Parliamentary effectiveness: public engagement for poverty reduction in Bangladesh and Ethiopia

Lead Research Organisation: School of Oriental & African Studies
Department Name: Anthropology and Sociology

Abstract

The work of parliament and parliamentarians is changing within most nations: they grow stronger as many countries develop better structures and processes but weaker in the sense that many citizens become more disillusioned with their political leaders. An engaged democracy is essential for the most overarching social and economic development goals and especially those concerned with poverty reduction and challenging inequalities. It is generally agreed that two keys to progress in social and economic development are: (a) an effective parliament with a strong opposition and (b) active public political participation. And yet in Ethiopia and Bangladesh progress has been made on poverty reduction even though parliamentary scrutiny remains weak.

While political anthropology has greatly enhanced our understanding of how the state is embedded in society, this research will more specifically explore the relationship between parliament, parliamentarians and individuals and groups within the public, posing the overarching question: what makes MPs effective, what roles do they play in poverty reduction and the promoting of equality, how do we measure it and who decides?

The goal is to explore the extent to which poverty reduction depends on an effective parliament with MPs engaging with the public. The objectives will be:

1. To undertake a mapping of relationships between parliamentarians and members of the public involved in poverty reduction initiatives within Bangladesh and Ethiopia.
2. To explore the extent and effectiveness of public engagement by parliamentarians in poverty reduction through two case studies: (a) poverty-related policy-making and law-making, (b) constituencies.
3. To assess from the perspectives of various stakeholders the role of parliament and parliamentarians in poverty reduction.
4. To facilitate the development of researchers' capacity in three countries to measure parliamentary effectiveness.
5. To disseminate findings and recommendations about parliamentary effectiveness in South Asia, Eastern Africa, the UK and globally.

Through mainly qualitative methods of mapping, interviews and observation, using anthropological, gender and actor-oriented approaches, a network of researchers in three countries will provide a unique dataset on relationships at the heart of democratic institutions.

This research is a collaboration between SOAS, Hansard Society and researchers in Ethiopia and Bangladesh. SOAS/Hansard Society will support in-country researchers to carry out this research and disseminate findings widely in their regions and beyond. Our selection of Bangladesh and Ethiopia is based partly on high levels of poverty and inequality, economic and social development being key national objectives for both countries, the key bilateral aid partnerships between Britain and these two countries, and our own experience of both locations. Both countries share a determination and some success in reducing poverty, but weak oppositions within their parliaments, poor representation of women, and narrow engagement between parliamentarians and the public. What are the prospects for democracy in these countries? What does 'good governance' mean from different perspectives and to what extent is it a critical factor in reducing poverty? How can the representation of poor people's interests be improved?

We will produce rigorous research and high quality outputs that are tailored to their audience and influence a wide range of stakeholders through extensive follow-up. The findings will be published in research reports, Good Research Guide, journal articles, blogs, and a monograph on parliament. Dissemination will also be achieved via our extensive network of national and international stakeholders contacts; local, regional and international media; online and through social networks; and through workshops in each of the countries, with a final project dissemination conference and series of meetings.

Planned Impact

This project will: (a) enhance the theoretical understanding of how and why public engagement by parliament and parliamentarians affects the progress of poverty reduction and promotion of equality (objectives 1-3); (b) develop research capacity on anthropology, governance and parliamentary studies within Bangladesh and Ethiopia (objective 4); (c) enable development policy-makers, parliamentarians, parliamentary officials and civil society organisations in South Asia, Eastern Africa and the UK to promote more effective parliamentary public engagement (objective 5).

We will hold a series of workshops throughout the project in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and the UK to ground the project in the local context, engage with local stakeholders, and facilitate deeper insight into the issues and findings as the project progresses. These workshops will involve MPs, parliamentary and government officials, research and civil society organisations. The project will conclude with a conference and meetings in London to disseminate the findings to UK and international stakeholders in the policy-making sphere and facilitate discussion about their implications for future policy development.

