Addressing intimate partner violence among substance misusers: advancing aetiologies and treatment approaches

Lead Research Organisation: King's College London
Department Name: Addictions

Abstract

Intimate partner violence (IPV) includes physical, sexual or psychological harm by a current/ex partner/spouse. It is a global problem, impacting the physical & mental health of victims, perpetrators & their children alike. In the UK, the annual cost of IPV is estimated at £36.7 billion. 1 in 6 males in substance misuse treatment have perpetrated IPV & 1 in 4 females in treatment are victims of IPV, resulting in higher involvement with criminal justice, child protection & mental health services. Few interventions address IPV among this group & those that have been developed are from the US.

There is great division over the importance and appropriateness of individual, situational, cultural & societal factors in explaining IPV. Involving partners from the UK, US, Australia & China enables us to reflect and compare legal, policy & treatment approaches. The contrasting role of patriarchy & control in western & developing countries & among ethnic minorities within these countries will also be compared. Understanding the cultural-constructs of IPV is necessary to develop culturally-sensitive responses. International collaboration allows knowledge innovation and its scaling up through a series of 6 connected multi-stakeholder seminars.

The seminar series will advance our cross-cultural, multidisciplinary understanding about the causes of IPV among substance misusers. It will also enhance our knowledge about effective policy & treatment approaches. Several principal competing theories exist as to why certain people are more likely to be perpetrators or victims of IPV on which current treatment approaches are based. In order to advance our understanding of best practice, the seminar series will bring together leading academics, early career researchers (ECRs), PhD students, practitioners, policy makers, educators and other key stakeholders to debate these issues from different perspectives & experiences with a view to learning from each other & informing policy, practie, education & training. The seminars will explore the relationship between IPV & substance misuse, the consequences & causes of IPV, & sociological considerations of IPV & substance misuse, including gender & culture. How best to address IPV among substance misusers will be debated by discussing risk & assessment criteria, treatment approaches, novel technologies (including web based, phone applications & gaming technologies) & public policy.

ECRs & PhD students will be encouraged & supported to present their work & collaborate on dissemination & research proposal development.

6 seminars will be held, 3 in the UK & 3 internationally (US, Australia, China). There will be 30 core participants (academics, ECRs & PhD students)-15 from 4 UK Universities (Greenwich, Kings College London, Nottingham, Glasgow Caledonian) and 15 from 3 international Universities (Rochester Institute of Technology(US), Melbourne(Australia) & Hong Kong(China)). The core group of 15 from the UK will attend all UK seminars in person & each CI will attend one international seminar. Similarly, each international CI will attend one UK seminar. Janet video conferencing services will be used to ensure that all 6 seminars are interactive regardless of whether they are attended in person or through the use of video conferencing by the core participant group (15 UK & 15 international participants) to provide continuity, cross-cultural knowledge exchange and foster the development of research proposals. An additional 15 participants from each local area will participate in each seminar, drawn from other Universities, practitioners, policy makers, educators & other stakeholders. In total at least 30 participants will attend each seminar in person or through the use of video conferencing. Seminars will be streamed live & downloadable free-of-charge via the seminar series' website to facilitate participation in all seminars. 3 collaborative research proposals & 2 manuscripts will be produced.

Planned Impact

A wide range of non-academic professionals & practitioners will benefit from the proposed seminar series including health & social care professionals, GPs, police & criminal justice systems, policy makers, organisations, charities & service user groups representing victims & perpetrators of IPV &/or people with substance misuse problems.

Many of these representatives previously attended the Centre for Applied Social Research Centre's annual lecture on addressing IPV in substance misuse treatment, & have expressed an interest in being involved in the seminar series. The format of the seminars will ensure a continuous learning approach to understanding the role of substance misuse & IPV & why some people are more likely to be victims or perpetrators of IPV than others. It will provide evidence-based solutions & practice to effectively addressing these dual problems through the presentation of ground breaking research & the inclusion of practical problem solving through the use of clinical case vignettes & the discussion workshops on the implications of the findings on their future practice & policy.

Discussions will cover a number of themes including the aetiology of co-occurring IPV & substance misuse, different social & cultural experiences & expectations, the role of substance misuse in IPV, & evidence based policy & practice to addressing these co-occurring issues in an integrated manner. These have been identified as ongoing issues for practitioners & policy-makers. The seminar series will address these & other relevant issues identified during the seminar workshops from academic & practitioner perspectives, allowing the seminar series to evolve as required to address the needs of potential beneficiaries.

