Markets in Policing: The Appetite for and Organisational, Cultural and Moral Limits to Markets in Public Policing

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Law

Abstract

Policing stands at a crossroads in the light of fiscal restraint by governments, the growing maturity of the private security industry and persistent public demands for police provision in insecure times. In Britain, as in some other jurisdictions, austerity measures have prompted consideration of previously unpalatable proposals to outsource aspects of policing to the private sector and foster innovations in public-private partnerships. Governments have been prompted to reassess the police mission and workforce, look for new sources of revenue, consider outsourcing to private providers and engage citizens and civil society organisations in new ways. The British Government has moved further and faster than most, making clear its ideological commitment to greater private sector involvement in the delivery of policing.
Developments in the UK have been marked by the absence of rigorous debate about the implications of and limits to greater private sector involvement in public policing. Many commentators agree that there are some 'core' areas of policing that the private sector should not take away from the police. However, here is little agreement about what this core constitutes, what differentiates it from other aspects of policing, what the limits to private sector involvement should be or the principles upon which outsourcing should operate. There has been a distinct lack of public discussion, limited scrutiny of outsourcing initiatives and an absence of systematic academic, practitioner and policy deliberation reflecting on insights from research, as well as comparative experiences across the globe. There has been insufficient engagement with the lessons of outsourcing in other areas of public service delivery, the value of public goods and the wider philosophical debates about the limits and effects of markets. Consequently, there are evident risks that, in Britain at least, outsourcing of key aspects of police work may unfold in an ad-hoc and unprincipled manner.
This seminar series fills this void by stimulating an evidence-based and principled debate among policy-makers, senior practitioners and academics about the appetite for, and limits to, private sector involvement in public policing. It will bring together key representatives of different interests and organisations to explore the parameters and regulation of markets in policing. The core group of participants to the full series include: senior police managers; Police and Crime Commissioners; national police bodies; rank-and-file police officers; private security firms; security industry associations and regulators; policy think-tanks; established policing scholars; early career researchers and PhD students. It will stimulate a debate which is grounded in research evidence, normative principles and insights from practice in the UK and beyond.
Seminars will be structured in such a way as to explore the politics of market reforms, the moral parameters and principles of income generation schemes and private sector involvement in police-work and the regulation of the markets in policing. It will also consider public-private developments in a number of specified areas of policing including public order, mass events, police custody, cyber-crime and the internet, the night-time economy and neighbourhood patrols. Whilst primarily focused on British policy innovations, the series will seek to locate these in a wider international and cross-cultural context. It will benefit from consideration of analogous developments and debates in a number of European countries as well as North America and learn from leading international scholars. Reciprocally, the series will seek to inform international understanding. Key deliberations and debates will be open to wider audiences via video-link and webinars. The series will actively engage the media and seek to encourage public discussion by disseminating its findings and conclusions via a policy briefing with recommendations.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit: The non-academic beneficiaries include those who will be directly involved as members of the core group throughout the series: Ron Hogg, Durham Police and Crime Commissioner; Fraser Sampson, Chief Executive of the Office of the West Yorkshire PCC; Nick Gargan, Chief Constable, Avon & Somerset Constabulary and ACPO lead for Finance and Resources; John Shaw, Managing Director of G4S Policing Support Services; James Kelly, Chief Executive, British Security Industry Association; Zoe Billingham, Her Majesty's Inspector of Constabulary; Imogen Hayat, Stakeholder & Media Relations Manager, Security Industry Authority; Baroness Ruth Henig, ex-SIA Chair and Adviser to the BSIA; Nancie Shackleton, Commercial Partnership Manager, Lincolnshire Police; John Graham, Director of the Police Foundation; Rick Muir, Associate Director for Public Services, Institute for Public Policy Research; Max Chambers, Head of Crime and Justice, Policy Exchange; Martin Gill, Director of Perpetuity Research & Consultancy International; Ben Priestley, National Officer for Police and Justice, UNISON; Syreeta Lund, Editor of the Police Federation Magazine, Police Federation. If any of the above is unable to attend a particular seminar they will be encouraged to send a deputy from their organisation. Other direct beneficiaries will be those research users who will be invited to a number of the seminars include representatives of the following national organisations: Home Office; College of Policing; Independent Police Complaints Commission; National Audit Office; senior police managers from police forces across England and Wales. In addition, international non-academic beneficiaries will include CEPOL - the European Police College, the European Forum on Urban Security (EFUS), and the Confederation of European Security Services (CoESS). These key pan-European organisations will be enlisted to help disseminate the work and conclusions of the project.
How will they benefit: This proposal arises out of discussions with senior police managers, PCCs and partner organisations some of which have been organised around co-production activities of the N8 Policing Research Partnership. It has involved non-academic beneficiaries and users from the outset in the development stages of the proposal design, as named Co-Investigators, in the oversight and management of the seminar series, in the core group of participants and contributors, as well as in the dissemination and impact of the series and its conclusions. It is expected that core group members will highlight the deliberations and findings of the seminar series more widely within their organisation and how interested non-academics can find out more about the series and its activities via the website. Where appropriate, video-links and webinars will be used to enhance the dissemination of the seminar deliberations to a wider audience.
The project will provide a structured and developmental conversation between the core group members over the three year lifespan of the series, thus engaging key non-academic commentators on the future of policing in practitioner-researcher network of engagement and knowledge exchange. It will culminate in the final seminar out of which a policy briefing report will be produced with recommendations. This will be written in an accessible format for wide dissemination among non-academic beneficiaries. All non-academic core group members will constitute an Advisory Board with which the Steering Group (of PI and Co-Is) will consult regularly throughout; with email updates, requests for feedback and identifying opportunities for possible research collaboration. It is anticipated that the series will provide excellent opportunities for co-production of future research projects allied to the themes of the seminars. Dedicated time will be given towards the end of each seminar to a discussion of possible research themes, agendas and questions.

