Legal Tools for Peace-making - Concepts and Practice

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Law

Abstract

Approximately 1000 cease-fires and peace agreements have been concluded since 1945. Most of the settlements that have been achieved involved international facilitation or mediation by a variety of actors. The UN has been the principal actor in this respect, but regional organisations, sub-regional actors, individual governments and non-governmental actors have also been involved. The list of resulting peace agreements is vast and imposing, representing a repository of international practice that has scarcely been mined by scholarship in a comprehensive and systematic way.
There is no shortage of academic writings in the area of conflict settlement and peace-making in political science and international relations literature. However, there is a remarkable gap in the treatment of this area from a legal perspective. Professor Christine Bell is one of the only legal scholars engaging with the topic. Moreover, there is no systematic review of the substantive practice of peace-making in its entirety. This project will be the first to offer such an ambitious review and assessment of all known practice.
What is more, there are currently approximately 40 on-going internationalised peace negotiations, covering a wide range of issue areas that need to be addressed in an eventual settlement. At present settlement options need to be researched afresh in every new peace negotiation in relation to each of the issue areas that arise. The outputs of this project will dispense with this time-consuming task as the project will offer detailed settlement options to international peace processes.

This project aims to give coherence to the burgeoning practice of internationalised peace-making, offering practice-relevant guidance for mediators, while gaining important conceptual insights into the nature of this rapidly developing area of law. The project's objectives are to:
(a) generate an analytical digest of settlement practice, offering for the first time detailed and accessible examples from previous treaties in relation to all specific issues that tend to arise;
(b) offer case-studies on the major issue-areas of concern, highlighting different settlement options, relevant past experiences, and their relationship to other legal standards. The project will generate a shorter Handbook on Peace-making for practitioners on this basis;
(c) investigate, at a more conceptual level, in a major collective study, to what extent the trends in settlements, which will be revealed through this analysis, evidence a change in international legal rules in relation to individual issue areas;
(d) consider whether such developments constitute a new and distinct branch of international law (lex pacificatoria) and ask whether this specialist practice risks fragmenting the unitary legal system.

As the project will be conducted in coordination with the UN and other major international organisations involved in international peace-making, it has unique access to practitioners placing it in a position where it can learn from them and also impact on their actions.
Currently, in peace negotiations each issue has to be researched afresh by the mediation team and the parties to negotiations, as there is no substantive repository of approaches to the settlement of specific issues based on previous practice. Moreover, even where previous examples can be found, there is no time to assess how the approach in question has been implemented, and with what results.
The project will offer a legal toolkit, or a set of options, regarding the general and specific problems, that typically arise in negotiations, providing guidance to the array of actors involved in creating peace agreements; thereby diminishing the present significant divergence in the quality of mediation attempts. It would also bring relief to the unhelpful asymmetry among the parties to peace mediations, currently favouring governments

Planned Impact

As was mentioned above, the project will make a significant contribution to the development of international law scholarship in relation to peace-making, along with making new invaluable digital resources available to researchers in the fields of international law, international relations, and other disciplines investigating into areas surrounding conflict settlement.
Yet the most significant impact the project can have is a practical one - it has the potential to significantly assist in the various peace negotiations all around the world and thereby contribute to the facilitation of peace. The project outputs would be important resources for all participants of peace negotiations. Currently, without the project outputs, more or less the same research and background work needs to be done - and done again - in each new instance in relation to the substantive issue areas that require settlement. This may involve the trawling through of hundreds of peace settlements each time, with a view to identifying useful previous examples and experiences, wasting valuable time and effort. It is of course necessary to develop peace settlements that specifically address each individual situation; there are no general solutions equally applicable to all cases. But the project outputs would offer guidance about which type of solutions have worked in what kind of circumstances.
The project would also help address the unhelpful asymmetry among the parties to peace mediations. Governments may have the tools to prepare their positions on the basis of an understanding of previous practice, but invariably opposition groups are not able to engage in the necessary research effort. A lack of understanding of settlement options and of previous relevant experiences often constitutes a major obstacle in negotiations. The project outputs would certainly assist in creating a level playing field for both parties.
One set of "users" of the research outputs are international organisations that often engage in mediation efforts. The project answers an urgent demand from such international organisations for practice-oriented guidance. These "users" will also be involved in the project throughout its duration, as a Senior Practitioner Sounding Board will be established, composed of leading figures in peace negotiations, among them the divisional heads of the mediation support elements of the relevant international organisations. The Sounding Board will be able to help shape the format of the practice-oriented outputs and offer advice on individual substantive issues where they have special competence. The project has been formally endorsed by the UN and the PI has been in constant interaction with the UN Mediation Support Unit of the Department of Political Affairs, which is eager to cooperate and utilise the project outputs. Contact has also been established with the AU, where there is interest in collaboration. Other project partners or beneficiaries include, in particular, the African Sub-regional organisations involved in mediation ventures, the EU Mediation Support Team, and "mediatEUr" (European Forum for International Mediation and Dialogue), which is providing mediation coaching to the EU External Action Service.
Another set of potential "users" are policy-makers at both national and international levels. The project's in-depth study of peace-making can serve to inform policy-makers of successful strategies of mediation and conflict-resolution, contributing towards evidence-based policy-making and bringing vast amounts of additional information to them, thereby facilitating decisions on more effective future policies. There is potential for collaboration with the FCO by organising workshops, so that there can be direct benefit for them from the project.
The project can also help increase public awareness and understanding of the complex world of peace-making, as the project outputs will be easily accessible for everyone.
 
