Marketplace Exclusion: Representations, Resistances and Responses

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Management School

Abstract

The proposed seminar series tackles the important societal issue of marketplace exclusion, for example the mechanisms through which individuals and communities are barred from the resources and opportunities provided by the marketplace to the average citizen. It explores how marketplace exclusion operates within UK society and what measures we might take to help counter it. We aim to bring together leading scholars, early career researchers, and relevant user groups that are interested in the intersections between marketplace participation and other social categories, in particular community cohesion. We aim to highlight marketplace exclusion as a serious but largely neglected issue in both academic and policy circles. The series will also establish cross disciplinary networks for future research collaboration.

It is undeniable that we are living in an era of consumerism where we are increasingly encouraged to look to the marketplace to find meaning in our lives and to use products, services and brands to define ourselves in relation to others. Participation in the market, and the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is an essential aspect of social cohesion. Alongside the rise of consumerism we have seen a shift away from values of community and integrity towards those of materialism and competition. This in itself has been problematic for UK society as a whole however some groups are better equipped to thrive in this context than others. The recent riots of summer 2011 where young people targeted their frustrations at major brands (Boffey, 2012) is evidence of the alienation some groups are experiencing.

Marketplace exclusion might result from a range of financial factors such as poor access to jobs and forms of credit which mean that individuals simply cannot afford to participate in the marketplace. However, we are also concerned in this seminar series to explore the failure of the marketplace in social/symbolic terms. As such the seminar series will focus on representations through which individuals are excluded from the marketplace, engaging critically with the discourse and practice of advertising, marketing research and digital marketing both in the academy and in industry. The series will also explore the ways in which individuals and communities might resist marketplace exclusion through the development of alternative channels of consumption such as community shops and Local Economic Trading Systems (LETS). It will also explore policy responses to marketplace exclusion, specifically social housing and community cohesion policies, and aims to develop new insights on these.

The originality of the series lies in its cognate but cross disciplinary make-up of participants brought together to address the role of the marketplace in perpetuating exclusion for some groups in society. The organisers come from the relatively diverse fields of critical marketing, consumer research, organisation studies, housing studies and community cohesion. However, the most innovative element of the series is our collaboration with the New Vic Theatre group Borderlines, to use theatre to explore the issues emerging and work with the community to find solutions. The final seminar in the series will take the form of a theatre production with ten unemployed (NEETS) young people. Using findings from the previous five seminars the production will be designed to explore individuals' everyday experiences of alienation from the marketplace and create a response through theatre. The performance will be followed by a practitioner workshop involving the cast, local organisations and academics/practitioners from earlier seminars. The performance and workshop will uphold or challenge the issues discussed in earlier seminars. It will also allow excluded consumers to find a voice and find new and positive ways to understand themselves and their communities.

Planned Impact

The strength of the series resides in the wide range of links with stakeholder communities that the eight investigators bring to the project. These include businesses, policy makers, charities and media representatives. The inclusion of Sue Moffat from New Vic Borderlines also means that the series will be well represented in the local community of Stoke-on-Trent drawing on her established links to community groups, community leaders and youth services. In summary the impacts will be as follows:

1. Enhancing understanding and knowledge of the concept of marketplace exclusion in society to ensure that blame is not placed at the level of individuals but rather wider mechanisms of exclusion.
2. Contributing positively to marketing practice in how consumers are represented in digital marketing, advertising and marketing research.
3. Contributing to public policy debates on marketplace exclusion at local, regional and national levels.
4. Promoting a powerful methodology for co-designing and co-producing knowledge with local communities.
5. Engaging excluded groups by giving them a voice and a role in rethinking the above grassroots and policy responses.

Below is a summary of the groups that will benefit from the seminars along with the ways in which they might benefit.

