact, it is difficult to imagine any criminological topic that is more debated than that of the extent and nature of the relationship between disadvantage and crime. However, the link between social disadvantage and crime is surprisingly poorly researched and understood and remains a key criminological puzzle. For example, one of the most (as yet) inexplicable aspects of this relationship is that while most persistent and serious offenders have grown up in disadvantaged circumstances, most people who grow up in disadvantaged circumstances do not turn to a life of persistent and serious crime.

In the proposed research we aim to advance knowledge about this central social problem by empirically exploring (using new innovative methods and unique data) and analysing (using new integrative theory) the role of social disadvantage in crime causation. The central thesis to be analysed and tested is that social disadvantage affects people's crime involvement and criminal careers primarily through processes of social and self-selection which influence people's level of exposure to criminogenic developmental and action contexts. We will also explore and analyse, against this backdrop of the disadvantage-crime nexus, young people's experiences of and attitudes towards the criminal justice system (e.g., police, youth offending teams, courts, probation).

The overall aim of the proposed research is to produce a comprehensive study and analysis of the link between social disadvantage and crime in adolescence and young adulthood. In the proposed research we aim to apply and further develop new theory and innovative methods to explore and explain the role of disadvantage in crime causation. Guided by Situational Action Theory, and using unique data about young people and their environments from the longitudinal Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), we will investigate (e.g., using space-time budget and small area community survey methodologies) how adolescents' and young adults' social lives vary in relation to their different levels of social disadvantage as a consequence of processes of social and self-selection. We hypothesize that if social disadvantage has an impact on young people's crime and criminal careers (e.g., onset, duration and desistence) this may be primarily because disadvantage-induced selection processes are likely to place disadvantaged young people more often than others in developmental contexts that are conducive to the development of a higher crime propensity, and in action contexts in which acts of crime tend to be encouraged (or at least are not strongly discouraged). As far as we know, this aspect of the role of disadvantage in crime causation has never been properly theorised and empirically studied and will break new ground in the understanding of the disadvantage-crime relationship.

We anticipate that a better understanding of the role of social disadvantage will not only be crucial for the advancement of our knowledge about crime and its causes but also potentially for how the problem of crime is addressed and can be more effectively dealt with politically and socially. We also anticipate that the findings of our research will help policy-makers and practitioners devise better policies and interventions to prevent young people who grow up in disadvantaged environments from developing into persistent and serious offenders.

Planned Impact

Crime is a major social problem affecting the welfare of citizens and prospects for businesses. Numerous UK cities have areas which are plagued by crime and disorder, dramatically reducing the quality of life of their inhabitants. Some cities have recently experienced riots with devastating consequences for people and businesses. The life prospects for young people heavily involved in crime are generally bleak. At the same time the UK is facing a crisis in the number of offenders demanding the limited resources of its often strained criminal justice system.

It has been estimated that crime costs UK society more than £36 billion each year (Dubourg et al., 2005). Public opinion polls (see e.g., Ipsos Mori Issues Index: Trends since 1997) and political debate, such as that surrounding the 2010 government election, agree that crime is one of the most pressing UK social problems, yet there is little agreement among politicians and policy makers about how to best address it (the debate about the causes of the recent urban riots is a good, albeit extreme, example). There is clearly a need for greater knowledge and a stronger evidence-base regarding the causes of crime and its prevention.

One of the most academically and publically debated but least scientifically understood aspects of crime causation is the role of social disadvantage. While most persistent and serious offenders have grown up in disadvantaged circumstances, most people who grow up in disadvantaged circumstances do not turn to a life of persistent and serious crime. To be able to explain why this is the case (i.e., to identify the key factors and processes involved) will take us a long way towards better understanding the role of disadvantage in the explanation of crime and its prevention.

The question of the role of disadvantage in crime causation and its implications for crime policy and prevention is without any doubt a central concern for the UK government and its relevant ministries (particularly he Home Office and Ministry of Justice but also governmental departments dealing with matters such as education and housing) as well as criminal justice agents and agencies (e.g., police, courts and probation), including regional and local Crime Prevention Partnerships and charities involved in crime prevention and the rehabilitation of young offenders. We anticipate that the findings from our proposed research will have a high user relevance and potential impact since the disadvantage and crime problem is a key issue in crime policy and prevention.

