"Fear-suffused environments" or potential to rehabilitate? Prison architecture, design and technology and the lived experience of carceral spaces

Lead Research Organisation: University of Brighton
Department Name: Sch of Applied Social Sciences

Abstract

This research investigates developments in the design of prisons, exploring the propositions that punishment is manifested architecturally, that 'good' prison design need not cost any more than 'bad' design, that architecture, design and technology (ADT) may impact on prisoners' emotional and psychological reactions to incarceration, including their behaviour, their willingness to engage with regimes and their capacity to build positive relations with other prisoners and staff, and that ADT may significantly influence prisoners' prospects of rehabilitation and reintegration into society on release. One 'lifer' notes that many of the crises facing penal systems in the developed world (including overcrowding, violence, mental and physical illness, drug use, high levels of suicide, self-harm etc.) are intrinsically related to the 'fear-suffused environments' created by prison architects (Hassine, 2008: 8). This research critically interrogates this statement.

Against that backdrop, a few new penal experiments in parts of northern and western Europe might be welcomed as 'humane' alternatives to the traditional architecture of incarceration. Equipped with state-of-the-art lighting imitating natural daylight, extensive use of glass, no bars on windows, different colour palettes creating varied atmospheres in each 'zone', displays of artwork, curved lines, rounded walls and uneven horizons, the design features being incorporated into some new prisons might be assumed to mitigate against the harms caused by imprisonment. But can aesthetic considerations make a difference to behaviour? If, as 19th century prison commissioners and designers believed, architecture can be used as a means of inflicting punishment, is it equally true that architecture can deliver rehabilitation? Should the briefs issued to those who design and plan new prisons include a requirement to build into their construction features that normalize carceral space and have potential to ease offenders' reintegration back into society? Or is it simply that 'a prison is a prison', regardless of the enlightened humanism that may underpin its design? Could it even be that these prisons have unintended outcomes and perverse consequences, or represent an extension of power and control orientated towards docile compliance and bring their own distinctive pains of imprisonment? Moreover, if the general public are as punitive in their attitudes to offenders, as is commonly thought, how do communities feel when prisons are built in their midst? How do architects of prisons balance the requirements that prisons should pass the 'public acceptability' test (which may include an expectation that they should 'look' and 'feel' like places of punishment) with the 'NIMBYism' which frequently greets the announcement of a new prison?

This project will empirically investigate these issues and inform future debates about how prisons might be designed differently in order to fulfill the goal of rehabilitation as well as those of security, deterrence, retribution and punishment. Challenging conventional wisdom and taken-for-granted assumptions concerning the purposes and 'effectiveness' of prisons, the proposed project is innovative, significant and timely. No research currently exists on the impact and effects - on prison staff as well as on inmates - of penal architecture, spatial design and the implementation of advanced monitoring, surveillance and communication technologies. The study's intent is to move beyond the traditional, historical focus on penal architecture e.g. the legacy of Bentham's Panopticon and the 19th century 'separate' and 'silent' systems (in which the goals of discipline and reform were built in to the fabric of the carceral environment), and to inform knowledge and debates from a contemporary and future-oriented perspective. In doing this, the proposed project promises to deliver significant advances on previous research and extant knowledge.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from research?
Home Office, NOMS, Ministry of Justice
Ministers, correctional personnel etc. outside UK; particularly in Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Belgium, Austria
Private sector partners awarded DCMF contracts
Architects, planners
Local Authorities
Criminal justice charities; prison reform groups; third sector organizations, e.g. NACRO, PRT, Howard League, Rideout, the Wates Foundation
The Prisons Inspectorate
Prison managers, staff
Prisoners; their families; prison visitors
Residents of neighbourhoods in which prisons are located/planned
How?
At a macro level, the project's main aim is to generate new data that has the capacity to inform policy and practice regarding prison ADT in the UK. In addition, and given the interest already generated in discussions about the proposed project with colleagues in the correctional services in Norway, Denmark and Belgium, we anticipate that the study can have a significant impact on prison policy and planning in these and other countries in Europe. The research seeks answers to questions such as: how can the possibilities provided by good architecture, design and technology be harnessed within the penal environment? Might some ground-breaking initiatives in north-west Europe be successfully incorporated into new prisons in the UK and elsewhere? Could individual prisons, the Prison Service and society at large benefit from designing and building prisons that normalize the carceral experience? Addressing such questions will enable architects, planners, policymakers and other professional practitioners to develop responses to ADT based on the actual experience of the individuals who live and work in prisons, rather than on assumptions made about end users and their needs.
At a meso level, via a grant-linked PhD, the project will take account of the views of residents and business owners in areas where prisons are situated/planned. The public are commonly believed to hold negative, stereotypical views about offenders (although empirical evidence is limited) and the recent return to siting prisons in urban, densely populated areas may generate local fears about escapes, visitors to prisoners, ex-offenders settling into the community on release, diminished public safety, low civic pride, plummeting property values etc. Do these factors influence architects and planners? Are new prisons designed to blend into their environment? To what extent are communities consulted when a new prison is planned? Would a greater say in the planning/design process give residents' a greater sense of involvement, improve long-term prison-community relations and alleviate NIMBY attitudes?
At a micro level, key beneficiaries are prison managers, Inspectors, staff and prisoners. How do different forms of architecture and design shape social adaptation? What impact is the introduction of monitoring, surveillance and communication technology having on prisoners and prison staff? Have experimental approaches to ADT in prisons outside the UK universally been successful or have some elements had unforeseen, unintentional or detrimental effects and outcomes? How might the views and experiences of prisoners and staff be incorporated into prison design?
In addressing these questions it is hoped that the research will make a significant impact on the health, humanity, purpose and effectiveness of prisons, and to the quality of life, welfare and wellbeing of prisoners and staff working within a variety of prison settings. While the notion of a healthy prison may be considered an oxymoron, it is unlikely that academic disquiet will lead to a diminishing use of imprisonment in the foreseeable future and this study rests on the premise that it may be more realistic to seek to advance understanding of the dimensions critical to providing humane, productive, safe prison environments that help to achieve the Prison Service's humanitarian, rehabilitative and custodial goals.

