Chinese national oil companies and the economic development of African oil producers

Lead Research Organisation: Open University
Department Name: Faculty of Arts and Social Sci (FASS)

Abstract

After decades of being regarded as 'basket cases' some African economies are experiencing growth rates that are among the fastest in the world. Much of this growth is based on the export of commodities, like oil, to China and other emerging economies. Driving this engagement are Chinese national oil companies (NOCs) that have grown up through China's reform period and, as such, carry with them many key features of the 'China model'. While we hypothesise that the Chinese do things 'differently' to other oil investors in Africa we do not know whether the different corporate strategies of the leading Chinese NOCs and the specificities of African political economies they engage with generates unique forms of development, and if so in whose interests? Crucially it is a mistake to see this as one-way traffic with Chinese firms entirely determining the agenda. Our past ESRC-funded research reveals the importance of African agency in shaping the terms of this engagement and with it the potentials for development. In terms of DFID-ESRC's priorities the project addresses Chinese FDI, resource-based growth models, and infrastructure given that many Chinese oil deals are tied to infrastructure.

This project will be the first to assess whether and how such developmental benefits may be occurring. We will start by investigating the Chinese NOCs and their relationships to key state and semi-private agencies in China, before undertaking field research in Africa. Important here are the complex 'packages' of aid, trade and investment in Africa through Chinese NOCs, banks and ministries. Chinese NOCs are active across Africa but three countries - Ghana, Angola and Sudan - represent different aspects of their engagement with the continent. These countries are also unique so these contextual differences allow us to examine the role that African agency plays in shaping the nature of and benefits from this new investment in their oil sectors. We will also assess their impacts and the extent to which the growth they generate - directly, through oil-backed infrastructure, and via state revenue - trickles down to Africa's poorest.

Data collection will be both quantitative and qualitative; the former being data sets on Chinese FDI and African social indicators, and the latter interviews with key Chinese and African actors. To successfully carry out this data collection in countries and an industrial sector renowned for lacking transparency we will work with partners who have track-records of research in this area, and are embedded in key policy circles which will maximise the impact of our research.

Having established the drivers, dynamics and impacts of these investment flows we will address the needs of various users of knowledge. Academics across a range of disciplines will benefit from new knowledge of the character of these flows and impacts, as well as rethinking debates on the nature of international relations, resource-based development and the role of 'Southern' actors in that. National and international policy-makers will benefit from better information about the nature of these oil-related trade and investment flows, as well as benefitting from the recommendations we make for interventions that could enhance the mutual benefits from these new business relations. International and African business people will benefit through greater knowledge of the opportunities available, but also about how to do business in such complex cross-cultural settings. To achieve this, the research team will deliver bespoke training programmes on Chinese NOCs and local linkages. Finally, the general public will benefit from better-informed debate about the nature of Africa's development, and the real costs and benefits of actors like the Chinese. The Open University, where the core team is based, has wide experience of engaging the public in learning about the world and will produce a MOOC on oil and development in Africa.

Planned Impact

This project will have early impacts, derived from completion of the research, and long-term impacts, accrued from the influence on policies and corporate strategies in China, selected African countries, and some advanced economies.

Early impacts will arise from a detailed understanding of the different motivations, roles, and impacts of Chinese national oil companies (NOCs) in our case study countries, and the role played by Africans in shaping this engagement. The beneficiaries and benefits are:

1. Policy-makers and NGOs in the African case study countries, China, and Europe. The economic and social benefits will be greater awareness of how NOCs operate, their impacts, and the role of African states in brokering these relationships and in using oil revenue for development. This will be achieved through the advisory group that has direct links to policy channels, and targeted workshops and policy briefs during the project's life.
2. African and Chinese NOCs, other international oil companies, and sub-contractors to the sector. The economic benefits will be detailed knowledge of inter-firm linkages and the possibilities for local content in Africa. Through policy briefings, local workshops involving oil industry representatives, and executive training programmes the research will provide greater knowledge of opportunities in the sector and how these can be effectively exploited.
3. The general public. There is much misinformation about Chinese firms, African elites, and resource-based development. The research will create social benefits through informed debate on China's entry into Africa and how it might be best managed for economic development. The researchers, and the OU more generally, have unrivalled experience in engaging publics through diverse media. We will engage publics through blogs, a MOOC, and a communication strategy developed with the OU's media team.
4. Academics working in the fields of development studies, law, management, and international relations. To date we lack detailed knowledge of how Chinese NOCs operate in Africa and with what impacts. We will contribute new empirical evidence about these flows and their implications through presentations, existing networks, and journal papers.

