Human Rights and Information Technology in the Era of Big Data

Lead Research Organisation: University of Essex
Department Name: Human Rights Centre

Abstract

Edward Snowden's leaks about the extent of US and UK intelligence services' electronic surveillance dramatically demonstrated how in an increasingly digitised world, technological developments and the collection, storage and use of 'big data' pose unprecedented challenges for the protection of human rights. The aim of this programme of research is to ensure that the use of technological developments and big data are compatible with the ideals of human rights protection and can even have a positive impact.

Snowden's revelations are part of a much bigger picture in which electronic monitoring and data is collected and shared by companies and states on a routine, daily basis through social media, consumer activity and smartphones. The same technologies that threaten our privacy also provide opportunities for enhanced protection of human rights through better documentation of human rights violations and by demonstrating the effectiveness of rights-shaped policies in order to influence resource allocation and budgets.

Existing work either fails to consider the rights-implications of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and big data or focuses on a particular right. What is missing is a wider investigation into the diverse and complex rights-implications (positive and negative) of the use of ICT and big data including, but not limited to, privacy and the many social, ethical and legal issues lurking beneath the surface of human-machine interaction and use of big data. Moreover, regulation of the use of ICT and big data is currently fragmented between states, the United Nations and internet governance sector. This project will provide added value by offering a fuller picture of the totality of human rights issues raised by ICT and big data to advance new thinking and regulatory solutions.

The research questions focus on issues that cut across the threats and opportunities:1) How is the use of ICT and big data shaping the content and scope of rights? (2) How does the use of ICT and big data shape operational practices across state and non-state activities? What new theoretical questions and implications for human rights are generated? (3) What methodologies are needed to identify and document the misuse of modern technologies and the failure to comply with rights-based obligations? (4) How can the use of ICT and big data best support evidence-based approaches to human rights protection and advocacy? (5) What possibilities and limitations exist for regulating the collection, storage and use of ICT and big data by states and non-state actors?

The project will be organised into 4 work streams. The first (WS1) will focus on the overarching and synthesising themes. This will be complemented and informed by three in-depth studies: state and non-state surveillance (WS2); health as an example of using new technologies and big data for accountability purposes and evidence-based approaches to rights (WS3); and human rights advocacy and humanitarian work (WS4). The project will use multiple methods (desk research, interviews, econometrics, comparative case studies and computational techniques).

Communication and impact streams will be developed across the different stakeholder communities to establish agreement and a shared vocabulary by forming an expert working group of practitioners (human rights and technology), international internet governance, UN actors and academics that will meet twice a year to develop international standards on information technology, big data and human rights.

Dissemination and engagement with academics, practitioners and the public will be achieved via an interactive website; social media channels; conferences; public events; academic publications; shorter practice-orientated articles, policy briefings and blogs; media pieces; and time sensitive interventions targeting key policymakers and influencers and international, regional and national courts.

Planned Impact

The project's research findings will primarily benefit four key communities:

(1) International human rights and humanitarian institutions (particularly UN agencies - we do not have letters of support as it is not UN practice because of their independence and impartiality): the project will provide them with increased capacity to understand the multifaceted human rights implications of technology and big data; to respond to and effectively regulate the challenges posed by information technology and big data to human rights; and increased capacity to understand and use technology and big data for the mapping, monitoring and documenting of situations of acute crisis.

(2) States: the project will benefit states by informing their efforts to regulate non-state actors' development. The research will provide state actors with a better understanding of the importance of the human rights' aspects of states' use of technology and how to choose the best way to regulate states' collection, storage and use of technology and big data.

(3) Technology industry: technological advancement offers new opportunities and the technology industry is a key driver and facilitator. The research findings will improve their understanding of the potentially adverse effect on human rights, through due diligence and self-regulation. This will raise the visibility of such issues in technology design and use. Both national (Institute of Engineering and Technology and British Computer Society) and professional bodies (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and Association for Computer Machinery) that provide guidelines for professional system developers and engineers in the area of technology would benefit from the outcomes of this project and would enable them to develop conduct guidelines for professionals compatible and supportive of human rights.