Publications

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Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
ES/K011081/1 01/01/2014 31/12/2015 £536,035
ES/K011081/2 Transfer ES/K011081/1 01/01/2016 30/06/2017 £231,591
 
Description The project funded by this grant has generated significant new knowledge about prison architecture, design and technology including both good and poor exemplars from around the world. It has found that planning and design decisions have short-term and long-term effects on the quality of life, well-being and health of both prisoners and prison staff, and that small, human-scale,'normalised' custodial environments are more successful in rehabilitating offenders and offering them a chance of successfully resettling into the community on release. The study has also found that the individuals who commission new prisons, and those who plan and design them, do not pay sufficient attention to prisons as living and working spaces. The prioritisation of 'efficiency' (i.e. cost efficiency) and 'effectiveness' (i.e. effectiveness at maintaining security, control and order) hamper design innovation and creativity, so that a preoccupation with 'future proofing' prison buildings and 'value-engineering' their designs over-rides concerns about making them support positive prisoner-staff relationships or rehabilitative efforts. The research has also found that those countries that hold design competitions for the commission of new prisons tend to yield better results, as they are more likely to think through their penal philosophy and shape it more progressively; they then require it to be translated into an architectural brief that stimulates positive design intent from the architects, and frequently involves stakeholder input, including from prisoners and prison officers. From a prisoner perspective, the research has found that custodial design can support or undermine human rights, World Health Organisation recommendations and Mandela Rules guidance.
Exploitation Route The research is currently being used by several prison/corrections services worldwide (including the UK Ministry of Justice and NOMS) to inform their prison planning and design programmes. It is also being used by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to inform its guidance on prison planning and design in developing countries. Following the symposium (to be held in June 2017) we envisage further opportunities for key personnel across the sectors involved in prison planning and design to collaborate with the investigators and with each other. With five new prisons planned for England & Wales, there is significant opportunity for the project investigators and others to use the findings to inform decision making.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.prisonspaces.com
 