Description (1) Developing and launching Language of Peace
The project successfully developed Language of Peace, the first online, word-searchable, and open-access database with article-by-article categorisation of around 1,000 peace agreements since WWII. Language of Peace enables users - especially conflict parties, mediation practitioners, and academics - to search across a fairly comprehensive collection of peace agreements by issue area and by key words, with the ability to refine searches according to other metadata (e.g. date, parties, type of conflict). It has already been used in a number of peace processes, and its value has been recognized in multiple awards, including the American Society of International Law's Jus Gentium Award 2017 and University of Cambridge Vice-Chancellor's Impact Awards 2018.
(2) Systematic analysis of peace settlement options
The research team produced a range of in-depth case studies on what were considered the key settlement issues, such as Process Issues, Rule of Law, Elections, Human Rights, Detainees, and Financial Arrangements (security issues were excluded, as they are covered elsewhere and were deemed not to concern the core dynamics of substantive settlement options). These case studies were prepared, using Language of Peace, to provide a systematic analysis of settlement options adopted in peace agreements within these key settlement issues, against the background of international law. Offering a map of pertinent legal and practical issues and approaches taken in practice, the case studies were written with a practitioner audience in mind, but are also useful as a starting point for academics to think about developing norms and standards in settlement practice. The research team is considering the most appropriate form of publication for the case studies, to maximise utility and integration with Language of Peace.
(3) Theoretical reflection on peace settlements
An edited volume, 'International Law and Peace Settlements', is set to be published by Cambridge University Press in 2019, aimed at an inter-disciplinary academic audience, whilst having relevance for practitioners. The volume brings together a network of academic and practitioner experts on a range of cross-cutting conceptual issues on the relationship between international law and peace settlements. As editors, the research team draw on their project findings to enhance the depth of analysis and integration across the various contributions, and to critically engage with the following themes: the definition of peace and the role of peace agreements; the role of legal tools in peace processes and the limits of legal analysis; and international legal governance of peace processes, and the question of whether there is a developing international law of peace-making or lex pacificatoria.
(4) Mapping of peace settlement practice
Accumulatively, the foregoing achievements provide a conceptual map to peace settlement practice, based on the searchable category tree of key settlement issues in the Language of Peace database, the systematic analysis of practical issues and settlement options in the case studies, and the theoretical reflection on the varied relationship between international law and settlement practice. This conceptual mapping provides an invaluable access point for practitioners and academics, and identifies a range of key areas for further research.
Exploitation Route A continuity plan is in place for a Cambridge researcher to maintain and refine Language of Peace, in collaboration with the UN. With further funding, the research tool's functionalities could be expanded to include:
1. Annotations to peace agreements/provisions, providing background information on e.g. their context within a broader peace process and extent of implementation; and data visualisation tools that e.g. map each peace agreement onto a timeline for the relevant peace processes.
2. A wiki-style encyclopaedia containing all case studies electronically, enabling user-friendly navigation through analysis on the key settlement issues and options with click-through access to primary sources, as well as continual updating and refinement by multiple editors.