If through a better understanding the influence of social disadvantage on young people's social lives, we are able to highlight key differences in the lives of socially disadvantaged young people which can be addressed by policy or prevention efforts, our study may have the knock-on effect of reducing negative life-outcomes such as crime involvement for those growing up in disadvantaged circumstances. For example, identifying key differences in the social lives of disadvantaged people who do not become involved in serious and persistent crime may help us better understand and manipulate factors which keep young people from becoming involved in crime. In addition, capturing and analysing desistence processes more comprehensively can better inform efforts to keep young people from staying involved in crime. Because of our longitudinal framework, we may also be able to identify critical time windows for intervention, which may enhance the study's ultimate impact.

Although it is not a direction the study will pursue, there are also commercial implications for gaining a better understanding of people's social lives, and methods to study them, especially in regards to processes of social and self selection.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The relationship between social disadvantage and crime is often studied from a socioeconomic perspective, often at the neighbourhood level. In this study we looked beyond this to the role of key social institutions and how they influence young people's development and patterns of behavior over time. In doing so, we bridge the gap between sociological and psychological approaches to explaining criminal behaviour and the role of social disadvantage and draw attention away from socioeconomic situations, where we have shown it is less warranted, to the functionality of key social institutions.
Our findings show that overall the relationship between social disadvantage and crime involvement is statistically weak: although more persistent and serious offenders in the PADS+ sample come from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, most young people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent or serious offenders. This raises the important question of why some young people from disadvantaged backgrounds become involved in crime while others do not. Our findings in relation to this question are consistent with the propositions of Situational Action Theory, which argues that crime is the outcome of an interaction between personal propensities (determined by personal morals and the ability to exercise self-control) and criminogenic exposure (time spent in weak moral contexts where rules of conduct are weakly upheld and enforced): more people from socially disadvantaged backgrounds have a higher crime propensity, and are more frequently exposed to criminogenic settings. Further, we found that key differences in propensity and exposure between those who become and stay involved in crime and those who do not are partially linked to differences in family and school experiences, and this is true regardless of socioeconomic status.
Within the PADS+ sample we identified three key trajectories of crime involvement from pre-adolescence into young adulthood: approximately 6% of the sample followed a persistent trajectory of crime involvement that only declined in early adulthood, 10% followed an adolescence-limited pathway that was indistinguishable from that of the persistent group until age 16 and then declined to the level of those in the final group, who represented 84% of the sample and reported very little or no crime involvement at any age. We found that roughly one-third of the young people who followed each trajectory came from a disadvantaged background, mirroring the findings that the direct relationships between social disadvantage and crime is weak.
Looking further back along the causal chain, we found that young people's trajectories of crime propensity and criminogenic exposure predicted their patterns of crime involvement. We identified three trajectories of high (20%), medium (47%) and low crime propensity (33%), and two trajectories of high (15%) and low criminogenic exposure (85%). We found that participants who followed a trajectory of heightened crime propensity were more likely to follow either a persistent or adolescence-limited criminal career path, while those who followed a trajectory of higher exposure were more likely to follow a persistent criminal career path. This suggests that what distinguished young people with persistent criminal careers from those whose criminal careers were adolescent-limited was not their crime propensity, but the fact that persistent offenders experienced persistently heightened exposure to criminogenic contexts.
We looked further back along the causal change to assess how young people came to follow trajectories of heightened crime propensity and criminogenic exposure. We found that family and school relationships and contexts were important determinants, with more cohesive relationships and structured and supervised time leading to patterns of lower propensity and criminogenic exposure.
We found that these social factors mediated the relationship between childhood social disadvantage and young people's trajectories of crime propensity and criminogenic exposure, helping to explain why young people from socially disadvantaged backgrounds may be more likely to follow a criminal career path; those who grow up in socially disadvantaged circumstances are more likely to experience disadvantages and disruption in their family and school experiences which may lead them to develop higher crime propensities and/or be exposed more frequently to criminogenic contexts. This in turn has implications for crime prevention policies and practices, suggesting that to prevent crime they should focus on addressing the role of social institutions in the development of young people from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Alongside the core PADS+ research, we have also established a large international network of researchers who are testing SAT and replicating PADS+ to allow cross-national comparison of the role of social disadvantage, crime propensity and criminogenic exposure on crime involvement, to help us better understand the macro as well as micro-level processes at play.
Exploitation Route We will continue to explore the relationship between social disadvantage and crime involvement using data from the PAD+ study and in collaboration with our international network. Our findings indicate that to understand the link between social disadvantage crime we need to know how social advantage affects the development and expression of crime propensity, and exposure to criminogenic settings. Better understanding this relationship can in turn guide our consideration of policies and practices that may have a meaningful impact on the relevant processes. However, until those processes are better understood these will lack the important knowledge-base to build effective policy and practice.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other