Description Sep 2015-May 2016 Yvonne Jewkes and Dominique Moran advised UK Ministry of Justice Prison Estates Transformation Programme (PETP) Board and their appointed architects Bryden Wood on early design planning for five new proposed prisons in England & Wales to be constructed by 2020 [we have 'impact' testimonials from both MOJ and Bryden Wood] Sept 2015-ongoing Yvonne Jewkes is consultant to Northern Ireland Prison Service and Irish Prison Service on their prison modernisation and expansion programmes, including for new women's prisons in Limerick and Belfast [I have 'impact' testimonials from Director Generals of IPS and NIPS] 2016 Yvonne Jewkes was lead author on 'Rehabilitation by Design' report (with Gleeds Architects and The Nehemiah Project), launched in the Palace of Westminster, 10th October 2016 Yvonne Jewkes and Dominique Moran - advisors to UK National Offender Management Service (NOMS) on interior design of HMP Berwyn, a 2106 bed prison opened in Wrexham, North Wales, Feb 2017 [we have 'impact' testimonials from NOMS] 2016 Yvonne Jewkes and Dominique Moran - advisors to Executive Governors of the six 'Early Adopter' reform prisons in England & Wales on improvements that can be made to the spatial environments 2016-2017 Yvonne Jewkes - consultant to UK prison architects at Capita, Gleeds, Amey; consultant to Australian prison architects at Guymer Bailey, FMSA; worked with Mode Architecture Nov-Dec 2016 Yvonne Jewkes advised Corrections Victoria Youth Justice Review Board on new planned juvenile facilities in wake of riots at Parkville Youth Justice Centre and submitted written evidence to Parliamentary Inquiry into Youth Justice Centres in Victoria in Feb 2017 2016 Yvonne Jewkes and Dominique Moran were consultants on NIHR bid (submitted 18/09/16) PI Karen Slade, NTU 'Defining contributory factors and identifying approaches in organizational service design and delivery to reduce self-inflicted death in the criminal justice system' August 2015- Yvonne Jewkes - consultant to International Committee of the Red Cross on prison design in Africa, Asia and Latin America Nov 2013-January 2015 Yvonne Jewkes - consultant to Next Step Partners consortium, led by Fletcher Construction, awarded PPP contract to design and build new Auckland maximum-security prison for adult males, New Zealand.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Advised Corrections Victoria, Australia
Geographic Reach Australia 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Prof Yvonne Jewkes advised Corrections Victoria Youth Justice Review Board on new planned juvenile facilities in wake of riots at Parkville Youth Justice Centre Nov 2016 and submitted written evidence to Parliamentary Inquiry into Youth Justice Centres in Victoria, Feb 2017.
 
Description Advised Dept of Corrections and Next Step Partnership, New Zealand
Geographic Reach Australia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Advised ICRC
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Prof Yvonne Jewkes was Adviser to International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) for report on prison design in Africa, Asia and Latin America - ongoing
 
Description Advised Ministry of Justice PETP
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Prof Yvonne Jewkes and Dr Dominique Moran presented to and advised UK Ministry of Justice Prison Estates Transformation Programme (PETP) Board and their appointed architects Bryden Wood on early design planning for five new proposed prisons in England & Wales to be constructed by 2020. Ongoing process.
 
Description Advised NOMS North Wales
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Prof Yvonne Jewkes was Advisor to UK National Offender Management Service (NOMS) on interior design of HMP Berwyn in Wrexham, North Wales
 
Description Consultation Irish Prison Service (IPS)
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Prof Yvonne Jewkes has been advising Irish Prison Service (IPS) on a regular basis over 2016 and 2017, since key senior personnel there heard her present at a Euro-Pris Prisons of the Future workshop, The Hague Netherlands ('Prisons and humanity'), March 3rd 2016, and then again at ICPA conference, Bucharest, Romania (talk entitled 'Human Rights and the Principle of 'Normality': Comparing Approaches to Prison Planning and Design in Europe in Light of the Mandela Rules'), 25th Oct 2016. Changes in policy and practice of IPS include decision to hold an architectural design competition for competitive tender for new prisons and decision to put design on equal footing as cost. My research has informed the planning and design process of the new women prison in Limerick and the extensive refurbishment of the Dochas Centre women's prison in Dublin. I sit on the IPS planning and design team and have advised IPS's appointed architects on international best practice in prison design. The process is ongoing.
 
Description Keynote speaker, London Drug & Policy Forum
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Prof Yvonne Jewkes was Keynote speaker, London Drug & Policy Forum 'New perspectives on offender rehabilitation: Promoting behavioural change through prison planning and design', Sept 30th 2016
 
Description Research Development Grant
Amount £5,955 (GBP)
Organisation Foundation for the Sociology of Health and Illness 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 10/2017
 
Description Appearance on The Design Dimension, BBC Radio 4 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Yvonne Jewkes was invited to appear on The Design Dimension, BBC Radio 4 [broadcast Tuesday 18th November 2014]. As well as responding to questions from the public, the project team were able to use this as an opportunity to consolidate their own current thinking in the area under study.

Our colleagues reported that this was a useful venture to providing a useful link with a media producer, but also as a mechanism to report positionality of each researcher to the remainder of the research team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04p84h8
 
Description Appearance on a panel at the Curious Connections event at the Tower of London, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dominique Moran was invited to speak at the Curious Connections: Design and Punishment event at the Tower of London [14th April 2015]. Panel members gave a presentation and the talk sparked questions from members of the public.