Furthermore, since peace agreements interact with other legal instruments and domains, there is scope to develop complementary research projects in two directions. Firstly, regarding international legal frameworks that surround peace processes, such as (often non-consensual) measures adopted by international organisations (e.g. sanctions, peacekeeping mandates), exploring how they interact with consent-based peace agreements. Secondly, regarding domestic legal frameworks implementing peace agreements (e.g. constitutional and legislative reform), and judicial decisions considering their validity and application, exploring how settlement terms may be transformed along the way, departing from their origins.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other

 
Description The source document and case study on detainees have been used by Prof. Marc Weller in preparing advisory papers in his capacity as Senior Adviser to the UN Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Syria, Staffan de Mistura. As such, these documents have helped shape UN policy on the matter (even though the proposals were not put to the parties in the end, due to supervening circumstances). Update 2017 reporting period: Output generated by the project has also been used by Prof. Marc Weller in his mediation work in Myanmar as input for legal drafting of declarations and negotiating documents.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description ESRC Impact Acceleration Account (IAA) Programme 2016-17
Amount £16,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RG76702 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Title Peace agreements database 
Description An analytical digest of peace settlement practice, the database includes over 1,000 peace agreements collected from around the world, covering the post-WWII period. The provisions of these agreements are tagged according to the issue(s) they address, ranging from ceasefire arrangements to human rights; there are 26 main issue areas in total, with each of them including several sub-issues. In its final form, the database will be searchable for these (sub-)issues, as well as many other factors, such as date, language and type of conflict. The database is currently being finalized; the initial data entry of the peace agreements (which had to be carried out manually) has been completed. Regarding agreements which are readily available in English, the focus is now on importing the tags from the MS Word documents used during the initial phase of the project (the use of which was mentioned in the 'Data Management Plan' of the research proposal), as well as carrying out any manual additions or corrections to the import process. The project also covers a significant number of non-English-language agreements; these nearly 200 agreements have also been entered into the database (in the original language), translated (for the internal use of the project, as these are not official translations), and are currently waiting to be tagged. As new agreements become available, they are also tagged and added to the database, in order to ensure that it remains up-to-date. Once the database is finalized, it will be made publicly available online. Update 2017 reporting period: The import of tags and additional tagging has been completed, and further agreements have been added to the database as they have become available; the database now matches the collection of the UN Peacemaker database. The team also added further information to the database, allowing users to (1) search for particular parties and witnesses of agreements, including non-state actors and international organizations; (2) access the full text of agreements via a web link; (3) see which agreements are related to the one at hand and access the full text of those related agreements via web links; (4) see if the text of an agreement in the database is in the original language or other publicly available translation (as mentioned before, internal translations carried out for the project were not made public due to their unofficial nature). Working with the project's IT consultants, further functionality was added to the database - including the possibility of word search and of bookmarking and exporting provisions in PDF or MS Word format as needed - as well as a user-friendly interface, incorporating the comments received from members of the academic and practitioner advisory boards at the workshop in May 2016, as well as the UN MSU throughout the year. The database was publicly launched under the name "Language of Peace" on 6 December 2016 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York (see the 'Engagement Activities' section for details of the launch event). In sum, the "Language of Peace" database includes around 1,000 peace agreements, with the provisions of each agreement categorized according to the issues they address. Users can browse these issues; carry out a word search; filter agreements based on conflict type, region, language, date range, country/territory, or parties/witnesses; bookmark and export provisions; view related agreements and access the full text of the agreement at hand as well as those related. The browse, search and filter functions can also be used in combination with each other. "Language of Peace" complements and builds on the UN Peacemaker database, which hosts full text documents of such agreements. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The development of the issue-based tagging system and its application to the collection of peace agreements has enabled the research team to gain a clear overview of the provisions addressing a certain issue within peace agreements. This, in turn, allows deeper analysis to be carried out: the MS Word documents (mentioned above) form the source materials for the case studies prepared by the research team, with the role of these documents taken over by the online database, once the latter is finalized. See also the 'Narrative Impact' section for impact beyond the confines of the project itself. 
URL https://www.languageofpeace.org
 