Publications

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Loader I (2018) Valour for Money? Contested Commodification in the Market for Security in The British Journal of Criminology

 
Description The key findings from the seminar series have been: (1) The need for greater understanding of the role of the private sector's contribution to public safety and security and the nature of the mixed economy of policing that exists as well as the place of the police therein. (2) The need for more effective relations between the public police and private security industry to enhance public safety and security - as well as research (both descriptive and normative) to inform this. (3) The need for more research informed understanding of the benefits, limits and implications of greater private sector involvement in policing. (4) The need for a more informed public debate about the ethics and moral/cultural limitations to private security and the role that research can play therein. (5) The need to better regulate private security provision and to understand the current barriers and obstacles to regulation. (6) The need for an international research network to draw together the various cross-disciplinary insights into the everyday political economies of plural policing and to exploit the opportunities for future inter-professional collaboration..
Exploitation Route Informing policy and practice in the UK including national organisations such as BSIA, SIA and Police & Security Group Initiative.
Informing the interdisciplinary intellectual agenda by carving out a particular network around the 'everyday political economies of plural policing' - one that draws together contributions from anthropology, political science, criminology, law, sociology, geography and other relevant disciplines.
The development of an international research network to promote and facilitate international interdisciplinary research and research collaborations. In this regard an international network was formally established at the European Society of Criminology Conference in Sarajevo 30 August - 1 September 2019 at a meeting attended by some 30 international delegates. The following text was agreed as an outline of the focus of the 'everyday political economies of plural policing network:
"It has become a truism that policing is no longer the exclusive domain of the police, but is rather carried out by a wide range of public, private and voluntary actors. Over the past three or so decades, our comparative understanding of 'plural policing' has moved forward considerably. An ever growing number of scholars have contributed towards the process of mapping out both the multiplicity of actors tasked with delivering policing functions on the ground and the array of regulatory structures responsible for steering these functions from above. Much less is known, however, about what happens when these policing actors and regulatory structures interact with one another on a daily basis.
To address this gap, we are pushing forward a research agenda on the 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing'. At the core of this agenda are three questions. How do public, private and voluntary policing actors on the ground interpret and negotiate their way through the diversity of regulatory structures they encounter on an everyday level? What kinds of social, political and economic orders does this process bring into effect? How does this structure-agency dynamic play out within and across different parts of the globe? In seeking out answers to these questions we are interested not only in the formal characteristics of policing and regulatory institutions, but also about the mediating role of emotions, identity, culture and other less formal dimensions."
In October 2019 funding was secured from the School of Law at the University of Leeds to administer the international network - through the appointment of a dedicated (part-time) administrator. Funding was also secured to host an inaugural meeting of the network in Leeds 17-18 January - see: https://essl.leeds.ac.uk/law/events/event/827/everyday-political-economies-of-plural-policing-conference
Future meetings are planned for 2019, including a series of panels at the European Society of Criminology Conference in Ghent in September 2019.
Plans are in place to develop a book series with Emerald Publishing aligned to the network and to launch this (in 2020) with a major 'International Handbook' which will help demarcate and develop the field of enquiry. The network will also launch a dedicated website in 2019.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other

URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/research/projects/markets-in-policing-esrc-seminar-series
 
Description The Seminar series has resulted in extensive debate and discussions about the research that informs policy and practice regarding develops in the marketisation of policing in the UK These structured debates between researchers and professional practitioners and policy-makers both in the UK and internationally have helped to build greater trust and mutual understanding about the value of research in practice/policy. It has raised the profile of research into the private security industry and its regulation (both within the UK and internationally), and it has fostered inter-professional debate, notably between the police and private sector. The research informed discussions and debates informed organisational thinking (G4S, Securicor) via attending representatives and helped to inform the Collaboration Strategy which is being developed by the inter-sector Police & Security Group Initiative (lead by Geoff Zeidler - its Chairman - who attended the final conference in October 2017). The seminar series has also exposed and highlighted (i) the need for greater understanding and research; (ii) the benefits from inter-professional dialogue and understanding to harness the diverse contributors to public safety; and (iii) the opportunities for future collaboration. Through better understanding of the mixed economy of policing and security provision and the complex division of labour therein, it is anticipated that this will in time, increase the effectiveness of public services and policy.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Establishment and launch of a new International Research Network on 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' 
Organisation Free University of Amsterdam
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The interdisciplinary core group of the ESRC seminar series 'Markets in Policing' in collaboration with international researchers who contributed to the series agreed at its final meeting to launch a new international research network to pursue new funding and to build new strategic relations and partnerships within the academic community and also with professional practitioners from private security and policing - broadly in line with the aims of the seminar series. The title of the new network and aims are as follows: Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing: It has become a truism that policing is no longer the exclusive domain of the police, but is rather carried out by a wide range of public, private and voluntary actors. Over the past three or so decades, our comparative understanding of 'plural policing' has moved forward considerably. An ever growing number of scholars have contributed towards the process of mapping out both the multiplicity of actors tasked with delivering policing functions on the ground and the array of regulatory structures responsible for steering these functions from above. Much less is known, however, about what happens when these policing actors and regulatory structures interact with one another on a daily basis. To address this gap, we are pushing forward a research agenda on the 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing'. At the core of this agenda are three questions. How do public, private and voluntary policing actors on the ground interpret and negotiate their way through the diversity of regulatory structures they encounter on an everyday level? What kinds of social, political and economic orders does this process bring into effect? How does this structure-agency dynamic play out within and across different parts of the globe? In seeking out answers to these questions we are interested not only in the formal characteristics of policing and regulatory institutions, but also about the mediating role of emotions, identity, culture and other less formal dimensions.
Collaborator Contribution The core group members representing the partner institutions contributed to the meeting in Leeds in January 2018 to agreed to the aims and objects of the new international network and to develop actions and activities to sustain it over the short term.
Impact The following actions were agreed at the meeting: 1. We will develop an international network to coordinate and promote research work, understanding, knowledge exchange and collaborations around the title: 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' - ACTION: Adam White agreed to draft a paragraph or two outlining the broad common aims/objectives and themes for circulation/comment. 2. We will draw together and compile people's knowledge of international researchers and networks currently working in this field as a resource and to be contacted in relation to possible events and collaborations. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant researchers/networks with whom we might collaborate or engage. 3. We will draw together and compile a bibliography of relevant international literature. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant bibliography for him to compile and circulate. 4. We will develop a means of organising the network via shared (virtual) storage space for resources and other documents. ACTION: Marleen Easton will look into establishing and hosting network information on a 'Dropbox' or 'Google Docs'. 5. We will organise a 'Round table'/Panel at the European Society of Criminology Conference in Sarajevo in September this year to promote the work of the network. ACTION: Adam Crawford will liaise with the conference organisers and ESC policing working group to facilitate this. 6. We will apply to Oñati to host a international workshop linked to the network - bid to be submitted by Jan 2019 for a workshop in 2020. ACTION: Philip Stenning agreed to lead on developing the application and liaising with Oñati. All to help identify possible speakers (max of 30) ensuring participation from a wide range of jurisdictions (and disciplines albeit the focus of the workshop will need to have a distinct socio-legal emphasis) - linked to Action 2 (above). (For those not familiar with Oñati see the following link: http://www.iisj.net/) 7. We will explore funding possibilities to support the work of the network both from European sources and internationally. ACTION: Yarin Eski agreed to take a lead on exploring European funding (including the European Commission (H2020), European Research Council, European Science Foundation, and others). Adam Crawford agreed to take a lead on exploring the UK Global Challenges Research Fund and Open Society Foundation - other suggestions welcome. Adam and Yarin will liaise and coordinate.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Establishment and launch of a new International Research Network on 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' 
Organisation Griffith University
Department Griffith Criminology Institute