Seminar 1 provides beneficiaries with a greater understanding of the size of the problem & the consequences of IPV which may impact on the way they assess & respond to substance misusers, taking care to screen for IPV & examine other associated comorbid issues. Seminar 2 assists with the understanding of why some people are more likely to perpetrate IPV. By debating existing theories & reaching an agreed understanding, previous views may be challenged which may result in a change in practice & policy that enhances the treatment response for substance misusers who are victims or perpetrators of IPV. In Seminar 3, the differing typologies of perpetrators will be considered & discussed in relation to treatment approaches & needs. Seminar 4 examines the differences cross-cultural beliefs about IPV & the role of substance misuse in IPV perpetration. Cross-cultural comparative analysis of the legal and policy contexts will be provided. This will assist beneficiaries understand the cross-cultural perspectives of their patients/clients & provide an improved cross-culturally appropriate response as a result. The final two seminars examine how to improve treatment access, engagement & retention & present ground breaking research on behavioural therapies & novel technologies to effectively address these dual problems. Knowledge exchange will ensure an improved treatment response for substance misusers, which could result in a reduction of IPV & improvements in well-being for the victims & other family members.

Each of the 6 seminars is designed to reflect practitioners' current concerns & those issues that are currently being debated &/or addressed in academic research. The series will also benefit policy-makers, commissioners & education providers as improved understandings of these issues can influence the way in which professionals & agencies design policy and training responses.

The availability of the seminar series via video conferencing, live streaming & captured on the research seminar series website will ensure the wide dissemination of the outputs. The website will be publicised via existing academic/professional networks. It will also facilitate collaborations between practitioners & academics

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Significant new knowledge generated
Six seminars were delivered to disseminate new knowledge to a multidisciplinary audience - 3 in the UK (London, Glasgow, Nottingham), one in the US (Rochester), one In Australia (Melbourne) and one in China (Hong Kong). Presentations from these seminars are available on pod/vodcasts http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/depts/addictions/events/ESRC-Seminar/podcasts.aspx and also led to two special issues on substance use and intimate partner violence being published:

Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health (Special Issue: Intimate Partner Violence) 2015, 24(4): 233-329 [guest edited by Gail Gilchrist]
Drug and Alcohol Review (Special Issue: Intimate Partner Violence) ongoing [guest edited by Gail Gilchrist and Kelsey Hegarty]

New research collaborations/partnerships
Six research grant applications have been submitted by new collaborations arising from the ESRC seminar series grant - 1 x Economic and Social Research Council (unsuccessful), 1 x European Research Council (unsuccessful), 4 x National Institute of Health Research (1 x unsuccessful, 2 x pending, 1 x successful).

Guidance
A list of useful resources on Guidance on working with intimate partner violence victims and perpetrators who use substances was produced.
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/depts/addictions/research/drugs/project-outputs.aspx
Exploitation Route The pod/vodcasts are available to download free of charge and can be used for education and training purposes. The guidance list produced may be used by the drug and alcohol sector to inform training and practice. The two special issues can be used to inform policy and practice and advance our understanding of intimate partner violence and substance use.
Sectors Healthcare

URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/depts/addictions/events/ESRC-Seminar/podcasts.aspx
 
Description The pod/vodcasts are available free to download. It is not yet possible to determine how the findings have been/will be used but the reach has targeted key stakeholders, policy makers, commissioners, practitioners, academics, educators and service users. Therefore we anticipate that the impact will be on policy and public services and that from the attendance and use of pod/vodcasts that the sectors the research has been used in will include healthcare, education and policy.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Children and Families grant funding
Amount £233,169 (GBP)
Organisation Nuffield Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description ESRC Standard Research Studentship (Quota) (New)
Amount £82,436 (GBP)
Funding ID B108492K 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description Programme Grant for Applied Research
Amount £2,930,919 (GBP)
Funding ID RP-PG-1214-20009 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2021
 
Description Programme Grant for Applied Research
Amount £2,263,155 (GBP)
Funding ID RP-PG-0614-20012 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2021
 