Our findings will be disseminated through journal articles (Parliamentary Affairs, the Journal for International Development and Development in Practice), research papers, and conference contributions, and a final monograph. We will form a learning and dissemination link with the Effective States and Inclusive Development Research Centre. Utilising an on-line project blog, electronic newsletter and social media (Twitter, Facebook) we will disseminate the findings on an on-going basis to our extensive international network of research colleagues in the fields of anthropology, development and parliamentary studies as well as governance specialists in aid agencies. In addition to national stakeholders and policy-makers, we will also ensure dissemination to practitioners and campaigners working in bilateral donor agencies (especially FCO, DFID and USAID), civil society and parliamentary monitoring organisations (as examples, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, and the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly), as well as multilateral agencies (such as the World Bank Institute, UNDP Governance and Parliamentary Development offices, and UN Women).

A Good Research Practice Guide will be developed so that other researchers might be encouraged to utilise the research model (particularly the mapping, observation and interviewing of MPs, ethnographic fieldwork tools and gender analysis) and thereby extend the research in their own areas/countries, thus broadening the long-term impact and potential comparative reach of the research in the future.

Finally, we propose to target a range of outputs at local, regional and international media. We intend to approach the BBC, with whom the Hansard Society has excellent links, with a view to developing a radio programme for the BBC World Service in order to disseminate the findings to the broadest possible audience in the case-study countries and internationally.

We are confident of our capacity to deliver this extensive impact plan because of our previous record of work in this area and the unique added value created by the combining of our individual reputations and contacts. The PI has a track record of achieving impact; for example by being among the first cadre of ethnographers of development organisations (1998) and by introducing anthropology to the study of parliament (2005). Her twenty-five years of experience in research extends to development, evaluation, inequality, gender and parliament in East Africa, South Asia and the UK. An independent, non-partisan political research and education charity, the Hansard Society has a long record of work on parliamentary reform, and is an international leader in research and innovation around parliamentary public engagement strategies.

Publications

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Crewe E (2017) Reading the Runes: Conflict, Culture and "Evidence" in Law-making in the UK in Redescriptions: Political Thought, Conceptual History and Feminist Theory

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Crewe E (2018) Ethnographies of parliament: culture and uncertainty in shallow democracies in Journal of Organizational Ethnography

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Zahir Ahmed (2015) Stories of political violence in contemporary Bangladesh in Asian Studies, Journal of Government and Politics

 
Description Our research coalition has generated new knowledge about the relationship between politicians and other stakeholders in society. Our findings on Parliaments' public engagement highlighted both commonalities and differences between Bangladesh and Ethiopia: (a) while both face shrinking spaces for opposition and the media, our case studies on law-making and policy-making demonstrate how the influence of civil society in politics and development is stronger in Bangladesh; (b) despite a woman PM in Bangladesh and 50 reserved seats for women MPs, and an increase from 2% to nearly 40% of women MPs in Ethiopia, women's representation in critical decision-making is circumscribed in both countries; (c) in the engagement between politicians and their constituents in Bangladesh MPs are viewed as a mix of benefactor, patron, and spiritual healer to some, but absent or even villains to others. In Ethiopia, in contrast, the vast majority of MPs have a remote relationship with their constituents, or no relationship at all, with 93% visiting their constituencies twice a year at most. So the claim by politicians to represent a highly diverse group of people - with different demands and priorities - clearly deserves far more scrutiny and debate in both places but also in other democracies.

More broadly, both countries highlight the argument made by political anthropologists that democracy can exacerbate divisions in society. Rather than assuming that democracy will necessarily speed up economic development, the social and political risks of violence in 'shallow' democracy (as opposed to the deep democracy conceptualized by Arjun Appadurai) are manifest in both these politically fragile countries.

The significance of these findings for both Parliamentary strengthening and democratization is that local history and politics have to be taken into account. At the same time, we have some general recommendations, including that a shift is needed from a narrow, top-down and technical approach to institutional strengthening - which focuses on structures, rules and information - in favour of a broader and participatory pursuit of better governance through a multi-pronged strategy with clear priorities. Strengthening the capacity of oversight political institutions, the media and civil society, and creating processes for public dialogue and debate, may be equally, or even more, urgent priorities for capacity building than structural improvements within Parliament.