Seminars 1 and 2 (marketing practitioners, in particular market researchers, advertisers and digital marketers).
In seminar 1 we will be exploring the mechanisms that exclude consumers in both marketing theory and practice. In seminar 2 we will extend these debates into the realm of digital marketing. In particular we will interrogate and build on the recent government 'Consumer Empowerment Strategy' (Department for Business Innovation and Skills, BIS 2011) and MiData initiative. The seminar will build on Nottingham University's reputation as a centre of research into the digital economy supported by the Horizon Institute.

Seminar 3 (community shops, community exchange initiatives, charitable bodies which support these initiatives).
In seminar 3 we will bring together those involved in developing and running community based initiatives such as community shops and Local Economic Trading Systems (LETS), along with those tasked with supporting these initiatives such as The Plunkett Foundation and the Transition Network. The aim is for these initiatives to share experiences and best practice.

Seminar 4 and 5 (third sector organisations, policy makers, media commentators, Think Tanks, housing associations).
In seminars 4 and 5 we will bring together a range of practitioners to evaluate potential policy responses to marketplace exclusion, specifically social housing and community cohesion policies, and develop new insights on these. In seminar 4 we explore the issues arising from multiculturalism and the community cohesion policy response. In seminar 5 we consider affordable housing in England exploring why, and how the mixed communities housing policy has been a failure, the impact on those excluded from the housing market, and whose responsibility it is to foster cohesive communities.

Seminar 6 (young people from the Stoke-on-Trent area, local youth support services, probationary service and youth offending service, Job Centre).
Seminar 6 will be different from previous seminars. We aim to use this seminar as a vehicle to explore the issues arising from the previous 5 seminars. These issues will from the basis of a theatre production with young people in the Stoke-On-Trent area which will explore their experiences of marketplace exclusion 'on the ground'. It will also facilitate knowledge exchange between young people and practitioners though a workshop where key issues arising from the performance will be debated.

As outlined in the pathways to impact, the above benefits will be delivered through a website and social media strategy. The theatre production and participant workshop will also be central to delivering impact.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Playscript of Because You're Worth It? Including an original song written for the play 
Description A draft script of the theatre presentation 'Because You're Worth It?' including some explanations/stage directions. Included in the presentation were also edited soundbites from interviews that had taken place in streets, shopping centres, market places and with groups who are described as marginalised such as NEETS (young people 16-25 who are not in employment education or training) people living in the YMCA and asylum seekers and refugees. These will not be transcribed for the purposes of this draft script. Projection was also used in the presentation, these included publicly available snatches of video taken during the so called 'London Riots' In the performance were three songs; Leon Rossellson 'We Sell Everything" Stick in the Wheel 'Becky n Me' Tasnim Harrison 'Strange Flower' This song was written for the 'Because You're Worth It?' performance and refers to the brutalising effect of exclusion in the form of the murder of Sophie Lancaster whose death resulted in a campaign led by her mother to recognise that crimes against members of minority/sub-culture groups be recognised as hate crime. 
Type Of Art Composition/Score 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Impacts will be realised through the use of the playscript in a series of papers. Firstly developing performative knowledge production as a methodology and second an empirical paper which explores the lived experiences of marketplace exclusion. The playscript is avalable on the seminar series website. 
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/
 