Long-term impacts build on our empirical understanding of changing oil sector dynamics in Africa and their impacts on African economies:

5. Policy-makers and NGOs in the African case study countries, China, and Europe. Building on the short-term impacts we intend to provide longer-term advice to policy makers working in UN organisations (UNIDO, UNCTAD), multilateral agencies (EU, World Bank), national organisations (e.g. DFID, UKTI, CADFund), and NGOs (e.g. The Asia Foundation, China Foundation for International Strategic Studies, Chatham House) by disseminating recommendations for how to maximise the mutual benefits of these important trends.
6. Existing and potential investors in Africa. Our hypothesis is that potential exists for mutual engagement between Chinese NOCs, international oil companies (IOCs), African NOCs and a range of suppliers and service firms. Together, and managed properly, collaboration between these enterprises can benefit African economies. By providing executive training in oil sector dynamics/linkages we hope to assist new investors in Africa's growing number of oil economies. Using the skills of Dundee we will design training programmes aimed at NOCs, IOCs and, critically, African SMEs who might supply the oil sector.
7. Academics working in multiple disciplines. While our early findings will be theoretically driven, they will not explicitly seek to evolve wider framings of international development. Through a monograph published within 2 years of the project's end we will shape emerging debates around resource extraction, new axes of 'South-South' investment, and development. A submission to the UK Data Archive will also ensure that the data is available for future researchers.
 
Description The project set out to address the following themes and Research Questions:
? Theme 1. China's energy strategy, global competition, & Chinese outward FDI in Africa Objectives: (i) To analyse China's energy strategies towards Africa in the global context of oil supply and demand (ii) To identify the motivations for Chinese NOCs' FDI in Africa.
? Theme 2. The Distinctiveness of Chinese NOCs in Africa Objectives: (i) To understand how Chinese NOCs operate in Africa (ii) In doing so to determine the linkages between the financialisation of NOCs and their risk management.
? Theme 3: African Agency and the developmental impact of Chinese O&G firms Objectives: (i) To understand the agency of African actors in shaping the terms of Chinese NOCs' engagement (ii) To understand how political and economic agendas determine the use of oil revenues.
? Theme 4. Leveraging African development Objectives: (i) To examine how local linkages are being forged and their socio-economic impacts in Africa (ii) Where infrastructure is part of oil deals how does this affect African competitiveness.

The key findings are:

Chinese energy security and FDI
• China's energy strategies towards Africa have undergone significant changes over the past couple of decades, from fortifying political relationship to facilitating oil related investment, to utilizing the oil/infrastructure related investment to serve the purpose of Beijing's foreign policy, especially the "OBOR" initiative.
• The motivations of Chinese NOCs' FDI in Africa has also evolved accordingly, from government driven to business driven, from resource-seeking to assets-seeking.
• At least initially in some quarter of the government, there is a belief that controlling resources overseas would enhance China's energy security as China became a net oil importer. Africa is believed to be friendly to China as both were from the alliance of anti-imperialism.
• From the 1990s, as domestic sources dwindled, "utilizing two resources and two markets" or "internationalisation" has been a key strategy for the NOCs. This means they will utilize international resources and develop international markets.
• Chinese national oil companies have not paid excessively high prices for overseas oil assets.
• Although many view Chinese NOCs as the government's instruments, our research has found that the NOCs do not always share the Chinese government's objectives, but have their own agenda for business development.
• In the 1990s China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) had a large workforce that needed to find work, which was initially why a subsidiary of CNPC went to Sudan.

Distinctiveness of Chinese NOCs
• African governments see Chinese financing of oil and gas infrastructure as the viable alternative to traditional loans from countries in the West and the Bretton Woods institutions for two major reasons:
a. The cost of capital is reasonably affordable
b. The conditions of loans are reasonably manageable

• African governments prefer to engage Chinese NOCs in oil and gas business because the latter are business-minded and neither interfere with country politics nor attempt to influence it, though some change here.