In countries with limits to the freedom of the press, research can take on an especially important function as a form of political scrutiny. Our researchers have acted as 'critical friends' to Parliament in the same vein as the Hansard Society does in the UK, providing rare opportunities for interaction between national academics and politicians (especially in Ethiopia). This has increased scholarly interest in Parliament, especially through qualitiative approaches, as well as politicians awareness of research about public engagement.
Our experience is that if you recruit wisely, take account of resource shortages, regularly plan and review, and recognise people's intellectual property rights, then national researchers can produce excellent insights, outputs and advocacy. We have campaigned for the importance of investing in national researchers, including creating opportunities for them to develop their individual and organisational capacity. Further opportunities and support are most urgently needed for young and female researchers in politely fragile countries.
Exploitation Route Four main audiences are using our findings:

1. Scholars and others in (or interested in) Ethiopia and Bangladesh have benefitted from our coalition's participation in engagement activities (conferences, talks, blogs, newspaper articles) and our publications. Scholars are showing interest in our innovative methodological and theoretical approach to studying democracy.
2. Politicial scientists in the UK, Europe, Africa and Asia are increasingly interesed in using ethnographic research methods in the study of Parliament, partly as a result of our work (e.g., Dr Geddes and Prof. R. A. W Rhodes, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19945-6_4).
3. We have campaigned for the last year for more investment into national research capacity development, especially to DFID, ESRC and AHRC. Several of the Global Challenge Research Fund calls are giving prominence to this goal. Our policy discussion paper analyses our experience of supporting rather than undermine national researchers and will be presented to the Political Studies Association conference in Cardiff in 2018.
4. We submitted evidence to the International Development Select Committee, who quoted us in their final report and continue to support national researchers in Africa and Asia to submit evidence to their inquiries.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://www.hansardsociety.org.uk/projects/parliaments-public-engagement-and-poverty-reduction
 
Description The impact of this project is principally on perceptions towards scholars in the Global South, scholarship on Parliament and support for Parliamentary strengthening. First, by giving opportunities to scholars in Bangladesh and Ethiopia they have had the chance to demonstrate their capacity. Secondly, we contributed to a questioning of conventional approaches to parliamentary strengthening. Recognition of these impacts can be found in a UK Parliamentary report. Our written evidence submitted to the House of Commons Select Committee on International Development was used in their report on Parliamentary Strengthening. They referred to our evidence on p24, p30, p32, p43, p53 and quoted it on p31, so we had influence on their conclusions. (see House of Commons publication 27 January 2015 HC704). The evidence was based on the findings of our DFID/ESRC research project. Also this research has been acknowledged as generating a 'wealth of questions' by the head of international development research at the ESRC Craig Bardsley. http://www.theimpactinitiative.net/impact-lab/collection/pursuit-impact-through-excellence. Further impact will be reported a year after the completion of the project.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description SOAS/Hansard Society submission to the International Development Select Committee's Inquiry on Strengthening Parliaments
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/international-development...
 
Description Arts & Humanities Research Council / Global Challenges Research Fund Network Plus
Amount £1,843,004 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/R005435/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Title Ethnographic approach to the study of Parliament 
Description As a result of this grant one of the researchers, Professor Zahir Ahmed, has piloted the ethnographic approach to the study of Parliament for the first time in Bangladesh. Inspired by Emma Crewe's ethnographies of the Westminster Parliament (and the tiny number of ethnographers who have studied the European, French, Welsh and US Parliaments), Ahmed is the first to employ this method and theory in Asia. He is only the second social scientist, after Fenno in the 1990s in the US, to study the relationship between MPs and constituents through ethnographic methods. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The interest among political scientists and historians in ethnographic theory and method is evidenced by both Emma Crewe and Zahir Ahmed being regularly asked to give presentations to politics departments in Europe and Asia (see engagement outputs). In October 2017 a workshop will be convened by Professor Rod Rhodes on this innovative methodology and held at the University of Edinburgh. 
URL https://academic.oup.com/pa/article-abstract/70/1/155/2823720/Ethnography-of-Parliament-Finding-Cult...
 