(4) Human rights organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations: organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, have long been aware of the downside of technology and how the development of new technologies and availability of big data sets poses serious threats to human rights and the ability of regulation to keep pace. The same organisations are also using information technology and big data to verify/falsify human rights violations allegations and struggling to understand how to effectively deal with the vast amount of data produced through social media. The project will help these groups to understand the threats and opportunities and the limits and challenges that technology and big data can pose for human rights advocates.

These four communities will be involved in the design and implementation of the programme from the outset in order to ensure its relevance to their work. A major benefit will be that the project will provide multiple opportunities and pathways for these actors to come together to share information and best practice and develop innovative and connected solutions, including on regulation, to the issues identified. Until now they have tended to work in unconnected ways at different levels (national, regional, international) thus hindering opportunities for effective regulatory response.

The project will also benefit the media and general public, including through an interactive website, where there is a high level of interest in the issues raised by this research. Big data has been lauded as a transformative resource that can be used to benefit researchers, organisation, and society in general. However, as the recent Snowden revelations revealed there is another side to the story. Snowden reignited debates about privacy and surveillance, government use and abuse of data, and revealed the threats and opportunities that advanced technologies and big data provide. The project will be able to provide valuable evidence-based input about the human rights dimensions of this ongoing debate.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Contribution to Leiden University's Open Consultation on the UN Group of Government Experts (UN GGE) 2015 Norm Proposals, Review of zero draft of commentary (Vivian Ng)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description MIT Technology Review highlights HRBDT Human Rights Violation Detection Technology
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
Impact Our paper on detecting human rights violations in images has been rated by MIT Technology Review (which is one of the world's leadingtechnology magazines) as the most thought-provoking (most interesting) paper from the arXiv for the week ending March 25, 2017
URL https://www.technologyreview.com/s/603983/the-best-of-the-physics-arxiv-week-ending-march-25-2017/
 
Description Participation in a consultation session on online content regulation and Internet platforms organised by the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (Dr Krisztina Huszti-Orban)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Submission to Home Affairs Select Committee on Policing for the Future
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/home-affairs-committee/i...
 
Description Submission to House of Lords Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence Inquiry on 'Economic, Ethical and Social Implications of Advances in Artificial Intelligence'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/artificial-intellig...
 
Description Submission to UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee Inquiry on Algorithms in Decision Making
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/science-and-technol...
 
Description Submission to an official report prepared by David Kaye (UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression)). The submission is based on IGF 2017 contributions provided by, among others, Dr Krisztina Huszti-Orban, Dr Krzysztof Garstka and Dr David Erdos.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Submission to the Home Office Consultation on the Government's Proposed Reponse to the Ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union on 21 December 2016 Regarding the Retention of Communications Data (Investigatory Powers Act 2016) (Daragh Murray, Pete Fussey and Maurice Sunkin)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://1ing2s14id7e20wtc8xsceyr-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Home-Office-IPA-...
 
Description Submission to the Report on Ways to Bridge the Gender Digital Divide from a Human Rights Perspective by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Women/WRGS/GenderDigital/HRBDT_submission.pdf
 
Description British Academy Newton Advanced Fellowship
Amount £78,111 (GBP)
Funding ID AF160082 
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description British Academy Sustainable Development Programme (GCRF)
Amount £337,308 (GBP)
Funding ID GF160011 
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 09/2018
 
Description RCUK-CONFAP Newton Fund
Amount £79,737 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N000048/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2016
 