The talk allowed members of the public to ask questions about architecture and design in functioning prisons in the UK. It raised awareness of the project but also directly presented project findings to a wide audience. The panel session was recorded to a podcast and was made available online. We understand these podcasts are downloaded frequently.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.hrp.org.uk/Learning/Podcasts
 
Description Article in The Conversation newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Information surrounding the key debates for the project was disseminated to the media platform.

Publications drew attention to the ongoing project and stimulated requests for information about the project and other existing publications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://theconversation.com/bad-design-breeds-violence-in-sterile-megaprisons-22424
 
Description Designing deprivation: the spatial pains of imprisonment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Yvonne Jewkes was an invited speaker at a workshop marking the 60th anniversary of the Publication of Gresham Sykes 'The Society of Captives' organised by colleagues at Flinders University and University of Cambridge. There were 17 participants; all renowned international scholars working in the field of prison research. The outputs of the workshop will include an edited collection to be published by Princeton University Press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Keynote presentation EuroPris 'Prisons of the Future' workshop, The Hague, Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation by PI Jewkes on topic of humane prison architecture and design which resulted in invitations to visit Finland and Ireland to present research findings to prison planning teams and to Catalonia to visit two most recently built prisons in the region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://europris.org
 
Description Lecture University of Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker, University of Southampton, Prison Planning and Design in the UK and Europe: What Constitutes a "Well-Designed" Prison?, March 1st 2017. approximately 40 people attended; Sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lecture University of York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker, University of York Department of Sociology '"Architecture cures cancer", but can it cure crime? The architecture of incarceration and the architecture of hope', Nov 9th 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description News article for The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact PI Jewkes invited to write article on current government policy/planning regarding forthcoming prison building programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/how-to-build-better-prisons-55174
 
Description Participation in Panel at the RGS-IBG, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Dominique Moran and Jennifer Turner were invited as panellists for a session entitled 'Mapping carceral geography - confinement, closed spaces and affective atmospheres' at The Annual International Conference of The Royal Geographical Society, Institute of British Geographers, London. Brief presentations by the panellists sparked discussions surrounding future directions for synergies between carceral geographies and other disiplines.

During the panel session, the audience expressed interest at the setting up of a formal network to explore these areas. Dominique Moran and Jennifer Turner are working in collaboration with another colleague to explore the setting up of a Carceral Geography Research Group of the RGS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Participation in a panel at the ESC, Porto 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Dr Dominique Moran and Dr Jennifer Turner were invited to take part in a panel, entitled "A conversation: criminology and carceral geography" at The Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology, Porto, 2-5th September. The panel stimulated discussion and wider interdisciplinary conversation.

The panel served to expand cross-disciplinary networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plenary presentation at the International Corrections and Prisons Association (ICPA) Melbourne, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Yvonne Jewkes was invited as the plenary speaker at the International Corrections and Prisons Association (ICPA) Melbourne, Australia, 'Designing punishment: balancing security, creativity and humanity in contemporary correctional systems', on October 30th 2015. The talk sparked questions and discussions afterwards.

The presentation further developed Professor Jewkes's network within the ICPA and generates potential for future research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation and discussant activities at the Troubling Institutions Conference and Workshop, University of Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dominique Moran presented a paper entitled 'Troubling Institutions: Prisons and the Design of Carceral Space' at the Troubling Institutions workshop, University of Glasgow, 11th Nov 2014. Jennifer Turner also acted as a discussant - drawing conclusions about a number of the papers presented during the day. Both the paper and the discussancy activities were used to stimulate further questions and conversation in a workshop element of the proceedings.

After Moran's presentation, discussants engaged in lively debate. Following these, the presentation and discussancy were used to directly spark conversation for the workshop elements. Participants were able to determine ways in which common research threads could be practically implemented across disciplines. The wider ESRC project was also promoted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at ANZSOC conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact More than 50 academics and researchers listened to the presentation entitled 'The architect's dilemma: Should new prisons be brutal, bland or beautiful?' delivered by Yvonne Jewkes as part of the ANZSOC conference, University of Sydney, Australia. The audience learnt about thetensions surrounding prison design and how prison architecture and prison design upon the everyday lives of end-users.