Description A blog by Emma Crewe about investing in researchers in Africa and Asia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This blog made a recommendation to the Global Challenges Research Fund to make more investment into national research capacity development and allowing more flexibility so that research agendas can be more nationally driven (20 May 2016). Subsequently, the GCRF appeared to move in this direction (e.g., AHRC networked call).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.emmacrewe.com/blog/recommendations-funding-research
 
Description A blog by Emma Crewe on Sheffield University website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This blog makes the case for political research by national scholars as a form of scrutiny of politicians, contributing to the debate about why national research capacity development is good for democracy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://siid.group.shef.ac.uk/blog/research-as-political-scrutiny/
 
Description A blog by Meheret Ayenew and Tsedey Mekonen on the PSA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This blog discusses the increase of women Ethiopian MPs from 2% to almost 40% in the last 20 years, for the first time, and why this has not yet translated into a proportionate representation of women in cabinet as way of contributing to debates on women's representation on International Women's Day
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://parliamentsandlegislatures.wordpress.com/2017/03/08/women-ethiopia/
 
Description A newspaper article by Zahir Ahmed 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A newspaper article in Bangla in the Bangla Tribune about an MP mistreating his constituent, raising the profile of anthropological research and stimulating debate about the meaning representation within democracy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.banglatribune.com/columns/opinion
 
Description A talk by E Crewe about ethnographic research methods in the Study of Parliament as part of a workshop in Sciences Po, Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact French political scientists listened to this talk, and asked questions during a Q&A, reporting interest in learning more about how to use ethnographic methods in the study of political institutions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sciencespo.fr/centre-etudes-europeennes/en/node/14368
 
Description A talk by E Crewe about ethnographic research methods in the Study of Parliament as part of a workshop on Politics as Anthropology and Area Studies organised by Ulster University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The political science and area studies researchers attending this event were interested in ethnographic methods, intending to apply these methods in their own research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ulster.ac.uk/faculties/arts-humanities-and-social-sciences/events/politics-as-anthropolo...
 
Description A talk by Emma Crewe at the Institute of Historical Research, Kings College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Scholars at King's College attended this talk on ethnographic as a method for studying Parliaments. Although most of the talk was about Emma Crewe's research in the UK, since colleagues Prof Nizam Ahmed and Prof Zahir Ahmed were able to attend, she also described how ethnographic theory and method has been used within this project in Bangladesh. This inspired a discussion about how contemporary history and anthropology can learn from each other's research approaches.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.history.ac.uk/events/seminar/contemporary-british-history
 
Description Blog by Emma Crewe on representation by MPs in the 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This blog on the' everyday shape-shifting representation in the work of MPs' aimed to promote understanding of the nature of MPs' work, the contradictory nature of their representative role and the risks of violence in political interaction (January 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.crickcentre.org/blog/the-work-of-mps/
 
Description Blog by Nizam Ahmed explaining about the Bangladesh Parliament 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the PSA's initiative to educate academics about legislatures around the world, Nizam Ahmed explained about the Bangladesh Parliament and how politicians have failed to abide by the 'rules of the game'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.psa.ac.uk/psa-communities/specialist-groups/parliaments-and-legislatures/blog/jatiya-san...
 
Description Blog on OpenDemocracy by Emma Crewe on how political favours can lead to conflict 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog on democratic representation in Bangladesh and Ethiopia was written by one of the UK researchers, Emma Crewe, rather than national colleagues because the topic was politically sensitive. She makes the argument that when politicians in those countries fail to at least aspire towards respect for diversity and a fair distribution of resources, or even encourage societal divisions, the risk of conflict in democracies intensify. So, 'a shallow form of democracy, which relies on the structure of Parliament and the apparent magic power of elections but fails to develop adequate processes of representation and justice, is risky.' This could add to debates about democratisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.opendemocracy.net/emma-crewe/risky-democracy-costs-of-injustice
 
Description Blog on supporting national researchers published by the Impact Initiative 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Promoting the investment into national research development capacity and recognition of the high quality research undertaken by African and Asia scholars. The GCRF has since increased the opportunities for national researchers but whether this blog, as well as other talks, videos and tweets made a contribution to this shift in policy is not yet known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.theimpactinitiative.net/blog/blog-politics-doing-research-politics-africa
 
Description Emma Crewe and Nega Wubie gave a presentation at a conference panel at ESRC-DFID conference in South Africa 'Research as political scrutiny' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact To disseminate the findings of our project and make the argument in favour of investing in national research, especially to donors and UK researchers, leading to debate on need for support for national research capacity development and how to best achieve it. As a result of participation in this conference, ESRC requested a note on the shrinking political space for civil society, which E Crewe wrote and sent in time for discussions on the design of new funding schemes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.slideshare.net/theimpactinitiative/1-research-as-political-scrutiny-emma-crewe-and-nega-...
 