Title Theatrical performance: Because You're Worth It? 
Description Because You're Worth it? An Exploration of the Themes Emerging from the ESRC Seminar Series 'Marketplace Exclusion' The presentation was performed at the New Vic Theatre in Newcastle under Lyme in Staffordshire. It was the final presentation of a series of seminars on the theme of market place exclusion. The director Susan Moffat had attended some of the seminar series and presented and run a workshop in one held at Liverpool University. Attending the seminars and subsequent planning meetings generated broad themes which were then used when engaging directly with communities surrounding the theatre. Included in the presentation were edited soundbites from interviews that had taken place in streets, shopping centres, market places and with groups who are described as marginalised such as NEETS (young people 16-25 who are not in employment education or training) people living in the YMCA and asylum seekers and refugees. Projection was also used in the presentation, these included publicly available snatches of video taken during the so called 'London Riots' In the performance were three songs; Leon Rossellson 'We Sell Everything" Stick in the Wheel 'Becky n Me' Tasnim Harrison 'Strange Flower' This song was written for the 'Because You're Worth It?' performance and refers to the brutalising effect of exclusion in the form of the murder of Sophie Lancaster whose death resulted in a campaign led by her mother to recognise that crimes against members of minority/sub-culture groups be recognised as hate crime. The Cast The cast for the performance of this piece at the New Vic Theatre on Friday, October 23rd, 2015, included four volunteer actors from members of the local community (including Tasnim Harrison who composed and performed the song 'Strange Flower'); three theatre/community practitioners from New Vic Borderlines (the New Vic Theatres outreach department and community partner for the seminar series) and one professional actor. Present on stage also are the voices of community members who were engaged with as part of the research to develop the piece, through the use of 'voice-overs' during the performance. The Audience The audience was made of academics from the universities involved in the series plus other interested academics form other institutions. Audience members also included local businesses ; the 'Town Centre Manager' for Newcastle under Lyme and ex-ceo of the Chamber of Commerce; members of the public/community who had engaged in interviews and workshops about Market Place exclusion as part of the development of the performance; residents from 'Brighter Futures' a large social housing provider from Stoke on Trent; representatives for Asylum support services and asylum seekers; young people for the YMCA; Foodbank providers/volunteers and user; Food-network organisers and two local training providers ACORN training and PM training The Setting The presentation took place in the main auditorium of the New Vic. On the stage were a number of two-dimensional mannequins painted red and blue. There were a number of simple black boxes which could be used in a range of ways (eg as a bed or a barricade or as rostra) Around the edges of the stage were boxes representing high end items from recognised leading brands such as Apple Sony Canon Hewlit Packard; a shopping trolley, and an array of wrapped Christmas presents. At the front of the stage was orange netting which would be used to represent the security blinds on shop fronts. Two styles of masks were also used. In the opening of the performance the same half-mask with a fixed 'salesman grin' was worn by all in the cast except the central character. This was used to represent the 'usual' sales approach which was illustrated in the opening song (We Sell Everything') The other masks we produced by StrangeFace Theatre Company, were used to represent the range of people who were arrested and charged in the aftermath of the London Riots. These mask were accompanied by a held placard on which was written the occupation and age of the accused. These labels were an important way of challenging the notion that the rioters were all young unemployed and anti-social. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Exploring young people's experiences of marketplace exclusion 'on the ground' has undoubtedly given them a voice and facilitated an alternative mode of expression of their experiences through the theatre workshops and final performance. The performance has also facilitated knowledge exchange between young people and practitioners though the post performance discussion where key issues arising from the performance were debated. The video of the performance is available on the seminar series website for future viewing by other interested parties. The research team will also be using it as the basis for a research paper. 
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/seminars/
 
Description One significant achievement from the award was the further development of arts based methodologies specifically Cultural Animation and the development of the concept of 'Performative Knowledge Production' (via final performance and associated journal article).

Further significant achievements are listed below under each objective.

1. To examine and positively reshape 'representations' of marketplace exclusion by critically engaging with the discourse and practice of advertising, marketing research and digital marketing both in the academy and in industry (seminars 1 and 2).

Outcomes included an edited special issue of the journal Consumption, Markets and Culture on 'marketplace exclusion' which developed the concept from a variety of perspectives. The special issue also led to the recruitment of a PhD student from a disadvantaged background funded by an Indonesian Government scholarship to further explore marketplace exclusion in the context of Indonesian Higher Education.

2. To explore grassroots 'resistances' to marketplace exclusion; specifically through community based shops and exchange systems such as LETS (Local Economic Trading Systems) with a view to sharing experiences and developing best practice (seminar 3).

The above connection resulted a funded project working with two food poverty organisations to explore the drivers of food poverty and exchange best practice in addressing food poverty.

3. To evaluate potential policy 'responses' to marketplace exclusion, specifically social housing and community cohesion policies, and develop new insights on these (seminars 4 and 5).