Description Collaboration with the UN Mediation Support Unit 
Organisation United Nations (UN)
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Since the start of the project, the Legal Tools for Peace-making Project team members have provided data from the provisional peace agreement database for the UN Mediation Support Unit, to aid in their work. Update 2017 reporting period: The project team continued to flag agreements discovered in the course of preparing the project's "Language of Peace" peace agreement database to the UN MSU to include in the UN Peacemaker database and assist in their work; the project team also provided feedback on the Peacemaker database regarding errors found in the course of the team's work with the Peacemaker database in preparing the "Language of Peace" database. Once the "Language of Peace" database was ready for public launch, the project team held an in-depth presentation on the database, as well as a demonstration of its functionalities, at a meeting with various officials of the UN Department of Political Affairs on 6 December 2016. The launch event itself, held later that day, similarly included a presentation of the database, as well as a demonstration of its functionalities, and was attended by several high-ranking UN officials. Update 2018 reporting period: The project team continued to liaise with the UN MSU on issues related to the "Language of Peace" database, passing on agreements that the Legal Tools team has became aware of (and which were not yet included in the Peacemaker database). In January 2018, Andrea Varga of the Legal Tools team met with the UN MSU and PASTPRESENTFUTURE to discuss the particularities of keeping the "Language of Peace" database up to date after the project ends (and further developing it), and to provide training on the management of data in Language of Peace to the MSU team. Once the Legal Tools project concludes, it is envisaged that the MSU team will take on the task of updating the database with new agreements as they emerge.
Collaborator Contribution The UN Mediation Support Unit has provided IT specialists that are collaborating with the project team in constructing the website for the peace agreement database. At the start of the project they supplied the project with all the peace agreements that they had in their UN Peacemaker website. They have also agreed to provide substantive feedback and collaboration regarding the project's other outputs. Update 2017 reporting period: The project team regularly liaised with the UN MSU in developing the "Language of Peace" database, with the MSU providing feedback on the functionalities of the database. The MSU, together with the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations, hosted the launch event of the database on 6 December 2016. Update 2018 reporting period: The project team continued to liaise with the UN MSU on issues related to the "Language of Peace" database, receiving further agreements as they have been added to the UN Peacemaker database. The project team (represented by Andrea Varga) and the UN MSU held discussions on the future continuity of the database, and as noted above, it is envisaged that the MSU team will take on the task of updating the database with new agreements as they emerge once the Legal Tools project concludes.
Impact Up to this point, the main outcome that has been assisted by this collaboration is the creation of the peace agreement database that is currently being completed. Update 2017 reporting period: The project's peace agreement database, the "Language of Peace", was launched publicly on 6 December 2016.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Organization of American States (OAS) 
Organisation Organization of American States (OAS)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The OAS has long been involved in various peace processes and the conclusion of peace agreements, and the outputs of the research project (through analysis of the region's practice, as well as though making the OAS aware of other possible solutions put forward in conflicts beyond the region) will further aid the work of the organization in this respect, both on a theoretical and practical level.
Collaborator Contribution In addition to the participation of Jean Michel Arrighi (Secretary of Legal Affairs at the OAS) in the Practitioner Advisory Board, the project enjoys the support of the General Secretariat of the OAS, which enables the project to rely on the organization's extensive experience on peace negotiations and peace agreements when researching the various substantive issues that arise in such agreements.
Impact -
Start Year 2016
 
Description 2015 CJICL Annual conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research Associate Dr Tiina Pajuste gave a presentation on "Democratic Governance and Transition Agreements" at the 4th Annual Conference of the Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law (on the topic of Developing Democracy). The conference was attended by both undergraduate and postgraduate students and legal scholars. As the presentation related to research done for the Legal Tools for Peace-making project, Dr Pajuste shortly introduced the project. This led to later discussions and the project team received additional queries in the weeks after the conference regarding the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2015 ILA British Branch Spring Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research Associate Dr Tiina Pajuste made a presentation at the ILA British branch spring conference on the topic of "International Law as a Tool or Impediment for Peace and Justice". The presentation addressed the role of international law in determining the content of peace agreements and its function as a reference point and a legitimising tool in peace negotiations. She also introduced the Legal Tools for Peace-making project to the postgraduate students and legal scholars that attended the conference. There was interest in the project and several people contacted Dr Pajuste afterwards to ask for more information about the project or to find ways of collaborating.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2018 Annual CILJ Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Andrea Varga gave a presentation at the 7th annual Cambridge International Law Journal conference, on the subject of 'Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Armed Groups in Peace Agreements'. The paper built on research carried out as part of the Legal Tools for Peace-making project, with materials gathered through the use of the Language of Peace research tool - this was also explained to the audience as part of the paper's background, and led to further questions about the project later throughout the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://cilj.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/CILJ-2018-Conference-Programme-Non-State-Actors-and-Int...
 