Description Expert input on ethnographic methods at a Political Studies Association workshop on methods for researching Parliaments (University of Leeds) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 15 PhD students attending this intensive day course to learn about research methods for the study of Parliaments organised by Political Studies Association Specialist Group on Parliaments and Legislatures. Appreciation was expressed by students and fellow researchers for the ethnographic elements are they are rarely covered within political science methods courses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://parliamentsandlegislatures.wordpress.com/2015/07/07/summary-of-phd-research-workshop/
 
Description Final conference in Westminster, London, to disseminate the project findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The project team organised a final conference in Westminster to share the findings of the project. In the morning the national scholars from Bangladesh and Ethiopia reported on their findings of the Parliamentary Effectiveness project, and academics from Myanmar and India also gave presentations to allow for comparative analysis, to an audience of 80 researchers, parliamentary officials, MPs, NGOs and parliamentary strengthening officials. (In the afternoon we launched a new project - Deepening Democracy - which will enable further research on the relationship between politicians and others in society).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://soundcloud.com/hansardsoc/sets/deepening-democracy-reconciling-parliaments-and-people-throug...
 
Description Keynote speech by E Crewe at a major conference on the ethnography of organisations at Manchester University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact At least 300 researchers, postgraduates, and practitioners in organisational, business and management studies listened to this keynote speech and reported that it was useful to learn about undertaking ethnographical research in Parliaments
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.confercare.manchester.ac.uk/events/ethnography/
 
Description Newspaper article by Zahir Ahmed 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article published on 30th December 2016 in English about politicians land-grabbing, profiling our research and stimulating debate in the wider public about issues of ethics and representation within democracy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://admin.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2016/12/30/oppressors-exploiters-careful/
 
Description Overview of the Ethiopian Parliament for the Political Studies Association by M Ayenew and T Mekonnen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Researchers given access to an up-to-date, concise and well-informed overview of the Ethiopian parliament.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://parliamentsandlegislatures.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/ethiopia.pdf
 
Description Panel during a conference hosted by Nizam Ahmed on Inclusive Government in South Asia held at Dhaka University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Three presentations by the research team - Ruth Fox (on scrutiny) Zahir Ahmed (on constituencies) and Nizam Ahmed (on policy-making) - of the findings of our research project, and comparative examples of research on Parliament's public engagement, to 40 scholars from political science, public administration and anthropology, stimulating inter-disciplinary debate on methods and theories for political research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Panel on Politics, Rights and Accountability at an Impact Initiative conference on Bangladesh at IDS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Nizam Ahmed, Zahir Ahmed and Emma Crewe presented to an Impact Initiative conference, explaining their research findings on managing a research coalition to support national researchers, on scrutiny during budget-making and on the relationship between MPs and constituents. The audience of scholars working in Bangladesh provided useful comments on the research and an interesting debate ensued about gender in political research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.theimpactinitiative.net/blog/news-research-helping-transform-lives-bangladesh
 
Description Parliaments and Methodology conference (Finland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 70 historians, political scientists and politics scholars listened to my presentation about anthropological approaches to the study of parliament. This stimulated discussion about combining historical and ethnographic methods and anthropological theory into research on parliaments in Europe but also in Africa and Asia.