While not explored explicitly in relation to social housing and community cohesion - more recent work on food poverty has begun to evaluate the differing policy responses to this element of marketplace exclusion.

4. To document experiences of marketplace exclusion on the ground and empower excluded individuals by giving them a voice and a role in rethinking the above grassroots and policy responses (seminar 6).

This was achieved via the research that undergirded the seminar series which involved interviews with members of excluded groups - some of whom also participated in the final theatrical performance. The project also built on the pre existing methodology of 'Cultural Animation' whose aim is to empower and give voice to excluded and marginal groups. This was achieved by working together with the Stoke-on-Trent based New Vic Borderlines team who have existing experience in working with these groups in their locality.

5. To establish self sustaining cross disciplinary and cross sectoral networks for future collaboration on research projects on marketplace exclusion (seminars 1-6).

This was achieved in several ways - but in particular via a spin off network on 'food poverty' (see objective 2 above)
Exploitation Route To take this work forward we would hope that a better understanding of market mechanisms would feed into more creative responses to policy development that rather than relying on individual incentive target the structural issues at stake. Further the Cultural Animation methodology could be put to good use and developed in both policy and academic circles to research the views and experiences of marginalised groups but further to create a more level playing field in the co-production of knowledge. Finally, next steps in the current Covid climate would be to further explore the issue of 'digital exclusion' asking the question 'What does it mean to be excluded from networked markets?' Research team have started to explore this in relation to a recent publication on 'The Politics of Consumer Data' and a Leverhulme grant application in process.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description Findings from the seminar on 'Virtual Boundaries: The Social Consequences of Digital Marketing' have been used as an input into a successful EPSRC grant application to explore the potential of digital technologies to assist people who experience food poverty. This work has further input into a successful grant application with the Heseltine Institute at the University of Liverpool Social Economy theme titled Hungry for Change which aims to share possible solutions to food poverty between Liverpool and Stoke-On-Trent. The project involves social enterprises and community groups.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software)
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Professor H Beider, invited as expert witness to House of Commons select committee Women and Equalities to discuss work on white working class communities
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Contribution to a national consultation/review
 
Description Awarded to student for a PhD on Marketplace exclusion BIDIKMISI scolarship for high achieving Indonesian students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Indonesia 
Sector Public
Country Indonesia
Start 08/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Description Heseltine Institute Social Economy Theme 'Hungry for Change: Working together to tackle food poverty in Liverpool and Stoke-on-Trent
Amount £13,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Liverpool 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 11/2017
 