• The African countries believe that there is no significant difference between China's NOCs and other IOCs in delivery of quality upstream work obligations. The most important factor is a country's ability to demonstrate knowledge of the industry and effectively monitor work delivery.


African agency
• Africa's elite politics shapes how oil deals are structured which in turn partly shapes how the developmental benefits are shared - key differences are between dominant leaders and more competitive systems. But all are prone to patronage politics.
• While both Sudan and Nigeria have different but ultimately difficult political and economic conditions Chinese NOC presence in both persists and even appears to be expanding. This requires intense investment in partnership/network building and a commitment to longer-term partnerships with domestic actors that challenges the prevailing, and simplistic, perception that Chinese NOCs are in Africa only to exploit through quick and easy investment options.
• Chinese NOCs investment strategies in Nigeria have, over the past several decades, evolved and adapted to domestic political conditions in efforts to break the dominance of IOCs and find entry into the market. We see more direct investment in established international companies and evidence indicates Chinese NOCs strategies are diversifying as a result - no longer one size fits all strategy.
Localisation

• Ghana and Sudan have different approaches to participation by local suppliers.
o While Ghana sets out strict local content requirement on participation as well as employment thresholds through legislation, it has hardly achieved local content targets.
o Sudan on the other hand spells out local supplier requirements in the Exploration Production Sharing Agreement (EPSA) but is flexible in implementation because Sudan would not compromise on quality and timely delivery in the name of promoting local suppliers. From the perspective of local suppliers, there are limited opportunities because of dominance of CNPC's subsidiary requirements in the supply of goods and services.
• The outcomes of employment in technical roles within the leading firms are also different. In spite of strict rules, very few Ghanaians occupy technical roles compared to Sudan where local employment at all levels has reached 90%. Sudan's NOC currently independently operates an onshore oil block. Both countries have three foreign consortiums currently operating three blocks. It may be argued that Sudan's oil and gas industry is about a decade older than Ghana's. However, Ghana's National Oil Company (GNPC) is also more than a decade older than Sudan's SUDAPET. The difference has been the different levels of investment drive, China's presence in Sudan and level of seriousness attached by SUDAPET to the localization agenda.
Exploitation Route We hope that the African stakeholders will use our work in informing their policy recommendations, particularly around local content in the oil industry as new oil and gas fields are developed.
The Chinese stakeholders have requested our research analysis. These are a quite difficult to work with group given the nature of the political system and the scale of China's ambition but we are exploring further funding sources to allow us to maintain a dialogue with them.
The wider publics will continue to benefit as our knowledge exchange activities are launched more fully.
Sectors Energy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description The economic and societal impacts are unfolding. We have detailed the actual impact activities in other sections of ResearchFish's reporting framework and here we outline the types of impact they are having and how we hope to seem them unfold. African stakeholders Given the aims of the wider research programme around understanding African growth one of the main stakeholder groups was African policy-makers and civil society organisations. One of our project partners was the African Centre for Energy Policy (ACEP) who not only assisted with the research design and data collection but were our main conduit into African governments, civil society organisations, and some African and international oil companies. Our main engagement was through supporting their annual oil governance summit where our work showed the different approaches adopted by African governments towards localisation and which helped shape the communique issued from the summit. We hope that these insights will go on to shape ACEP's advocacy around the oil and gas sector in Africa. Chinese stakeholders The two workshops we held in Beijing in 2016 and 2018 triggered interesting debates among the attendees which were useful for 'stress-testing' the findings from our research, and they have expressed an eagerness to read our research outputs. Given that the attendees of these workshops are among the main stakeholders in China's energy policy-making, we are highly confident that our research will help shape future energy investments in Africa, but also inform China's foreign policy. Wider publics We were keen to communicate our research to intellectually engaged, but non-specialist audiences. The Open University has a number of platforms for public engagement and we have produced an Open Educational Resource (OER), which is a short 5-week course on China and Africa based on the project. It has gone live on the OpenLearn platform but there are some final design aspects to finish and then we will go for a full launch with attendant publicity through the Open University and our own networks. We will monitor sign ups and completion rates to gauge uptake and impact. We are also negotiating a slot on the BBC's Thinking Allowed series and hope to have agreement in the next few weeks.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Energy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description EITI Senegal
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact ACEP produced a report making recommendations for the improvement of local content regulations. EITI of Senegal requested for a short educational document on Ghana's Oil and gas experiences, which highlights local content development successes and challenges. The report has been completed and designed pending a workshop in early 2018 to discuss the content with the Senegal EITI. The Paper will inform ongoing policy discussions on the emerging oil and gas industry in Senegal.
 