The audience of academics and researchers engaged with the presentation material in the discussion time, raising queries and providing comments that have shaped the design of the research project. The audience also reported greater awareness of the dilemmas associated with prison building.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at CCR, University of Sheffield Law School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact More than 50 academics and researchers listened to the presentation entitled 'Designing punishment: competing tensions in prison architecture, design and technology' delivered by Yvonne Jewkes and co-authroed by Dominique Moran as part of the seminar series of the CCR, University of Sheffield Law School. The audience learnt about the tensions surrounding how prison architecture and prison design.

The audience of academics and researchers engaged with the presentation material in the discussion time, raising queries and providing comments that have shaped the design of the research project. The audience also reported greater awareness of the dilemmas associated with prison building, with some requesting additional publications in the area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at Griffith University Brisbane, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact More than 30 students, academics and researchers listened to a guest lecture entitled 'Prison architects as moral agents: is it possible to design a 'healthy' high-security prison?'at Griffith University Brisbane, Australia. The audience learnt about the impacts of prison architecture and prison design upon the everyday lives of end-users.

The audience reported that as a result of these presentations they had developed a greater understanding of the significance of architecture in the penal setting. After this engagement activity, the research team also noted an increase in public interest and requests for further information about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Yvonne Jewkes was invited to give a presentation entitled 'Prison Architecture, Design and Technology' at Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons, London on Jan 28th 2015. The talk was designed to open discussion about how elements of architecture, design and technology could be better incorporated into the assessment framework of the inspectorate.

After the talk, the Inspectorate noted that ADT featured less that it perhaps should in the assessment framework. Future plans may reconsider this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the AAG conference, Chicago 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dominique Moran gave a presentation entitled . 'Becoming big things: Building events and the architectural geographies of incarceration in England and Wales' at The Annual Conference of the Association of American Geographers, Chicago, IL. The presentation was part of two-day series of events which encompassed seven sessions related to Carceral Geography (and co-convened by Jennifer Turner). This series was an important part of the process in the establishment of a carceral geography network currently in its evolution.

Following this talk, we received a number of requests to join the network and made plans to formalise it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the AAG conference, Chicago 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jennifer Turner gave a presentation entitled 'Components of the carceral: The lived experience of prison design' at The Annual Conference of the Association of American Geographers, Chicago, IL. The presentation was part of two-day series of events which encompassed seven sessions related to Carceral Geography (and co-convened by Dominique Moran). This series was an important part of the process in the establishment of a carceral geography network currently in its evolution.

Further requests to join the network and plans made to formalise this network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the ASC conference, San Francisco, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact More than 50 academics and researchers listened to the presentation entitled 'Prison architects as moral agents: is it possible to design a 'healthy' prison?, delivered by Yvonne Jewkes and co-authored by Dominique Moran as part of the ASC conference, San Francisco, USA. The audience learnt about the tensions surrounding how prison architecture and prison design upon the everyday lives of end-users.

The audience of academics and researchers engaged with the presentation material in the discussion time, raising queries and providing comments that have shaped the design of the research project. The audience also reported greater awareness of the dilemmas associated with prison building, with some requesting additional involvement at their respective institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at the ASC conference, San Francisco, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact More than 50 academics and researchers listened to the presentation entitled 'The visual aesthetics and an-aesthetics of prison architecture and design' delivered by Yvonne Jewkes as part of the ASC conference, San Francisco, USA. The audience learnt about the tensions surrounding how prison architecture and prison design upon the everyday lives of end-users.

The audience of academics and researchers engaged with the presentation material in the discussion time, raising queries and providing comments that have shaped the design of the research project. The audience also reported greater awareness of the dilemmas associated with prison building, with some requesting additional involvement at their respective institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at the ESC Working Group, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jennifer Turner gave a presentation entitled 'From piss pots to paint pots: Prison design and carceral space' at the ESC Working Group, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, March 27th 2015. This talk sparked questions and discussion afterwords.

After the talk, we received more request for copies of publications and were asked to visit a prison in German in relation to the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the ESC, Porto 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Professor Yvonne Jewkes gave a presentation entitled 'Prison architecture, design and technology: "fear-suffused environments" or potential to rehabilitate?' at The Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology, Porto, 2-5th September 2015. The talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

The talk increased the international profile of the project among academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the European Society of Criminology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact More than 40 students, academics and criminal justice professionals listened to a presentation entitled 'Prison architecture, design and technology: a comparative approach' which was delivered by Yvonne Jewkes at the European Society of Criminology conference, Budapest, Hungary. The audience learnt about distinctions between prison architecture across the globe.