Description Open Society Foundation US Programs -'The Other America: white working class views on belonging, change, identity and immigration'
Amount $165,000 (USD)
Organisation Open Society Foundation, New York 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 06/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Title Performative Knowledge Production 
Description This research method involves the use of a documentary drama as the basis for further knowledge production. the documentary drama is based on interviews with excluded groups. Interviews include elements of life stories which are then dramatised. The performance then forms the basis for further discussion amongst audience members who consisted of a range of stakeholders and interested parties. This is a powerful methodology for co-designing and co-producing knowledge with local communities. It also Engages excluded groups by giving them a voice and a role in rethinking policy responses. Further detail as per below: Our documentary drama relied on individual oral testimonies collected via semi-structured interviews that had taken place in streets, shopping centres, market places and with groups who are described as marginalised such as NEETS (young people 16-25 who are not in employment education or training) people living in the YMCA and asylum seekers and refugees. These interviews were also used to recruit participants for the theatre workshops and presentation. Five weekly theatre workshops were based on the above oral testimonies drawing out themes for elaboration. Participants listened to the voices recorded and selected narratives to be developed into a presentation. Workshops used the principles of cultural animation to encourage participation on equal terms and stimulate thinking and acting outside the box. The weekly workshops were followed by a five day theatre residency to bring the work together and devise and rehearse the performance. The cast included four volunteer actors from members of the local community; three theatre/community practitioners from New Vic Borderlines and one professional actor. Present on stage also were the voices of community members who were engaged with as part of the research to develop the piece, through the use of 'voice-overs' during the performance. The performance relied on multi-media material (recorded voices, music, poems, costumes, lighting and movement) to create a kaleidoscope of perspectives which ultimately facilitated the emergence of a communal multi-voice about marketplace exclusion. Designed to be challenging and thought provoking, projection was also used in the presentation, these included publicly available snatches of video taken during the so called 'London Riots'. Included in the presentation were also edited soundbites - 'voice-overs' from the earlier interviews. The communal nature of the subject on stage was also realised through the style of acting, with performers shifting from role to role to show what has happened rather than becoming the character to whom it has happened (Comb, 2003). The audience was made of academics from the universities involved in the series plus other interested academics form other institutions. Audience members also included local businesses ; the 'Town Centre Manager' for Newcastle under Lyme and ex-ceo of the Chamber of Commerce; members of the public/community who had engaged in interviews and workshops about Market Place exclusion as part of the development of the performance; residents from 'Brighter Futures' a large social housing provider from Stoke on Trent; representatives for Asylum support services and asylum seekers; young people from the YMCA; Foodbank providers/volunteers and user; Food-network organisers and two local training providers ACORN training and PM training. The presentation was followed by an interactive debate on the themes arising, with delegates working with the participants who performed the presentation to create an outcome which moves toward inclusivity through identifying factors which cause segregation, barriers to cohesion, and present an 'ideal' of what an inclusive market place might look, sound and feel like 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This research method demonstrates how a plurality of often marginalised voices can be brought to the fore using a form of performative knowledge production such as documentary theatre. This represents a democratic way of sharing different understandings and experiences that can generate knowledge about different types of exclusions. Discussions after the performance were heated and lively audience members from a range of local community groups reflected on a series of issues raised by the performance relating to the way in which consumption and the marketplace are intrinsic elements of poverty, deprivation and exclusion. 
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/seminars/
 
Description Conference Stream: RESISTING THE MARKET PLACE: BRANDED COMMUNITIES IN TIMES OF UNREST 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact We hosted a stream entitled RESISTING THE MARKET PLACE: BRANDED
COMMUNITIES IN TIMES OF UNREST at the annual Critical Management Studies conference which was held in Manchester in July 2013. The presentations are as listed below:

Teresa Oultram and Mihaela Kelemen (Keele University), The apprenticeship brand: the production and consumption of the ideal apprentice
Adam Arvidsson and Stefania Barina (University of Milano), The Myth of CSR 2.0 A Big data Approach
Cecilia Cassinger (Lund University), Brand violence in the culture of the new capitalism
Paolo Ricardo Zilio Abdala (PPGA Brazil), Ecovillages as unbranded communities: Resisting the market place and beyond
Michael Saren (Leicester University) and Christina Goulding (Keele University), Extending the limits of the brand: Controlling consumers through tribal marketing
Eduardo Ayrosa and Denise Franca Barros (UNIGRANRIO, Brazil), Trying to do the right thing: Consumer Resistance as craft
Lindsay Hamilton, (Keele University), Branding and Animals: An Analysis of Animals as Avatars of Identity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.meeting.co.uk/confercare/cms2013/Abstracts.pdf
 
Description Connecting Business and Society through Arts based Methodologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Our research project: Connecting Business and Society through Arts based Methodologies will be displayed at the Chartered ABS Research Exhibition, 18 March 2020, Nottingham. The second annual Research Exhibition includes eight hand-selected exhibits which showcase some of the most exciting and impactful research being conducted in the UK today. The Exhibition challenges business schools to bring their research to life and consider innovative approaches to communicate how business and management research is vital to tackling key societal issues. The project is exhibited by Nottingham University Business School.
Event scheduled to take place 18 Match 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Seminar Five: Exclusive communities and anti-social housing: the failures of mixed community development 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This seminar looked at the ways in which exclusion from the housing market is tackled in England and how successful the mixed communities policy has been. It reflected on the experiences of those excluded from the housing market, both in the UK and internationally.