Description Engaging Specialists in China
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Influencing Local Content Regulations in Ghana
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Natural Resource Governance Institute Report on Chinese Bauxite deal
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2019/October-2nd/ghana-cannot-repay-2bn-sinohydro-loan-acep.php
 
Description ESRC
Amount £440,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N01443X/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2020
 
Description Effective States and Inclusive Development Research Centre
Amount £7,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Title Modelling African Agency 
Description In collaboration with the Nigerian partner (Centre for the Study of the Economies of Africa), the Open University team have been developing a framework that will blend political and economic theories to create an innovative method for analysing the data to explore how agency is formed and exercised by, and within, African governments 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The framework will be used in the coming months to analyse the case study data 
 
Title China fieldwork 
Description There have been several visits to China over the past several years resulting in a number of interviews and a workshop. This data has recently been collated, transcribed and is ready for analysis. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The team are about to start an intensive period of analysis of the existing project data 
 
Title Chinese national oil companies overseas acquisition 
Description (1) We obtained a small database on Chinese NOCs overseas asset valuation from Thompson Reuters and Wood Mackenzie, and the data is being checked and cross validated. The analysis is currently underway. (2) We are updating the Chinese loans to Africa with some media narratives. (3) We have collected data from the World Bank Enterprise survey and some of the household survey for the relevant case study countries. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Still being analysed 
 
Title Chinese overseas acquisitions 
Description The Wood Mackenzie oil & gas asset acquisition data covers all the announced asset deals in the oil and gas industry around the world. It includes detailed information on asset characteristics such as proven reserve, technically recoverable reserve, asset location, buyer and seller's country, value of the deal etc. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None to date 
 
Title Ghana Fieldwork 
Description Over the past year our partners in Ghana (ACEP) and the RA based in Accra have conducted extensive fieldwork in the country leading to a comprehensive data-set of interviews and documented sources. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None to date - we are about to begin a intensive data analysis period 
 
Title Nigeria Fieldwork 
Description There have been four separate visits to Nigeria in 2017 conducted by a range of members of the team (monopolising on different specialities) leading to a comprehensive data-set of interviews and documented sources. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The team will soon begin an intensive period of analysis on this data. 
 
Title Qualitative data on Chinese oil investments in Africa 
Description The data comprises qualitative data derived from semi-structured interviews in China, Ghana, Nigeria and Sudan. In addition, there were short surveys with communities affected by oil investments in Nigeria and Ghana. In China data was collected during a workshop and the deliberations were full transcribed. The interviews and workshop discussions were transcribed and translated into English where necessary. Where audio recordings were not permitted researchers took field notes which also form part of the collection. There is also one expert report from Sudan where data collection proved highly sensitive. The numbers of data sources for each country are as follows: China 3 Ghana 45 Sudan 20 Nigeria 72 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have submitted an application to ReShare but do not yet know if the deposit will be accepted. Assuming it is, the data will be available to others. 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk
 
Title Sudan fieldwork 
Description A team of researchers are in Sudan to interview policy makers, corporates and civil society organisations involved in oil production. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None to date as fieldwork is ongoing 
 
Description Changes to Chinese Partnerships 
Organisation Central Party School of the Communist Party of China
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution CI (Janet Liao) has managed changes in the projects in-country Chinese partner. Due to unforeseen circumstances (change in organisation and position) the original partner fro the Research Institute of Economics and Technology had to withdraw. Prof. Liao used her networks to find a new partner (Prof Xiucheng DONG from the University of International Business and Economics) to join the project and take over the role of the previous partner.
Collaborator Contribution Networking to provide contacts for interview within China but also helping to support the African fieldwork with contacts into the Chinese oil companies.
Impact The Chinese partner helped with some contacts in Nigeria and joined Prof Liao for part of the visit. There are plans to support the upcoming Sudan fieldwork
Start Year 2017
 