PI Contribution The interdisciplinary core group of the ESRC seminar series 'Markets in Policing' in collaboration with international researchers who contributed to the series agreed at its final meeting to launch a new international research network to pursue new funding and to build new strategic relations and partnerships within the academic community and also with professional practitioners from private security and policing - broadly in line with the aims of the seminar series. The title of the new network and aims are as follows: Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing: It has become a truism that policing is no longer the exclusive domain of the police, but is rather carried out by a wide range of public, private and voluntary actors. Over the past three or so decades, our comparative understanding of 'plural policing' has moved forward considerably. An ever growing number of scholars have contributed towards the process of mapping out both the multiplicity of actors tasked with delivering policing functions on the ground and the array of regulatory structures responsible for steering these functions from above. Much less is known, however, about what happens when these policing actors and regulatory structures interact with one another on a daily basis. To address this gap, we are pushing forward a research agenda on the 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing'. At the core of this agenda are three questions. How do public, private and voluntary policing actors on the ground interpret and negotiate their way through the diversity of regulatory structures they encounter on an everyday level? What kinds of social, political and economic orders does this process bring into effect? How does this structure-agency dynamic play out within and across different parts of the globe? In seeking out answers to these questions we are interested not only in the formal characteristics of policing and regulatory institutions, but also about the mediating role of emotions, identity, culture and other less formal dimensions.
Collaborator Contribution The core group members representing the partner institutions contributed to the meeting in Leeds in January 2018 to agreed to the aims and objects of the new international network and to develop actions and activities to sustain it over the short term.
Impact The following actions were agreed at the meeting: 1. We will develop an international network to coordinate and promote research work, understanding, knowledge exchange and collaborations around the title: 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' - ACTION: Adam White agreed to draft a paragraph or two outlining the broad common aims/objectives and themes for circulation/comment. 2. We will draw together and compile people's knowledge of international researchers and networks currently working in this field as a resource and to be contacted in relation to possible events and collaborations. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant researchers/networks with whom we might collaborate or engage. 3. We will draw together and compile a bibliography of relevant international literature. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant bibliography for him to compile and circulate. 4. We will develop a means of organising the network via shared (virtual) storage space for resources and other documents. ACTION: Marleen Easton will look into establishing and hosting network information on a 'Dropbox' or 'Google Docs'. 5. We will organise a 'Round table'/Panel at the European Society of Criminology Conference in Sarajevo in September this year to promote the work of the network. ACTION: Adam Crawford will liaise with the conference organisers and ESC policing working group to facilitate this. 6. We will apply to Oñati to host a international workshop linked to the network - bid to be submitted by Jan 2019 for a workshop in 2020. ACTION: Philip Stenning agreed to lead on developing the application and liaising with Oñati. All to help identify possible speakers (max of 30) ensuring participation from a wide range of jurisdictions (and disciplines albeit the focus of the workshop will need to have a distinct socio-legal emphasis) - linked to Action 2 (above). (For those not familiar with Oñati see the following link: http://www.iisj.net/) 7. We will explore funding possibilities to support the work of the network both from European sources and internationally. ACTION: Yarin Eski agreed to take a lead on exploring European funding (including the European Commission (H2020), European Research Council, European Science Foundation, and others). Adam Crawford agreed to take a lead on exploring the UK Global Challenges Research Fund and Open Society Foundation - other suggestions welcome. Adam and Yarin will liaise and coordinate.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Establishment and launch of a new International Research Network on 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' 
Organisation University of Ghent
Department Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
PI Contribution The interdisciplinary core group of the ESRC seminar series 'Markets in Policing' in collaboration with international researchers who contributed to the series agreed at its final meeting to launch a new international research network to pursue new funding and to build new strategic relations and partnerships within the academic community and also with professional practitioners from private security and policing - broadly in line with the aims of the seminar series. The title of the new network and aims are as follows: Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing: It has become a truism that policing is no longer the exclusive domain of the police, but is rather carried out by a wide range of public, private and voluntary actors. Over the past three or so decades, our comparative understanding of 'plural policing' has moved forward considerably. An ever growing number of scholars have contributed towards the process of mapping out both the multiplicity of actors tasked with delivering policing functions on the ground and the array of regulatory structures responsible for steering these functions from above. Much less is known, however, about what happens when these policing actors and regulatory structures interact with one another on a daily basis. To address this gap, we are pushing forward a research agenda on the 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing'. At the core of this agenda are three questions. How do public, private and voluntary policing actors on the ground interpret and negotiate their way through the diversity of regulatory structures they encounter on an everyday level? What kinds of social, political and economic orders does this process bring into effect? How does this structure-agency dynamic play out within and across different parts of the globe? In seeking out answers to these questions we are interested not only in the formal characteristics of policing and regulatory institutions, but also about the mediating role of emotions, identity, culture and other less formal dimensions.
Collaborator Contribution The core group members representing the partner institutions contributed to the meeting in Leeds in January 2018 to agreed to the aims and objects of the new international network and to develop actions and activities to sustain it over the short term.