Description American Society of International Law Annual Meeting (9th April 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Weller gave a presentation entitled 'Law in Peace Negotiations' to an audience of around 50 academics, practitioners and policy makers at a major international conference. The presentation addressed how international law influences the practice of peace negotiations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Blog post on the launch and significance of the "Language of Peace" database (4th January 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A roughly 1,100-word blog post was published on EJIL: Talk!, one of the most prominent academic blogs in the field of international law worldwide - and cross-posted on the similarly high-profile Opinio Juris blog - disseminating information on the newly launched "Language of Peace" database. The post addresses the background to the database, why and how it was developed, and the gap it is intended to fill; briefly describes its functionalities; discusses its potential uses and benefits for different types of users; and invites users to provide feedback on how the database could be further improved. As a result of this blog post, the project has received several emails with (very positive) feedback, suggestions, as well as requests for further information on the project and its further intended course.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ejiltalk.org/identifying-the-language-of-peace-developing-the-practical-and-theoretical-f...
 
Description EIP workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Jake Rylatt and Andrea Varga of the Legal Tools for Peace-Making project led a successful workshop on 6 July 2017 in Brussels, hosted by the European Institute of Peace (EIP), presenting the Language of Peace research tool to participants from the EIP, the European External Action Service (EEAS) and other European institutions. The EIP is 'an independent public interest foundation' established by Belgium, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland, which 'interacts with the United Nations, other international organizations, regional organizations, non-governmental organizations, private entities, conflict parties, and individuals' and 'serves as a permanent operational hub for existing European governmental and non-governmental mediation and dialogue expertise'; for more information, see www.eip.org.

The purpose of the workshop was to raise awareness of - and receive feedback on - the outputs of the Legal Tools for Peace-Making project, in particular the Language of Peace research tool and the case studies based on this research tool. Accordingly, the workshop included an interactive demonstration of Language of Peace, presentations of case studies prepared by the Legal Tools team with the help of this research tool, and a roundtable discussion on how these outputs could be further developed to ensure maximum utility for practitioners. The feedback received was generally very positive, revealing that most of the project's ideas for further development - such as providing a categorisation according to the type of agreement - would be warmly welcomed (and helped eliminate a few others - such as an offline version - as not serving a real need). The research team and the participants also agreed that in order to ensure that the research tool is as comprehensive as possible, it would be very helpful if participants transmitted peace agreements which they have access to and which may be shared publicly to the research team - such an arrangement is expected to be operationalised in the near future.

This workshop was made possible by co-funding from an ESRC Impact Acceleration Account (IAA) Impact Fund grant received through the University of Cambridge (see Further Funding for details).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.lcil.cam.ac.uk/news/content/language-peace-presented-workshop-european-institutions
 