Description China Africa relations 
Organisation Africa Centre for Energy Policy, Ghana
Country Ghana 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution ACEP presented the findings from the grant at the meeting
Collaborator Contribution The African Centre for Energy Policy has become part of a group of researchers, donors and academics working of China-Africa relations. The first meeting was held in Hong Kong in September 2019 to explore the challenges and distinctiveness of Chinese investment.
Impact It is a collaboration between researchers and polcy makers
Start Year 2019
 
Description Exploring African Agency 
Organisation Centre for the Study of the Economies of Africa
Country Nigeria 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The RA (Craig Walker) worked with members of the team in CSEA to develop a research proposal that will help during the data analysis stage to focus and explore the currently under-researched topic of African Agency. This involved developing a multi-disciplinary conceptual framework.
Collaborator Contribution See above - the proposal was developed in collaboration
Impact The development of a joint proposal and a conceptual framework
Start Year 2017
 
Description Support Establishing Partnerships in Sudan 
Organisation Ministry of Energy and Petroleum
Country Ghana 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution ACEP have engaged the Ministry to support the clearance acquisition for field work in Sudan. The Ministry has given ACEP a letter to facilitate visa acquisition at the Sudan embassy. The plan is for ACEP to join the Ministry on a trip to Sudan in January 2018 in order to facilitate in-country partnership for the Sudan fieldwork to be able to take place.
Collaborator Contribution Providing letters of support for visa application and aiding networking within Sudan, supporting finding a suitable partner.
Impact The partnership is in the early stages, looking to conduct a visit to Sudan in the coming weeks that will lead to the key output - formation of a formal partnership with a Sudanese organisation to facilitate fieldwork
Start Year 2018
 
Description Three Periods of Collabortive Fieldwork 
Organisation Centre for the Study of the Economies of Africa
Country Nigeria 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Several members of the ACEP team spent three weeks conducting intensive interviewing in a number of locations across Nigeria in April 2017. The RA from the Open University subsequently worked closely with the CSEA team for two weeks in May and then later two months from Sept - Nov 2017. Key activities included helping to identify relevant stakeholders and conducting the interviews
Collaborator Contribution CSEA were instrumental in conducting early stage stakeholder analysis for the fieldwork, developing relationships with potential interviewees, helping to facilitate interviews and supporting the project team with interviewing where necessary.
Impact The partnership has resulted in over 50 interviews or written responses from key participants as well as an extensive body of complimentary documentary sources to support the data analysis. The partnership will continue over the rest of the life of the project as CSEA will be commissioned to do some additional data collection and will also be involved in the analysis and possibly authoring of some publications.
Start Year 2017
 
Description African oil and gas summit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Our research project partnered with the African Centre for Energy Policy (ACEP). For the past 4 years ACEP have organised a pan-African oil and gas summit in Accra, Ghana. That is, it attracted attendees from multiple DAC-listed countries including Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, Sudan, and Uganda. We supported ACEP financially for the 2018 summit held in November and presented a paper on the first day of the Summit. The report is available here:

https://s3.amazonaws.com/new-acep-static1/reports/2018+AFRICA+OIL+GOVERNANCE+SUMMIT++REPORT.pdf

The summit gave us a platform to engage with oil ministry officials as well as corporate representatives from the oil and gas sector. We also made contact with a number of civil society organisations working for more equitable growth in oil producing countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.africaoilsummit.org
 
Description Appearance on CNBC Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a TV debate on a CNBC Africa programme called 'Beyond Markets'. It coincided with the FOCAC meeting in Johannesburg. There was a lot of Twitter activity around the broadcast.

The amount of social media interest increased and I received a number of LinkedIn requests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=4654822347001#
 
Description BOND conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Chaired a panel discussion at the BOND conference in Westminster. The two day conference is aimed at international development NGOs and we wanted to start a debate around how these NGOs might engage with China as an international development actor. There were three panellists who raised issues around Chinese charities, how other NGOs are contesting Chinese investments, and how the international community might respond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bond.org.uk/sessions/the-china-effect
 
Description Briefing to the Cabinet Office 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The UK's Cabinet Office are preparing a policy paper on China in Africa and I was invited to Whitehall as part of a small group of experts to 'stress test' the draft policy paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description China's NOCs overseas asset acquisition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dundee team member Dr Mu gave a presentation on data he has collected in relation to this project on 'China's NOCs overseas asset acquisition' at the 2017 IAEE (International Association for Energy Economics) North American conference in Houston on 12-15 November 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Team member Rafael Macatangay presented a paper entitled "The optimality of local content requirement policies for extractive industries: theory and evidence" at the International Reunion Conference, Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, 12th to 14th June 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/381033939351906/
 
Description Conference paper on researching China-Africa relations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper was entitled Mohan, G., Lampert, B., Tan-Mullins, M., and Atta-Ankomah, R. (2017) 'The (im)possibility of Southern theory: co-producing knowledge about China-Africa relations', and presented at the workshop entitled 'Researching South-South Development Cooperation: Critical Reflections on Epistemological and Methodological Challenges', 3-4 April, University of Cambridge.