URL http://www.pads.ac.uk
 
Description Narrative impact is evidenced by the invited participation of key researchers in important policy development. This includes the Home Office's Modern Crime Prevention Strategy 2016, and a Serious Violent Crime Strategy currently under development. The study has also influenced practice through the implementation of tenants of situational action theory across social services in the Municipality of Vejle, Denmark, and more recently its dissemination through a series of practitioners workshops organized in conjunction with the Home Office.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Home Office serious violence strategy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6980...
 
Description Member of the Home Office Modern Crime Prevention Strategy external reference group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Regular meetings with senior representatives of the Home Office
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact PI Wikstrom conducts regular consultations with senior representatives from the Home Office to raise awareness of implications from SAT and PADS+ for crime reduction policies. This includes guidance of the Modern Crime Prevention Strategy.
 
Description PADS+ Core Team
Amount £202,488 (GBP)
Organisation Dawes Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Title PADS+ dataset 
Description PADS+ has compiled a large longitudinal dataset, including data from parents' and young people's questionnaires, space-time budget interviews, event calendars, and neurocognitive tasks. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact PADS+ is one of the most detailed contemporary longitudinal studies of young people and their social lives in existence. Because PADS+ data has been collected using innovative methods from a UK sample it is able to answer unique research questions within the UK context. Collaboration with international researchers to replicate PADS+ methods further allows for direct cross-national comparison between UK outcomes and those from other countries, e.g., in Western and Eastern Europe, Scandanavia, Asia and Africa. 
 
Description Cali and Quito-Riobamba Juvenile Delinquency Studies 
Organisation National University of Distance Education
Department Department of Criminal Law and Criminology
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PADS+ researchers worked with PI Professor Alfonso Serrano-Maillo to replicate PADS+ methods and test situational action theory.
Collaborator Contribution PI Serrano-Maillo has been involved in a number of collaborative enterprises and replicated PADS+ methods in several countries, most notably in South America, allowing for cross-national comparative work.
Impact Professor Serrano-Maillo has taken part in a number of collaborative projects including conference presentations and publications.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Chances and Risks in the Life Course 
Organisation Bielefeld University
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PADS+ researchers have discussed analytical methods and cross-comparative approaches.
Collaborator Contribution Researchers from Bielefeld have participated in collaborative workshops, projects, conference presentations, and ongoing publications.
Impact This collaboration has led to collaborative conference presentations, and ongoing publications.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Collective Behavior Group 
Organisation Institute for Fiscal Studies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution PI Wikstrom collaborated with Professor David Sumpter and Richard Mann (now at the University of Leeds) on a paper exploring the person-environment interaction applying advanced mathematical methods to space-time budget data.
Collaborator Contribution Researchers from the Collective Behavior Group attended workshops and applied an artificial neural network method to analyse the impact of different situational factors on the likelihood of young people's crime involvement.
Impact A paper is currently accepted for publication and others are in the works.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Crime in the Modern City (CriMoC) 
Organisation Bielefeld University
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PADS+ researchers have collaborated with PIs from CriMoC on the development and application of analytical methods.
Collaborator Contribution CriMoC PIs have provided consultation on advanced analytical techniques and been involved in collaborative publications and conference panels and presentations.
Impact PIs from PADS+ and CriMoC have collaborated on working papers and consulted on ways to analyse longitudinal data. They have worked together at SAT workshops and organized joint panels at international conferences.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Crime in the Modern City (CriMoC) 
Organisation University of Münster
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PADS+ researchers have collaborated with PIs from CriMoC on the development and application of analytical methods.
Collaborator Contribution CriMoC PIs have provided consultation on advanced analytical techniques and been involved in collaborative publications and conference panels and presentations.
Impact PIs from PADS+ and CriMoC have collaborated on working papers and consulted on ways to analyse longitudinal data. They have worked together at SAT workshops and organized joint panels at international conferences.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Friendship and Violence in Adolescence (FuGJ) 
Organisation University of Cologne
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PADS+ researchers have collaborated with researchers from Cologne on advanced methods and projects testing SAT and, in particular, forwarding an analytical mechanism focused approach to the study and explanation of crime.
Collaborator Contribution Researchers from Cologne have collaborated in dialogues regarding advanced methodological methods and the collection and analysis of longitudinal data.
Impact PADS+ researchers and researchers from Cologne have collaborated on research publications, workshops and conference presentations.
Start Year 2007
 