Description Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The prevalence and factors associated with ever perpetrating intimate partner violence by men receiving substance use treatment in Brazil and England: a cross-cultural comparison. Lisbon Addictions 2017. 2nd European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies. 24-26 October 2017, Lisbon, Portugal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation as part of a symposium on substance use and intimate partner violence: The prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence perpetration by men receiving substance use treatment: A cross cultural comparison. San Francisco 26th-28th September 2017 National Conference on Health and Domestic Violence. Dr Gail Gilchrist. [symposium title: The complex relationship between men's use of alcohol and other drugs and their violence toward female partners: Implications for healthcare responses]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Delivery of seminar series 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Six seminars were held for researchers, practitioners, policy makers, service users and post-graduate students. The first seminar was held in London (UK) and 45 people attended in person or via video conferencing. The second seminar was held in Rochester (NYC) and 46 people attended in person or via video conferencing. The third seminar was held in Glasgow (UK) and 38 people attended in person or via video conferencing. The fourth seminar was held in Nottingham (UK) where a total of 33 people attended in person or via video conferencing. The fourth seminar was held in Melbourne (Australia) where a total of 42 people attended in person. The sixth and final seminar was held in Hong Kong (China) and 64 people attended in person. Each seminar included a session for debate and discussion. In addition, the core team of researchers had time to develop grants and academic papers. Pod/vodcasts are available of the 6 seminars on the project website free-to-download. The seminar series led to the publication of 2 special issues on Intimate partner violence and substance use - one in Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbm.v25.4/issuetoc (and an editorial) and the other for Drug and Alcohol Review (ongoing). In addition 6 competitive grants have been submitted as a result of collaborations formed in the seminar series: 2 NIHR programme grants (decision pending); 1 NIHR HTA (unsuccessful); 1 ESRC PhD studentship (awarded); 1 NIHR post-doctoral fellowship (unsuccessful); 1 Hong Kong University grant application (unsuccessful).

The seminar series has resulted in the Principal Investigator guest editing a special issue of Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health on domestic violence. The co-investigators along with the Principal Investigator will write an editorial for this special issue planned for 2015. The Principal Investigator has presented at two Public Health England events, firstly, Evidence into Practice: Domestic Violence; on Thursday 6 November 2014 (Title of workshop Working with Domestic Violence perpetrators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/depts/addictions/events/ESRC-Seminar/podcasts.aspx
 
Description Podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A podcast with Dr Gail Gilchrist about her work with perpetrators of intimate partner violence to discuss the research evidence and complexities of this important issue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.acast.com/whatsthecrack/extracrack-aninterviewwithdrgailgilchrist
 
Description Presentation to Public Health England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to present at Public Health England event, National Intelligence Network on drug health harms; on 22 October 2014. Title of presentation Intimate Partner Violence and Substance Use.

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Website hosting the vod/podcasts from the seminar series 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A podcast of seminar 1 is now available online. A vodcast of seminar 2 is now available online and the vodcast of seminar 3 is currently being edited. To date 3 of the 6 seminars in the seminar series have been conducted and a website has been created that hosts the pod/vodcasts of these seminars for interested parties to download. The first seminar was held in London and 45 people attended. In addition, video conferencing allowed simultaneous broadcasting of the seminar in Nottingham, Glasgow, Hong Kong . The second seminar was held in Rochester (NYC) and 17 people attended. In addition, video conferencing and live streaming allowed simultaneous broadcasting of the seminar in Nottingham (17 attended), London (12 attended), Sao Paulo (Brazil) (4 attended) and three individuals linked in from the UK. The third seminar was held in Glasgow, and video conferencing and live streaming allowed simultaneous broadcasting of the seminar in Nottingham (22 attended) and London (13 attended).

Discussion and question and answer sessions were held after each presenter and at the end of each seminar, and time for networking was allocated. After each seminar, participants contacted us to state that they wished to be included in next seminar. Participants and those who could not attend the seminars but expressed interest were sent the link to the pod/vodcasts to listen/watch the seminars again/at a later date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/depts/addictions/events/ESRC-Seminar/podcasts.aspx
 
Description Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited to present at a workshop during the Public Health England event Evidence into Practice: Domestic Violence; on Thursday 6 November 2014 in London. Title of workshop: Working with Domestic Violence perpetrators in substance misuse services

Slides from presentation distributed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014