As the only anthropologist at the conference, participants reported that they found the talk useful. Several expressed an intention to take on board ethnographic methods in their future research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.jyu.fi/en/congress/parliaments-and-methodology
 
Description Presentation by Emma Crewe at the LSE Gender Institute about women in politics in the UK, Ethiopia and Bangladesh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Disseminating findings about comparison experience of women MPs in UK, Ethiopia and Bangladesh, Emma Crewe's talk at this conference in October 2016 to over 70 people stimulated discussion about anthropological approaches (ethnographic, historical and comparative) to research on women's experience and impact as politicians
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/website-archive/publicEvents/events/2016/10/20161026t1830vHKT.aspx
 
Description Presentation by Emma Crewe on racism in international research at Middlebury College, Vermont, US 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Over 70 scholars and students attended to listen to a panel talk about racism in international development. Emma Crewe drew attention, as one of the panelists, to the racist hierarchy in international development research that undermines the position and intellectual property rights of scholars in Africa and Asia, stimulating debate with two other panelists and the audience on a much neglected topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/1189055001214126/
 
Description Presentation by Emma Crewe to Westminster Foundation for Democracy conference in London on Parliamentary research in the Westminster Houses of Parliament 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Disseminating findings of our project to policy-makers, practitioners in parliamentary strengthening as well as scholars and raising the profile of our inter-disciplinary approach, the value of national research and the complexity of corruption, exclusion and clientism, within one day of talks, discussion, and debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.wfd.org/research/cost-of-politics-event-wednesday-18-july/
 
Description Presentation by Meheret Ayenew at a Workshop on Alternative Approaches to Democratisation in the Greater Horn of Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Explaining about the Ethiopian experience of Parliament's capacity for public engagement to scholars from other African countries and participating in discussion on alternative approaches to democratisation and ways to strengthen the network of scholars in the region
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.kas.de/rspssa/en/publications/46466/
 
Description Presentation by Ruth Fox at Westminster Foundation for Democracy/Oxford University conference in the UK Parliament 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This talk about the findings of our project, and the implications for supporting democratisation, at a Westminster Foundation for Democracy and Oxford University conference on 7-8th March 2017 stimulated a debate about the role of research in democracy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://gallery.mailchimp.com/011dab3ab6cb394e39b9f3880/files/ce839724-1e05-48db-9425-33764df911b7/W...
 
Description Presentation by Zahir Ahmed at a workshop on Social Research in Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at a workshop on social research on 'Ethnographic Research Methods and their Significance in Government and Politics', attended by political scientists, stimulating discussion about inter-disciplinarily in political research in February 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation made by Emma Crewe to the London International Development Centre event on the Global Challenge Research Fund at the LSHTM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Made the case for investing in national researchers and shared experiences about how to support, rather than undermine, scholars in Africa and Asia, leading to a debate about international collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lidc.org.uk/events/global-challenge-research-fund---new-opportunity-international-develop...
 
Description Project workshop hosted by the Forum for Social Studies/SOAS in Addis Ababa 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The research team held a one-day workshop for scholars, donors, politicians and NGOs to represent findings, validate our analysis and debate our recommendations in Addis Ababa on 7th October 2016. Zahir Ahmed, Nizam Ahmed, Meheret Ayenew, Tsedey Mekonen and Emma Crewe gave presentations on Parliament's public engagement, the role of women MPs, and political research, leading to a lively debate about connections between these.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar paper given to Centre for Development Studies, University of Bath entitled: 'Anthropology of Parliaments: UK, Ethiopia and Bangladesh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Approximately 30-40 faculty, researchers and postgraduate students attended this seminar and following the talk engaged in discussion on (a) researching parliament through ethnographic approaches and in coalitions, (b) the links between anthropology, political science and development studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bath.ac.uk/cds/seminars-events/
 
Description Seminar presentation by E Crewe and Z Ahmed on ethnographic research on Parliaments at University of Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Researchers from across the world (US, Canada, Bangladesh, France, Belgium, Germany, etc) gathered to discuss ethnographic research in Parliaments, which led to a proposal to organise a European Consortium on Political Research workshop on the study of political space. Emma Crewe and Sandrine Roginsky have submitted a proposal to run this workshop in Brussels in 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.psa.ac.uk/events/ethnographies-legislatures-research-workshop
 
Description Seminar presentation by Emma Crewe at Roehampton University politics department 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar presentation and discussion with political science faculty, postgraduates and undergraduates about anthropological approaches to political research and how you achieve rigour when conducting ethnographies of Parliament or when supporting national researchers to do political research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar presentation by Emma Crewe to Durham's university's anthropology department 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Scholars attending the talk heard Emma Crewe reflect on researching elites in UK and promoting the need to support national research capacity to study politics in Bangladesh and Ethiopia (in November 2016). They discussed how to support rather than undermine scholars in Africa and Asia in such political research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.dur.ac.uk/anthropology/?eventno=S4760
 