The paper will appear as a chapter in Researching South-South Development Cooperation: critical reflections on the politics of knowledge production, Routledge: London. Edited by Adriana Erthal Abdenur (Instituto Igarapé), Elsje Fourie (University of Maastricht), Emma Mawdsley (Cambridge University) and Wiebe Nauta (University of Maastricht)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.crassh.cam.ac.uk/events/26939
 
Description DEGRP workshop at ODI 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The DFID Growth Research Programme hosted a workshop for China-Africa grant holders, as a way of highlighting key findings to feed into a policy report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussant at policy workshop on China-Africa in Johannesburg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The talk sparked discussion and I was asked to appear as an expert on CNBC Africa's Beyond Markets show.

Appeared on a pan-African TV news show.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://degrp.squarespace.com/project-highlights/2015/12/7/china-africa-a-maturing-relationship-growt...
 
Description Discussion Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The RA presented on the project to a discussion group that meets once a month, organised by the Nigerian partner. It brings together a range of people from academia, policy and practice who work in the energy sector of Nigeria.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Dynamism in China Africa business partnership: Insight from Africa's oil sector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an international conference on Africa-China relations convened by the Yale University and Lagos Business. I was part of a five member panel that gave a talk on various aspects of 'Sino-African Business Models'. Specifically, my talk was on a topic 'dynamism in China African business partnership: insights from Africa's oil sector'. My talk stimulated an extensive discussion which continued even after the time allocated for the discussion, with several people asking me further information on some of the issues I raised during my talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://africa-china.yale.edu/africa-china-relations-balance-growth-and-sustainable-future
 
Description Engaging Diplomatic Contacts - Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ACEP has also engage the diplomatic community on the objectives of the research, including embassy of Norway in Ghana, the British High Commissioner to Ghana in August, visiting British parliamentarians to Ghana in October and Parliamentary delegation from Netherlands in November. They are keen to see the outcomes of the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description FORD Foundation Strategy Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Inform conversations around the emerging risk with China Africa debt for resources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview at an Oil Sector Project Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The project RA was interviewed by a national Nigerian news channel while attending a workshop disseminating research findings on the project sponsored by the National Nigerian Resource Charter looking at the effectiveness of governance in the sector. The workshop was an opportunity to engage with key experts, academics and policy-makers to tell them about this project (which was useful for networking). The interview was asking for the RAs views on the effectiveness of the NNRC project but was also a chance to talk about this project, its aims and objectives
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Joint Workshop at the China University of Petroleum, Beijing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On 28 November 2016, a one-day workshop was held in Beijing for the DFID-ESRC project, jointly by CEPMLP, Open University and the Centre for Petroleum Industry Development (CPID) of the China University of Petroleum, Beijing (CUPB). In addition to the representatives from host institutions, Prof Giles Mohan, Dr Janet Xuanli Liao, and Professor Xiucheng Dong, a dozen of specialists were invited to speak at the workshop. These included officials and scholars from National Development and Reform Commission, China National Petroleum Corporation, Chinachem, China National Offshore Oil Corporation, State Development Bank, China Central Party's School, and the University of International Business and Economics, etc. Also attending were faculty members from the CPID, as well as a number of masters and PhD students from CUPB.

The aim was to exchange knowledge with industry practitioners from China's oil industry as well as researchers closely allied to these oil companies (e.g. academic geologists). We informed them about our project but used the event to gather insights into our project and its case study firms and countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Keynote address 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented invited keynote to the Finnish Society for Development Research Annual Conference, 27/2-1/3 2019.