Impact The following actions were agreed at the meeting: 1. We will develop an international network to coordinate and promote research work, understanding, knowledge exchange and collaborations around the title: 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' - ACTION: Adam White agreed to draft a paragraph or two outlining the broad common aims/objectives and themes for circulation/comment. 2. We will draw together and compile people's knowledge of international researchers and networks currently working in this field as a resource and to be contacted in relation to possible events and collaborations. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant researchers/networks with whom we might collaborate or engage. 3. We will draw together and compile a bibliography of relevant international literature. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant bibliography for him to compile and circulate. 4. We will develop a means of organising the network via shared (virtual) storage space for resources and other documents. ACTION: Marleen Easton will look into establishing and hosting network information on a 'Dropbox' or 'Google Docs'. 5. We will organise a 'Round table'/Panel at the European Society of Criminology Conference in Sarajevo in September this year to promote the work of the network. ACTION: Adam Crawford will liaise with the conference organisers and ESC policing working group to facilitate this. 6. We will apply to Oñati to host a international workshop linked to the network - bid to be submitted by Jan 2019 for a workshop in 2020. ACTION: Philip Stenning agreed to lead on developing the application and liaising with Oñati. All to help identify possible speakers (max of 30) ensuring participation from a wide range of jurisdictions (and disciplines albeit the focus of the workshop will need to have a distinct socio-legal emphasis) - linked to Action 2 (above). (For those not familiar with Oñati see the following link: http://www.iisj.net/) 7. We will explore funding possibilities to support the work of the network both from European sources and internationally. ACTION: Yarin Eski agreed to take a lead on exploring European funding (including the European Commission (H2020), European Research Council, European Science Foundation, and others). Adam Crawford agreed to take a lead on exploring the UK Global Challenges Research Fund and Open Society Foundation - other suggestions welcome. Adam and Yarin will liaise and coordinate.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Establishment and launch of a new International Research Network on 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The interdisciplinary core group of the ESRC seminar series 'Markets in Policing' in collaboration with international researchers who contributed to the series agreed at its final meeting to launch a new international research network to pursue new funding and to build new strategic relations and partnerships within the academic community and also with professional practitioners from private security and policing - broadly in line with the aims of the seminar series. The title of the new network and aims are as follows: Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing: It has become a truism that policing is no longer the exclusive domain of the police, but is rather carried out by a wide range of public, private and voluntary actors. Over the past three or so decades, our comparative understanding of 'plural policing' has moved forward considerably. An ever growing number of scholars have contributed towards the process of mapping out both the multiplicity of actors tasked with delivering policing functions on the ground and the array of regulatory structures responsible for steering these functions from above. Much less is known, however, about what happens when these policing actors and regulatory structures interact with one another on a daily basis. To address this gap, we are pushing forward a research agenda on the 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing'. At the core of this agenda are three questions. How do public, private and voluntary policing actors on the ground interpret and negotiate their way through the diversity of regulatory structures they encounter on an everyday level? What kinds of social, political and economic orders does this process bring into effect? How does this structure-agency dynamic play out within and across different parts of the globe? In seeking out answers to these questions we are interested not only in the formal characteristics of policing and regulatory institutions, but also about the mediating role of emotions, identity, culture and other less formal dimensions.
Collaborator Contribution The core group members representing the partner institutions contributed to the meeting in Leeds in January 2018 to agreed to the aims and objects of the new international network and to develop actions and activities to sustain it over the short term.
Impact The following actions were agreed at the meeting: 1. We will develop an international network to coordinate and promote research work, understanding, knowledge exchange and collaborations around the title: 'Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing' - ACTION: Adam White agreed to draft a paragraph or two outlining the broad common aims/objectives and themes for circulation/comment. 2. We will draw together and compile people's knowledge of international researchers and networks currently working in this field as a resource and to be contacted in relation to possible events and collaborations. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant researchers/networks with whom we might collaborate or engage. 3. We will draw together and compile a bibliography of relevant international literature. ACTION: Everyone to send by email to Adam Crawford details of relevant bibliography for him to compile and circulate. 4. We will develop a means of organising the network via shared (virtual) storage space for resources and other documents. ACTION: Marleen Easton will look into establishing and hosting network information on a 'Dropbox' or 'Google Docs'. 5. We will organise a 'Round table'/Panel at the European Society of Criminology Conference in Sarajevo in September this year to promote the work of the network. ACTION: Adam Crawford will liaise with the conference organisers and ESC policing working group to facilitate this. 6. We will apply to Oñati to host a international workshop linked to the network - bid to be submitted by Jan 2019 for a workshop in 2020. ACTION: Philip Stenning agreed to lead on developing the application and liaising with Oñati. All to help identify possible speakers (max of 30) ensuring participation from a wide range of jurisdictions (and disciplines albeit the focus of the workshop will need to have a distinct socio-legal emphasis) - linked to Action 2 (above). (For those not familiar with Oñati see the following link: http://www.iisj.net/) 7. We will explore funding possibilities to support the work of the network both from European sources and internationally. ACTION: Yarin Eski agreed to take a lead on exploring European funding (including the European Commission (H2020), European Research Council, European Science Foundation, and others). Adam Crawford agreed to take a lead on exploring the UK Global Challenges Research Fund and Open Society Foundation - other suggestions welcome. Adam and Yarin will liaise and coordinate.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Follow on developments - the Launch of a new international network: The Everyday Political Economies of Plural Policing (Leeds) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This meeting sought to take forward ideas and suggestions generated across the ESRC Markets in Policing seminar series with a distinctive international dimension. I sought to bring together researchers interested in pursuing opportunities for follow-on funding to take forward the insights and relations developed over the three years of the ESRC seminar series. A write up of the workshop and the concrete agreed actions that arose from the event are is available at: http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/research/projects/markets-in-policing-esrc-seminar-series
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/research/projects/markets-in-policing-esrc-seminar-series
 