Description Seminar presentation by Emma Crewe to SOAS anthropology department 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This talk to colleagues in SOAS's anthropology department at their seminar series on impact in November 2016 involved promoting the need and appropriate strategies to support national research capacity to study politics, leading to a discussion about how to achieve impact with scholars in Africa and Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.soas.ac.uk/anthropology/events/anthropology-departmental-seminar/23nov2016-falling-for-p...
 
Description Seminar presentation by Zahir Ahmed at Rajshahi University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Anthropology scholars heard about Zahir Ahmed's experience of researching politicians and undertaking ethnography for the first time in both Parliament and constituencies, informing them about a new approach to political anthropology on elites
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk by E Crewe about Parliaments to visiting students from Michigan University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 30 undergraduate students from Michigan University listened to a talk about Parliaments, asked questions and discussed how different Parliamentary democracies work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk by Emma Crewe to a PSA workshop on parliamentary effectiveness 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Disseminating findings to scholars, parliamentary strengthening practitioners and politicians about 'shallow democracies' and igniting discussion on the importance of including capacity development of both public engagement and research as part of parliamentary strengthening
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://parliamentsandlegislatures.wordpress.com/2016/09/19/one-day-conference-making-parliaments-wo...
 
Description Two podcasts: (1) about how to achieve research impact, and (2) about research on politics, with Emma Crewe, recorded by the Impact Initiative 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two podcasts recording during an ESRC-DFID conference in South Africa that offers advice (1) about how to achieve research impact which has had 100 views on YouTube, and (2) about supporting national researchers to undertake ethnographies on Parliament and public engagement which attracted 64 views on YouTube. I have given the link of the second one below but the other one is also available on the Impact Initiative YouTube channel
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x58usnSwrqE
 
Description Website about the research programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The widely used website on the Hansard Society explains the research and has been looked at by researchers and members of the public interested in politics. Hansard is re-developing the website this year and once we start broadcasting our findings we plan to implement a more comprehensive digital campaign including updates on the website, blogs and tweets on a regular basis. We will also monitor usage of this social media.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.hansardsociety.org.uk/research/strengthening-parliaments/parliaments-public-engagement-an...
 
Description Workshop paper by M. Ayenew at the Twelfth Wroxton workshop for Parliamentarians and Parliamentary Scholars at Wroxton College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This workshop was organised by the University of Hull's Centre for Legislative Studies and the Inter-Parliamentary Union. About 50 MPs, Parliamentary Scholars and experts working on Parliamentary Strengthening attended the presentation of this paper and asked questions or gave comments on this paper about the Ethiopian Parliament. Unfortunately Dr Ayenew was unable to attend in person, so the paper was presented by his colleague Professor Crewe, as his application for a visa was refused. This reduced the impact of this presentation significantly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ipu.org/splz-e/oxford15/papers.pdf
 
Description Workshop paper by N. Ahmed and Z. Ahmed presented at the Wroxton workshop for Parliamentarians and Parliamentary Scholars at Wroxton College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This workshop was organised by the University of Hull and the Inter-Parliamentary Union in July 2015. About 50 academics, MPs and Parliamentary experts attended the session and discussed the implications of the findings afterwards, demonstrating an interest in the specific case of Bangladesh but also the more general conclusions about the relationships between MPs, civil society and the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ipu.org/splz-e/oxford15/papers.pdf
 
Description Workshop paper by R. Fox and E. Crewe at the Twelfth Wroxton workshop for Parliamentarians and Parliamentary Scholars at Wroxton College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This workshop was organised by the University of Hull and the Inter-Parliamentary Union for MPs, Parliamentary scholars and practitioners working in Parliamentary Strengthening. Dr Fox presented the paper about our coalition's project to study the links between Parliament and public engagement to about 50 people, which inspired questions, discussion and debate. Colleagues were particularly interested in the findings on constituency work and showed an interest in being informed about the detailed findings at a later stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ipu.org/splz-e/oxford15/papers.pdf