Description The Malmo Individual and Neighbourhood Development Study (MINDS) 
Organisation Malmö University
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PADS+ researchers prepared and trained MINDS researchers to replicate PADS+ methods.
Collaborator Contribution MINDS researchers have replicated PADS+ methods and are now involved with PADS+ researchers in cross-national comparative projects and publications. MINDS have contributed one research assistant to supporting this collaboration.
Impact A number of joint publications and conference presentations have arisen from this collaboration.
Start Year 2007
 
Description The Study of Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Delinquency (SPMAD) 
Organisation University of Maribor
Country Slovenia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PADS+ researchers trained SPMAD staff in the replication of PADS+ methods.
Collaborator Contribution SPMAD researchers replicated PADS+ methods in Slovenia and have been involved in several collaborative enterprises, including published papers and conference presentations.
Impact Collaborative publications have been produced and conference panels have been organized at international events.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Cambridge Testing SAT Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International colleagues and collaborators met for a three day workshop presenting replication research and planning collaborative projects.

Future research collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016
 
Description Centre for Macroeconomic Research Conference on Public Policy and Social & Economic Behavior 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a Key-note speech on: The Dynamics of Crime and its Changes: Implications for policy at Centre for Macroeconomic Research, University of Cologne. Questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Collaborative Workshop with MINDS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PI Wikstrom, Dr K. Treiber and B. Hardie hosted collaborative workshops with MINDS researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
 
Description Crime as Moral Action 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Master student seminar (University of Gothenburg).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Criminology Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Main findings from PADS+ research were disseminated, including recent work by project-linked PhD students, and key publications were advertised. Discussion was undertaken with students on all graduate courses, including the Police Executive and Penology MSt courses, and with colleagues.

Awareness was raised of the variety of analyses undertaken by the PADS+ research group and their applicability to different topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Drapkin Conference Jerusalem 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of key findings from PADS+ of relevance to understanding the role of opportunity and character in crime causation. Discussion of policy implication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Home Office International Crime and Policing Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a speech on "Causes of Crime and Crime Prevention (translating causal claims into policy)".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Home Office International Crime and Policing Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a talk on "Character, Circumstances and Criminal Careers". Questions and discussion afterward
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Home Office International Crime and Policing Conference 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of PADS+ main research findings about the key drivers of crime and discussion of their policy implications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited presentation at International Conference on Desistance: Sketching the Future 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presenting key findings from PADS+ of relevance to the problem of desistance
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited presentation at the City University of Hong Kong 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Research associate Mandy Lau gave a presentation about 'Delinquency, Social Disadvantage and Situational Action Theory' to criminology students at the Department of Applied Social Sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited presentation at the University of Hong Kong 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Research associate Mandy Lau gave a presentation about 'Delinquency, Social Disadvantage and Situational Action Theory' to criminology students at the Department of Sociology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Jubilee Conference, University of Gothenburg, Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Key-note Speech, "Why do People commit acts of Crime?" at Centre for Ethnics, Law and Mental health, University of Gothenburg
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Key-Note Speach at the SPS National Crime Prevention Day in Skivje, Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a Key-Note Speech at the SPS National Crime Prevention Day in Skivje, Denmark
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Key-Note Speach at the Youth Practitioners Annual Conference in Vingstad, Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a Key-Note Speech at the Youth Practitioner's Annual Conference in Vingstad, Denmark
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Keynote Speach - Tagung der Fachgruppe Rechtspsychologie 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Keynote speech at the Forensic Psychology Conference, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lecture at University of Gavle, Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a public lecture on "Why do young People commit Crime?" at the University of Gavle, Sweden
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Lecture att Institute of Analytic Sociology, Univerity of Linkoping, Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture about Space-Time Budget Methodology, to colleagues, researcher, and students. Questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lecture on SAT to MSt students on the Cambridge Ponology and Police Executive programmes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This annual lecture introduces situational action theory to international high-ranking practitioner group. This opens up discussions and has led to requests for further information and involvement, including collaborative research projects applying SAT in various areas of criminal justice practice (e.g., insider trading; violence among prison inmates).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Member of Home Office Modern Crime Prevention strategy external reference group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact member of external reference group commenting on and discussing the Home Office development of a modern crime prevention strategy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description National Conference about Youth Services, Social Services, Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Key-note speech by Professor Wikstrom on "Young People and Crime". Questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to Edinburgh Crime Theory Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This invited presentation raised awareness of situational action theory amongst theorists in the Edinburgh Crime Theory Group.