The seminar began with a short film about increasing the supply of affordable housing:http://www.cchpr.landecon.cam.ac.uk/

Dr Tony Manzi, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, University of Westminster, reflected on the trajectory of mixed communities policy in his paper:The Myth of the Mixed Community: Theoretical Assumptions, Policy Development and the Challenges of Housing Practice

Charlie Barlow, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge and Committee on Geographical Studies at the University of Chicago, discussed his research on residential segregation, socioeconomic inequalities and citizenship entitlements within inner-city neighbourhoods in Chicago in his presentation: 'You can't barbecue here!': when community and condominiums collide.

Dr Charlotte Lemanski, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, talked about her work on spatial segregation in South Africa in her paper: Mixed-income housing in post-apartheid Cape Town: spaces of inclusion or exclusion?

Professor Jo Richardson, Centre for Comparative Housing Research, De Montfort University, reflected on her research with marginalised groups such as gypsies and travellers in her presentation: Negotiated Home: using co-production research to enhance inclusion of Gypsy and Traveller communities

There was also a talk by the Cambridgeshire time banks initiative given by Wendy Lansdown, Cambridgeshire County Council, and Lucy Bird, Time Bank Coordinator. As part of their Timebanking in Cambridgeshirepresentation they included this film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9w04nDTvixA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/seminars/
 
Description Seminar Four: Resisting Marketplace Exclusion: Creating Community based Routes to Consumption 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact This seminar looked at the ways in which individuals are seeking to both survive and resist the market though the development of alternative exchange systems and alternative lifestyles. It examined initiatives such as complementary currencies and cooperatives.

Speakers included:Andrea Prothero, University College Dublin (with Andrew Keating and Marius Claudy) 'From consumption on steroids' to 'the austere consumer': An Irish perspective'. Andreas Chatzidakis, Royal Holloway, University of London 'Marketplace Exclusion and Failing Markets in Post-2008 Athens' Mario Campana, Cass Business School, City University, London 'Social innovations for market exclusion: the case of complementary currencies'

Also talks by: Debbie Clarke, Co-operative Member, Unicorn Grocery, Manchester, Sue Moffat, Director New Vic Borderlines, Stoke-on-Trent
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/seminars/
 
Description Seminar One The In-betweeners: Unrepresented Consumers in Marketing Theory and Practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This first seminar explored the exclusionary tensions in marketing theory and practice which lead to certain types of consumers and behaviours falling in-between normative categories and the mechanisms through which individuals and communities are excluded from the resources and opportunities provided by the market. The seminar included three presentations two from academics and one from an advertising practitioner. The practitioner Jamie Peate Director of Planning and Insight from Mcann Erickson reflected on some of the biases, assumptions and paradoxes of the business of marketing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/seminars/
 
Description Seminar Three: The White Working Class as 'Flawed Consumers': Media Representations and policy responses 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This seminar focused on the operation of marketplace mechanisms in demonising a specific group of consumers the 'white working class'. It put forward the proposition that this group has been viewed in the media as being problematic, adversarial and resistant to change. Focusing on events such as the brand riots, it examined how working class communities have been transformed from being an important part of cultural representation, to being reduced to be seen as 'flawed consumers' and some of the possible policy responses to this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/seminars/
 
Description Seminar Two Virtual boundaries: The Social Consequences of Digital Marketing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This seminar built on Nottingham University's reputation as a centre of research into the digital economy and it brought computer scientists, marketing practitioners and media researchers to discuss how digital marketing is shaping different peoples' lives in very different ways.

Speakers included Agnes Nairn, author of Consumer Kids Janice Denegri Knott, author of Digital Virtual Consumption Ellen Helsper (LSE), author of 'Digital Inclusion: An Analysis of Social Disadvantage and the Information Society'

Discussion after the three presentations around how consumers use the internet input into a subsequent EPSRC funded grant application into the potential of digital technologies to assist people who experience food poverty.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/management/conferences-and-events/esrc/seminars/