Description Innovation Service, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 
Organisation United Nations (UN)
Department United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution UNHCR Innovation Service and the HRBDT Project are collaborating to research image and text based computational analysis to advance human rights and humanitarian protection. The HRBDT research team will explore possibilities of the application of big data and associated technologies within displacement settings.
Collaborator Contribution UNHCR Innovation Service will test the application of computational techniques in real-world settings, applying them to decision making from emergency preparedness through to durable solutions.
Impact A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in February 2018. This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, involving, among others, computer scientists and lawyers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New Zealand Human Rights Commission UPR monitoring 
Organisation Human Rights Commission
Country New Zealand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Carmel Williams and Paul Hunt have met with the Human Rights Commission on several occasions and have designed and developed a research initiative involving application of big data to the Commission's web-based UPR monitoring mechanism.
Collaborator Contribution The New Zealand Human Rights Commission has facilitated meetings with their staff, other government agencies, and major organisations working with big data for social investment purposes in New Zealand.
Impact A workshop with the New Zealand Human Rights Commission on Big Data and Human Rights (28 February 2017). This was multidisciplinary, involving many sectors: Statistics NZ, Treasury, Health, Internal Affairs (privacy), and the private sector.
Start Year 2016
 
Description (How) Can Algorithms Be Human Rights Compliant? at RightsCon 2017 (Lorna McGregor, Daragh Murray, Vivian Ng) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact The Project organised a panel discussion that focused on exploring whether and how algorithms can be human rights-compliant, drawing on experts with diverse expertise to converge human rights principles with technological solutions. The session outlined the risks to human rights posed by algorithmic decision-making, assessed whether and how methodologically robust algorithms can be designed and developed in a human rights-compliant manner, including examples of what has and has not worked, with recommendations on the way forward in this complex, interdisciplinary area. The session was chaired by Lorna McGregor, with panellists Natasha Duarte (Center for Democracy & Technology), Bernard Shen (Microsoft), Ben Wagner (Center of Internet & Human Rights) and Bruce Schneier (Berkman-Klein Center for Internet and Society and Harvard Kennedy School). The session received positive feedback on social media as a 'phenomenal session' and 'one of the best sessions so far' at the conference. The session was selected as one of two highlighted sessions under the 'Algorithmic Accountability and Transparency: Shining a light in the black box' track in the RightsCon Brussels Outcome Report released by Access Now on 14 June 2017 (report link: https://www.rightscon.org/cms/assets/uploads/2017/06/Rightscon-2017-Brux-Outcome-Report.pdf). The session was valuable in demonstrating the rights perspective the Project brought to a topical issue, and provided a good opportunity for building relationships with other key stakeholders in this context. The expert opinions of the panellists have also been considered in ongoing Project research on algorithmic accountability.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://events.bizzabo.com/RightsCon/agenda/session/177202
 
Description A New Deal on Big Data Roundtable (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact On 5 September 2017, Ajay Sandhu participated in a roundtable discussion with members of Amnesty International and related activist organisations about the politics of big data and the rights concerns that must be addressed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Addressing Access to Remedy in the Digital Age: Corporate Misconduct in Sharing and Processing Personal Data - 2017 United Nations Forum on Business and Human Rights (Sheldon Leader and Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Human Rights, Big Data and Technology Project, together with the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the United Nations, organised a panel session in the context of the 2017 United Nations Forum on Business and Human Rights. The panel was moderated by Sheldon Leader and Krisztina Huszti-Orban participated as a panellist. The event identified the main challenges to ensuring access to legal, as well as non-legal, remedies in the context of data processing and data-sharing by corporations with their business relationships, in line with Pillar 3 of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and addressed the shortcomings in ensuring access to remedy in the context of data-sharing in response to requests by public authorities, justified on grounds of national security or law enforcement interests. Benefiting from the multi-stakeholder perspectives represented on the panel, the side event also explored potential solutions and good practices regarding the remediation of adverse impact of corporate misconduct and steps that can be taken on part of companies and the state in this regard (including through public-private partnerships). Several members of the audience approached members of the Project to inquire about the Project and modalities for cooperation. The panellists invited by the Project have similarly expressed interest in cooperation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Business/ForumSession6/20_AddressingAccessRemedy.pdf
 
Description After Paris, It's Traditional Detective Work That Will Keep Us Safe, Not Mass Surveillance (Pete Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog discusses the limitations of mass surveillance for security. The blog is designed to raise awareness of issues related to mass surveillance and security. Reposted on Juan Cole's informed comment blog (https://www.juancole.com/2015/11/after-detective-surveillance.html) and Phys.org. (https://phys.org/news/2015-11-opinion-paris-traditional-safe-mass.html)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/after-paris-its-traditional-detective-work-that-will-keep-us-safe-not-ma...
 