Students who attended this presentation have since joined the Cambridge MPhil and PhD programs and showed interest in PADS+ research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentations at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PADS+ researchers and post graduate students organized thematic panels, often with international colleagues and collaborators, showcasing theoretical and empirical work from PADS+ and related studies. The ASC is the largest criminological conference and these panels, which usually feature leading theorists and researchers, attract large audiences and forge contacts with new collaborators and interested scholars.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011
 
Description Presentations at the European Society of Criminology Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PADS+ researchers and post graduate students organized thematic panels, often with international colleagues and collaborators, showcasing theoretical and empirical work from PADS+ and related studies. These panels attract large audiences and forge contacts with new collaborators and interested researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2008,2009,2010,2013
 
Description Presentations at the Stockholm Criminology Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PADS+ researchers and post graduate students organized thematic panels, often with international colleagues and collaborators, showcasing theoretical and empirical work from PADS+ and related studies. These panels attract large audiences and forge contacts with new collaborators and interested researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2011,2012,2014,2015
 
Description Public Policy and Social & Economic Behaviour 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of key findings from PADS+ regarding the dynamics of crime and its changes. Discussion of implications for policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Scandinavian conference on evaluation the effectivness of prison services 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Key Note Speech, questions and discussions afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Situational Action Theory. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Local municipality Research Day for policy-makers and practitioners (Helsingborg, Sweden)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Situational Action Theory: A general theory of crime 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Sparked questions and discussions afterwards

Students showed much interest in the subject
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Socially Responsible Innovation in Security 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of research from PADS+ about the causes of crime hot spots. Discussion of policy implications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at Home Office Annual Conference in London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered talk at the Home office Annual Conference in London for professional practitioners working for Youth Charities. Speech title: Why some people and not others: Character, Circumstances, Crime and Criminal Careers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at University of Erlangen, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a talk on "Young People's Differential Vulnerability to Criminogenic Exposure". Questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at Vejle municipality Danmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a talk on "Foundations for effective crime prevention" at Vejle municipality Denmark
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at Vejle municipality Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a lecture on " Situational Action Theory and its implications for creating effective crime prevention at Vejle municipality Denmark
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at the Home office Annual Conference in Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered talk at the Home office Annual Conference in Manchester for professional practitioners working for Youth Charities. Speech title: Character, Circumstances, Crime and Criminal Careers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The 2018 Cambridge Testing SAT international workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact International workshop with our research collaborators from various European and American countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Tillfället gör tjuven eller tjuvar tar tillfället? (Opportunity makes the theif or thives thakes the opportunity?) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation about our research into the causes of crime and crime prevention for a Swedish network of crime prevention policy-makers and practitioners (network name: Säkra platser, Safe Places)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Training academic staff in Montreal Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk and workshop training resulted in informed staff who are now capable of replicating the research in their own study.

Following the training, the Canadian research group have gone on to start their own fieldwork in Canada using the method developed by PADS+.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description University of Cologne, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Wikstrom gave a talk on "Exploring and Explaining Crime as Moral Actions" at the Faculty of Law, University of Cologne
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Varför begår människor brott? (Why do people commit acts of crime?) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk for a mid Sweden police force forum. Aim: to present key research findings and their implications for crime prevention and for the role of police in crime prevention activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Why Crime Happens 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Main findings from PADS+ research were disseminated and discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Workshops for practitioners from social agencies in Vejle Denmark on the application of situational action theory in practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PI Wikstrom hosts four two-day workshops annually to train practitioners with the aim to influence their day to day activities relevant to crime prevention through the application of Situational Action Theory. These workshops have attracted individuals representing criminal justice agencies, the education sector, mental health services, etc. In all more than 100 practitioners from the Municipality of Vejle have been introduced to SAT and are applying the theory in their work. Helle Bryna has produced a book on how to apply SAT in local crime prevention. Key experiences and outcomes will be presented at the 2016 Stockholm Symposium.

Attendees developed strategies to apply SAT across different relevant agencies to address challenges relating the crime involvement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016