Description Innovations in Income Generation Schemes Seminar (Southampton) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion about income generation and its impact included contributions from Home Office, Bedfordshire Police, Durham Constabulary.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/research/projects/markets-in-policing-esrc-seminar-series
 
Description International Conference: The Appetite for and Organisational, Cultural and Moral Limits to Markets in Public Policing: International and Comparative Experiences from Europe and Beyond - 11/12 July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact •Professor Philip Stenning, Griffith University, Australia
•Professor Marleen Easton, University of Ghent, Belgium
•Dr Tessa Diphoorn, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands
•Dr Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand, Gothenburg University, Sweden
•Dr Kevin Walby, University of Winnipeg, Canada
•Professor Gorazd Mesko, University of Maribor, Slovenia
•Professor Jan Terpstra, Radboud University, the Netherlands
•Professor Marc Cools, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
•René Hiemstra, G4S Netherlands
•Cédric Paulin, Conseil National des Activités Privées de Sécurité (CNAPS), France
•Professor Ian Loader, University of Oxford, UK
•Dr Alison Wakefield, Portsmouth University, UK
•Dr Adam White, University of Sheffield, UK
•Dr Conor O'Reilly, University of Leeds, UK
•Dr Michael McDonagh, Securitas UK
•John Shaw, G4S UK
•Professor Martin Gill, Perpetuity Research & Consultancy International, UK
•Fraser Sampson, Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire;
•Chris Bombeke, Securitas
•Nick Fyfe, Scottish Institute for Policing Research