Description Algorithmic Decision-Making and Human Rights (Vivian Ng) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The blog post sets out some of the preliminary thinking in the Project regarding algorithmic decision-making, the issues Project members are working on from an inter-disciplinary perspective, in particular algorithmic discrimination, and some critical questions to be addressed. The blog post was reposted on the UK Administrative Justice Institute website (https://ukaji.org/2017/04/24/algorithmic-decision-making-and-human-rights/) and the Project received an invitation to speak at a conference following this blog post.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2017/04/21/algorithmic-decision-making-and-human-rights/
 
Description American Association of Geographers Annual Conference (Pete Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact In April 2017, Pete Fussey presented preliminary research findings on 'Predictive Policing, Ethics and Rights' at the American Association of Geographers Annual Conference in Boston, US.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description American Society of Criminology Conference 2016 (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of 'Police's Data Visibility' concept in preparation for research discussing the monitoring of police work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Amnesty International's Tanya O'Carroll on Privacy and the Nothing to Hide, Nothing to Fear Argument (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This blog post discusses popular views about privacy in light of the expansion of big data and surveillance with Tanya O'Carroll, a Technology and Human Rights Advisor at Amnesty International.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/amnesty-internationals-tanya-ocarroll-on-privacy-the-nothing-to-hide-nothing...
 
Description Analysis of Text-Based Social Media Sources and Its Application in Detecting Human Rights Violations (Speaker: Professor Massimo Poesio) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The talk was to provide support to civilian-led reporting of human rights violations, in the context of MRG's involvement in the Ceasefire Centre and, in particular, in the Ceasefire Iraq project. This project complements the objectives of the Human Rights, Big Data and Technology Project, exploring the contributions of big data - and in particular, social media - to the identification of human rights violations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.essex.ac.uk/iads/news_and_seminars/seminarDetail.aspx?e_id=11506
 
Description Big Data and Human Rights - European Youth Forum (Vivian Ng) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact The European Youth Forum organised an expert group for consultation in the process of drafting the organisation's position on opportunities and challenges in the digital economy. Vivian Ng was invited to present to members of the Forum on big data, human rights, and the future of work on 23 October 2017. The presentation addressed the opportunities and risks that big data and associated technologies present and the importance of considering both, the need to have a forward-looking perspective about future development of big data and technology given its relevance for the audience who were predominantly youth, and emphasised the consideration of future challenges and existing issues. The participants posed further questions including issues relating to the gender digital divide, how far the law currently protects rights such as privacy, and the impact of developments such as social credit scoring systems. The organisers provided positive feedback about the new perspectives the participants gained through the session and expressed interest in soliciting the Project's expertise for future related events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Big Data and Monitoring Sustainable Development Goal 3: Not Counting Those Left Behind? (Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This blog, authored by Carmel Williams, summarises a published paper on the topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2017/08/25/big-data-and-monitoring-sustainable-development-goal-3-not...
 