Description EU Delegation Chisenau (22nd November 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Weller presented to a delegation of 10 members of the EU Delegation to Chisenau, on the topic of 'Finding Peace for Moldova'. The presentation was given in the context of Professor Weller's advisory work regarding the Transnistria region in Moldova.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description European Leadership Network, London (7th November 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Weller presented on 'Russian Perspectives on the Use of Force and the Preservation of Peace' to a group of 20 leaders from Russia and Western Europe. Specifically, the presentation addressed the influence of force on international politics and prospects for peace-making.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Federalism and Ethnic Conflict Settlement, National Institute for Peace and Reconciliation, Myanmar (13th December 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Prof. Marc Weller gave a presentation to members of parliament, government officials and delegation members on federalism and ethnic conflict settlement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gibraltar Garrison Library Conference (22nd October 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Weller presented on 'Self-determination and Self-determination Settlements' to a group of around 50 practitioners. The presentation provided an overview of self-determination, with specific reference to self-determination settlements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Global Colloquium, University of California (Berkeley) (2nd March 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Weller presented to around 45 academics on the present status of international peace negotiations, focusing on those negotiations concerning Syria. The presentation was entitled 'Forcible Humanitarian Action and Peace-making'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Humanitas Lectures, Cambridge (22nd October 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Weller delivered comments on President Ahtisaari's contribution to peace-making, following a lecture by Nobel Laureate and President of Finland, Martti Ahtisaari. The lecture was attended by around 60 academics and students, and Professor Weller's comments specifically addressed issues surrounding the influence of international law on peace-making.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Informal presentation of the "Language of Peace" database (6th December 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team held an informal brown-bag presentation of the "Language of Peace" database to officials from various units of the UN on 6 December 2016. In the course of the hour-long session, Prof. Marc Weller discussed the project's background, inception and significance, which was followed by members of the project team providing an in-depth demonstration of the use and functionalities of the database and inviting feedback, and the meeting concluded with a Q&A session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International Law and the Use of Force, China Foreign Affairs University (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Peking (12th July 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof. Marc Weller gave a talk to senior members of academia and government at an official venue on international law and the use of force.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International Law, International Relations and International Peace and Security, Peking University (10th July 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof. Marc Weller gave a presentation on international law, international relations and international peace and security to academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keio University, Senior International Scholar Presentation (23rd-24th Match 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Weller gave a presentation to around 100 academics entitled 'Humanitarian Intervention and Self-Determination'. The presentation concerned those two issues, with a focus on self-determination settlements and the use of force as a pre-cursor to peace negotiations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Launch event of the "Language of Peace" database (6th December 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The launch event for the "Language of Peace" database was held in the evening of 6 December 2016 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, hosted by the UN MSU and the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations. The event opened with remarks by Ambassador Jürg Lauber, Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the UN, which was followed by a presentation of the database's background, development and significance by Prof. Marc Weller, and a demonstration of its functionalities by one of the project team members. The event then concluded with a discussion on the importance of language in peace agreements between Jeffrey D. Feltman, UN Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, and Álvaro de Soto, former UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General, moderated by Theresa Whitfield, Director of the Policy and Mediation Division of the UN Department of Political Affairs. The attendees of the event were representatives (often at the ambassadorial level) of the Permanent Missions to the UN of the Group of Friends of Mediation countries, as well as several high-ranking UN officials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Le Circle, Monaco (8th December 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Weller gave a briefing entitled 'Peace-Making in the Arab Spring' to 80 senior leaders from around the world, including ambassadors, ministers, and generals. Specifically, the briefing addressed the present state and prospect of achieving peace settlements in Arab Spring States.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Legal Tools for Peace-Making Workshop (13-14th May 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project held a workshop with several members of its academic and practitioner advisory boards on 13-14 May 2016 in Cambridge. At the workshop, members of the project team presented the case studies completed on a number of issue areas covered by the project, such as Detainees or Humanitarian Assistance, while the advisory boards' members provided valuable feedback. Furthermore, the project team presented a test version of the "Language of Peace" database, likewise gaining feedback and suggestions for further improvement. Last, but not least, the project team and the advisory boards' members held an in-depth discussion on the proposed outline for the project's conceptual case study, resulting in extensive revisions and additions to the outline in order to better reflect and address the crucial issues faced in contemporary peace-making.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Legal Tools for Peace-making project concluding conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Legal Tools for Peace-making project held its concluding conference (organised by the project team) at the Lauterpacht Centre in Cambridge in April 2018, with the participation of academics and practitioners who are contributing to the 'International Law and Peace Settlements' edited volume (CUP 2019, forthcoming) to be published as part of the project, as well as members of the project's advisory board. The aim of the conference was to bring the volume's contributors - and the project's advisory board members - together to present their work for the volume, receive feedback from a varied practitioner/academic audience (including renowned practising international mediators), and ensure coherence within the volume on the main overarching issues, e.g. how peace agreements may contribute to international law. Following several panels with presentations of draft chapters, the conference thus concluded with a session discussing the themes and conclusions of the volume as a whole, which was then distilled and shared also with those authors who were unable to attend the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Libraries outreach 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact In order to promote awareness of the Language of Peace research tool, the project contacted dozens of libraries worldwide, particularly at universities with strong programmes in international law and/or international relations, which resulted in further dissemination of information on the research tool. Most notably, Language of Peace was added to the 'International Peace and Security' online research guide of the Peace Palace Library in the Hague, featured in the Library's May 2017 newsletter and on its Twitter account (which has more than 600 followers). These outreach and dissemination efforts were carried out with the help of a Research Assistant hired through an ESRC Impact Acceleration Account (IAA) Impact Fund grant received through the University of Cambridge (see Further Funding for details).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/research-guides/war-and-peace/international-peace-and-security/#da...
 