The audience reported that as a result of these presentations they had developed a greater understanding of the disparity in prison architecture and design across the world. Comments and points of interested raised from the discussion helped shape the research agenda for the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation at the Health and Wellbeing in Prison Populations Workshop, Royal Holloway, University of London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Dr Jennifer Turner gave a presentation entitled 'Getting the green light for a grey area: the relationship between security, aesthetics and well-being in custodial space' at the Health and Wellbeing in Prison Populations Workshop, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham on 11th September. The talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

The talk disseminated findings from the project and stimulated interest for future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the Informa Prison Planning & Design conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact More than 30 academics and researchers listened to the Keynote address entitled 'The new architecture of incarceration: humane punishment, hidden pain?' delivered by Yvonne Jewkes as part of the Informa Prison Planning & Design conference, Melbourne, Australia. The audience learnt about the impacts of prison architecture and prison design upon the everyday lives of end-users.

The audience reported that as a result of these presentations they had developed a greater understanding of the significance of architecture in the penal setting. After this engagement activity, the research team also noted an increase in public interest and requests for further information about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation at the Law School, University of Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Professor Yvonne Jewkes was invited to give a presentation entitled 'Prison architecture, design and technology and the lived experience of carceral space' at the University of Birmingham Law School, on November 27th 2015. The presentation served to provide information about the wider project to an academic audience.

After the talk, networks were developed for potential future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at the Nordic Geographers Meeting, Estonia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jennifer Turner presented a paper entitled 'Shaping 'inhabitation': the complexities of prison design and prison building' at The Nordic Geographers Meeting, Tallinn. The presentaton sparks questions and discussion. Participation in this conference has also prompted further conversations surrounding a carceral geography network.

After this talk, new working collaborations have ensued including an invitation to speak on a panel at an international conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation for the Correctional Service of Norway 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Yvonne Jewkes was invited to give a presentation to KRUS (Correctional Service of Norway) entitled 'Designing prisons, competing perspectives: who is the "client" in the commissioning process?' on Jan 22nd 2015. This talk directly informed professional policy-makers about the differences in opinion between architectural design in Scandinavia and the UK and the potential use of prisoners to stimulate prison design.

This talked sparked intense discussion surrounding the comparative nature of prisons in the UK and in Norway. As such, the current research agenda for the project was directly influenced. Additionally, KRUS reported a stimulation of thinking surrounding the repositioning of prisoner voices in the decision-making process surrounding architectural features within their estate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to ESRC Visual Criminology Seminar Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact More than 50 academics and researchers listened to a presentation by Yvonne Jewkes, entitled 'Fear-suffused environments: the visual aesthetics and an-aesthetics of prison architecture and design' at Keele University as part of the ESRC Visual Criminology seminar series. The audience learnt about the rationale for conducting the research, the project's aims and the methods used.

The audience remarked on having developed a greater awareness ofthe significance of architecture in the penal environment as a result of listening to the presentation. After this engagement activity, the research team also noted an increase in public interest and requests for further information about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation to National Offender Management Service, (NOMS) at Royal Courts of Justice 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Dr Dominique Moran gave a presentation to the National Offender Management Service, (NOMS) on 20th October 2015 at Royal Courts of Justice, on prison design and therapeutic landscapes. The presentation was to members of NOMS, and Senior Management Team including the Governor-Designate of a new prison under construction in North Wales, and to members of MoJ Estates Directorate. The intention was to inform the operationalisation of the new prison post-handover in 2016, in relation to the internal environment and the engendering of a rehabilitative culture for the institution.


Invitation to provide consultancy on implementation of prison design features in new North Wales prison.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to the Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies, University of Toronto 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact More than 50 students and academics listened to a guest lecture entitled 'Carceral Geography: Spaces and Practices of Incarceration' which was delivered by Dr Dominique Moran. The audience learnt about the scholarly work in the emergent field of carceral geographies.

The audience reported that as a result of these presentations they had developed a greater understanding of area of carceral geography and the diverse spaces of study associated with this field and the methods that can be used to explore these spaces.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Prison research masterclass at the University of Melbourne 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Yvonne Jewkes was invited to speak as part of a 'Prison research masterclass' at the University of Melbourne (with Prof Alison Liebling), on October 25th 2015.

This activity sparked discussion surrounding the future of prison design among academics and professional practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Symposium, RIBA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Yvonne Jewkes and Dominique Moran organised and hosted an international symposium on prison architecture, design and technology, held at the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) in central London, with speakers from the spheres of academia, architecture, politics and civil service and international prisons personnel. Many participants reported that it was a unique event that would inform their thinking and practice in future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017