The paper is currently under review with the Development and Change journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/development-days-2019/372955570156686/
 
Description Ministry of Energy - Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact ACEP made a presentation to the Petroleum Commission of Ghana and the Ministry of Energy on the recommendations in the report they produced on local content regulations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ODI policy workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The meeting was to discuss the outcomes across a range of DFID-ESRC projects entitled 'China's role in Africa's economic transformation - DEGRP synthesis roundtable'. Each research presented on their projects and these findings fed into a synthesis report published by ODI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.odi.org/publications/17121-africa-s-economic-transformation-role-chinese-investment
 
Description Presented paper at SOAS workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The talk was at a workshop on China-Africa relations and involved a number of grant holders of the DFID-ESRC China-Africa programme. The talked sparked a lot of questions around resources and governance.

After the talk I was emailed by participants requesting more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.soas.ac.uk/cas/events/12nov2015-china-in-africa-workshop.html
 
Description Teaching Local Content Policy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Macatangay from the Dundee team has delivered lectures on local content and linkages issues in CEPMLP graduate modules CP51003 Energy Economics The Tools (semester 1) and CP52002 Energy Economics The Issues (semester 2) in academic year 2015-2016; in CEPMLP graduate module CP52002 Energy Economics The Issues (semester 2) in academic year 2016-2017; and in the lecture "Research Methods & Methodology in Energy Economics" (both semesters) as part of a methodology module in academic years 2015-2016, 2016-2017, and 2017-2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018
 
Description User engagement workshop in Beijing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The dissemination workshop in Beijing was held on 19 - 20 September 2018, organized by the project research team, as an impact augmenting event to help disseminate our research findings, and to obtain feedback from the key stakeholders in China. Three team members attended the workshop - Professor Giles Mohan from Open University, Dr Xuanli Liao and Dr Xiaoyi Mu from University of Dundee - and each delivered a presentation on different themes designed for the project. The presentations covered the following topics:
A) What are the key drivers behind China's overseas' oil investment, in particular, in Africa? B) Is there a "China model" and the implications on understanding Chinese NOCs' corporate strategies? And, C) How do African host country political systems shape the nature and impact of these investments?
With assistance of our two Chinese partners, Prof Xiucheng Dong (Univ of International Business and Economics) and Prof Jianbo Luo (the Central Party School of the CCP) in Beijing, we had managed to invite 35 specialists to attend the workshop.
On Day 1, 23 officials participated in the meeting, including China's first Special Envoy on African Affairs, Ambassador Liu Guijin, and those from the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), Ministry of Commerce, state banks, national oil companies, and the Energy Journal. On Day 2, a dozen scholars from think tanks and universities were in attendance, and the discussion was done in English.
There were active discussions on both days of the workshop. Despite the diversity of opinions, most of the experts acknowledged the significance and academic value of our research. A Senior Economist from Sinopec who used to work for China's Sudan project had provided useful details for our research as well. The workshop was very successful and had served well our original purpose.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Webinar on Chinese energy policy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A seminar organised by University of Dundee's Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP) as part of their FCDO-funded Resource Hub.

The key issues drawing from the project were:
1. The role of China and other development partners in the energy and mining sectors
2. The role of International financial institutions in the development of the Energy sector
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_4Hf7ZflbQImNhKUE5_X6uw
 
Description Workshop on Chinese National Oil Companies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The workshop was the first to bring together experts on the internationalisation of China's national oil companies. Most of the 2-day workshop was for international researchers and a few invited PhD students. The two-day meeting involved a number of internationally renowned specialists on China's energy strategies towards different regions, including Dr Erica Downs (Eurasia Group headquartered in New York), Prof Mikkal Herberg (The National Bureau of Asian Research, USA), Dr Alex Vines (Chatham House), Dr Susana Moreira (World Bank), Dr Monique Taylor (National University of Singapore), Mr Stephen Macey (Adam Smith International), Dr Tim Steinecke (independent researcher), Dr Bob Wekesa (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, S Africa), etc.

Dozens of CEPMLP students attended the Keynote speech by Dr Eric Downs, and we have also made videos for the workshop, which were uploaded to Youtube which can be accessed by everyone world-wide. session was opened to Masters and PhD students across the University of Dundee and invites went out to a wider Scottish oil network. The workshop produced videos that are housed on one of the partner's websites and will lead to a special issue of the Journal of Contemporary Chinese Affairs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/research/researchcasestudies/