Description Newsletter item in the LCIL newsletter on the launch of the "Language of Peace" database 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A roughly 400-word news item posted on the website of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law (LCIL), and included in the biannual LCIL newsletter - which has a distribution list of over 900 academics, practitioners, and PhD students - on the launch of the "Language of Peace" database, including a brief description of the functionalities of the database and its potential uses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.lcil.cam.ac.uk/sites/default/files/LCIL/documents/FTD/FTD24_FINAL_lowres.pdf
 
Description OAS workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jake Rylatt and Andrea Varga of the Legal Tools for Peace-Making project have led a successful workshop hosted by the Organization of American States (OAS) on 18 July 2017 in Washington, D.C., presenting the Language of Peace research tool to participants from a broad cross-section of the organisation, including the Secretariat for Legal Affairs, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Peace Fund.

The purpose of the workshop was to raise awareness of - and receive feedback on - the outputs of the Legal Tools for Peace-Making project, in particular the Language of Peace research tool and the case studies based on this research tool. Accordingly, the workshop included an interactive demonstration of Language of Peace, presentations of case studies prepared by the Legal Tools team with the help of this research tool, and a roundtable discussion on how these outputs could be further developed to ensure maximum utility for practitioners. The feedback received was generally very positive, revealing that most of the project's ideas for further development - such as providing original language versions of agreements which have not been drafted in English - would be warmly welcomed (and helped eliminate a few others - such as a password-protected subsection for mediators only, containing politically sensitive documents that cannot be made available to the general public - as not serving a real need). The workshop also allowed the research team to deepen its collaboration with the OAS, agreeing with the participants that in order to ensure that the research tool is as comprehensive as possible, it would be very helpful if the OAS transmitted peace agreements which they have access to and which may be shared publicly to the research team. As part of this collaboration, the project team has already received further peace agreements to add to Language of Peace through a contact at the OAS Peace Fund.

This workshop was made possible by co-funding from an ESRC Impact Acceleration Account (IAA) Impact Fund grant received through the University of Cambridge (see Further Funding for details).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.lcil.cam.ac.uk/news/content/language-peace-presented-workshop-oas
 
Description Peace-making, Xiamen University, China (6th July 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Series of lectures delivered by Prof. Marc Weller to academics and PhD students from China and the wider Asian region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Political Science Association, The Peace Puzzle, Total Exposure, Royal Society of the Arts, London (26th January 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Prof. Marc Weller provided exposure of the project's activity to media professionals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at FCO Legal Directorate's Annual International Law Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation of the Legal Tools project and the Language of Peace database at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Legal Directorate's Annual International Law Seminar (9 May 2018), at the breakout session on 'Peace Negotiations and International Law'. The Directorate uses the Annual Seminar to explain its work to a broad legal audience and to trigger dialogue on some of the most pressing and complex issues that it engages with. Our breakout session aimed to address the relevance of international law to peace negotiations and to introduce the FCO team to the research of the Legal Tools project and demonstrate the utility of the Language of Peace database for their everyday work. We have received glowing feedback from Sir Iain Macleod KCMG, Head of the Legal Directorate, noting that our session was singled out by some of the attendees as the highlight of the day. His letter also added that the FCO Legal Directorate was very much looking forward to exploring further opportunities to work together again in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal College of Defence Studies (24th September 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Weller gave a lecture, entitled 'Treaties, Peace and the Use of Force', to around 120 senior military officers from around the world. The lecture specifically addressed international law and conflict settlement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Snyder Lecture, Maurer School of Law, Indiana University (13th April 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Weller gave a named headline lecture, entitled 'Can Law Bring Peace?', to an audience of around 100 academics and students. The lecture addressed the extent to which law contributes to peace.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description UN Syria Peace Conference, Geneva (12-23rd March 2016; 25th July 2016; 20th January 2017; 23rd February - 2nd March 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Official engagement with governments by Prof. Marc Weller as part of the Syria peace process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017