Some of the questions discussed throughout the conference included:
•What international innovations in markets for policing exist and what does research tell us about their impacts?
•What are forces driving and limiting the involvement of the private sector in policing?
•What role does law, politics, cultural norms and social values play in structuring comparative experiences?
•What tasks should be performed by sworn constables with legal powers and which tasks might better be devolved to others?
•What should the parameters of the public police role be?
•Does outsourcing provide an effective means of responding to contemporary austerity measures?
•To what extent can private security be harnessed to public ends?
•What are the limits of private sector involvement in public policing? What implications does marketisation have for public legitimacy?
•To what extent does the marketisation of policing herald erosion to the idea of the police as 'sacred symbols of national pride'?
•What are the implications of marketisation for allied trends in civilianisation, pluralisation and privatisation in policing?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/events/2016/Markets-in-Policing--The-Appetite-for-and-Organi...
 
Description Outsourcing Policing seminar (York) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion and debate among the core group and invited speakers about the impact of outsourcing reforms - notably those in Lincolnshire G4S.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/research/projects/markets-in-policing-esrc-seminar-series
 
Description Regulating the Market for Policing (Sheffield) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations and discussions on the theme of regulating the market for private security with researchers and representatives from the private security sector, regulators (Security Industry Authority) BSIA and police.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/events/2017/Regulating%20the%20Market%20for%20Policing%20-%2...
 
Description Relations Between Public Policing and Private Security: Future Prospects and Ethical Questions (British Academy, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Relations Between Public Policing and Private Security: Future Prospects and Ethical Questions' was the final conference of the 'Markets in Policing', ESRC Seminar Series, held at the British Academy, 10-11 Carlton House Terrace in London on 31st October 2017. It was attended by over 55 national and international delegates from the public and private sectors of policing and security to debate the nature of relations between public and private security. The presentations sparked considerable debate, questions and discussion which lead to a consensus on the need to continue to collaborate in the future and the absence of good quality debate between researcher and practitioners in the public and private sectors in relation to the role of the private sector in policing and relations with the police. A write up of the presentations, discussions and debates is available at: http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/Markets%20in%20Policing%20Final%20Seminar%20Write%20Up.pdf
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/events/2017/Regulating%20the%20Market%20for%20Policing%20-%2...
 
Description Seminar on Markets in Patrol 4th April University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Event as part of the seminar series on Markets in Policing - Presentations were given by:
Professor Adam Crawford (University of Leeds) 'Introduction to the day and key themes'

Session two: A provider's perspective: Dirk Wilson (Sector Security Services, BSIA) 'Opportunities for and challenges to private sector involvement in (mobile) patrols',
Discussant: Fraser Sampson (Chief Executive OPCC West Yorkshire)

Session 2: A purchaser's perspective: Stuart Priestley (Safer Kensington and Chelsea Manager) 'Purchasing police patrols in a London Borough',
Discussant: Dr. Anna Barker (Bradford University)

Session 3: Public / Private Partnerships within frontline policing:
Superintendent Phil Cain (North Yorkshire Police) 'Community Safety Accreditation Schemes: Assisting partnerships to deliver visibly integrated services',
Dr. Michael McDonagh (Director of Policing Development, Securitas UK) 'Partnerships and the Future of British Policing',
Discussant: Professor Jenny Fleming (Southampton University)

Session 4: Examples of Plural Patrol Initiatives
Stuart Lister (University of Leeds)
'Accountability of publically contracted 'private' security patrols: Lessons from the York patrol schemes'
Dr. Alison Green (Open University) and Dr. Nick Johns (Cardiff University) 'Plural Policing in the night-time economy: The case of Street Pastors',
Discussant: Dr. Adam White (Sheffield University)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/events/2016/markets-in-patrol
 
Description The Politics of Market Reform in Policing, seminar (LSE, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One day seminar and debate including:
'The Moral Economy of Security', Professor Ian Loader, Oxford University
'The Politics and Practice of Engaging with and Acting like Businesses: Views from senior police officers', Professor Martin Gill, Perpetuity Research
Roundtable: 'The Politics of Market Reform in Policing'
Chair: Professor Tim Newburn, LSE
Professor Jennifer Brown, LSE
Rick Muir, IPPR
Martin Davis, London Communities Policing Partnership
John Shaw, G4S
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/research/projects/markets-in-policing-esrc-seminar-series