Description Big Data and UPR Methodology - Law and Society Association Conference (Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Carmel Williams presented the methodology being used in research using big data to hold the New Zealand government to account over the recommendations from the 2014 Universal Periodic Review at the 2017 Law and Society Association Conference in Mexico City. There were questions asked by the audience in the discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Big Data and the Right to Health: Explaining Ourselves! (Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This blog was written by Carmel Williams and Paul Hunt to introduce the broad concepts of the right to health, human rights, and their role within the Human Rights Big Data and Technology Project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2016/11/22/big-data-and-the-right-to-health-explaining-ourselves/
 
Description Big Data in Social and Economic Research Workshop organised by the German Data Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Maria Fasli (Lead of the Methodological Research Stream), was invited to attend and present at the workshop "Big Data in Social and Economic Research" which was organised by the German Data Forum. The aim of the workshop was to bring together a select group of international experts and research stakeholders to exchange experiences with big data research in the social and economic sciences and to explore and discuss existing and future access to big data sources. Prof Fasli used the workshop to raise awareness of and describe the work on her ESRC funded projects as well as describe practices and approaches for obtaining, managing and providing access to socio-economic datasets under the ESRC BLG DRC including highly sensitive datasets and research under the project with the charity Freedom from Torture and the Human Rights Big Data and Technology project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Big Data, Mass Surveillance and The Human Rights, Big Data and Technology Project (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog discusses the wide range of topics addressed by the surveillance and human rights research undertaken within the Project, including security, policing, and privacy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/big-data-mass-surveillance-and-the-human-rights-big-data-technology-project/
 
Description Blog on UNRISD website - Big Data and Monitoring Sustainable Development Goal 3: Not Counting Those Left Behind? (Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This blog has been re-posted at the request of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) as part of the UNRISD Think Piece Series, From Disruption to Transformation? Linking Technology and Human Rights for Sustainable Development, launched to coincide with the 37th Session of the UN Human Rights Council and the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In this series, experts from academia, think tanks and civil society engage with the topic of linking technology and human rights, and share their experience at the front lines of policy-driven research and advocacy aimed at leaving no one behind in an increasingly digital, automated world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.unrisd.org/TechAndHumanRights-Williams
 
Description Brazil Family Health Programme Presentation to The Barcelona Summer Forum (Rudi Rocha) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Big Data analysis of the Brazil Family Health program was presented; it shows the positive effect on health statistics from improving maternal and child health equitably.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Breakfast Seminar on Data-Driven Technologies and State Surveillance: Interactions between Government and Business (Sheldon Leader, Peter Fussey and Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The breakfast seminar, co-organised by the Law Society of England and Wales and the HRBDT Project, presented the Project's research on the human rights implications of the ways in which businesses cooperate with state requests for user data, especially in case of requests justified by national security and public order interests. The seminar is part of a series of events co-organised with the Law Society showcasing the research undertaken by the Project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Bridging the Gender Digital Divide from a Human Rights Perspective (Krisztina Huszti-Orban and Amy Dickens) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A blog post summarising the Project's submission in contribution to the report on ways to bridge the gender digital divide from a human rights perspective by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/bridging-the-gender-digital-divide-from-a-human-rights-perspective/
 
Description Chaired a public event on the Future of Surveillance Cameras with the UK Surveillance Camera Commissioner, Lord Paddick, Channel 4's Home Affairs lead and the Chief Constable of Durham (Pete Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A large public event hosted at the LSE with a prestigious panel of surveillance experts and leading practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Colchester Gazette - Trailblazing Essex University Human Rights Project Uses Computers to Highlight Abuse (Klaus McDonald-Maier) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Report in regional newspaper on research in using computer vision to aid the detection of human rights violations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.gazette-news.co.uk/news/local/15383768.Trailblazing_human_rights_project_uses_computers_t...
 
Description Computing Multiple Systems Estimation in R (Author: Patrick Ball) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is a semi-technical introduction to estimating undocumented events by using multiple, intersecting datasets. The point of Multiple System Estimation (MSE) is to use multiple, partial lists of a population to estimate the total population. The method depends on the integration of the lists, in which records that refer to the same elements of the population (called "co-referent" records) are linked in clusters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://hrdag.org/tech-notes/basic-mse.html
 
Description Conceptualising Identity in the Digital Age and its Effect on Human Rights Protection - Bytes, Bodies and Souls: Interrogating Human Digitalisation Conference, University of Kent (Vivian Ng) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 30 May 2017, Vivian Ng presented a draft paper on 'Conceptualising Identity in the Digital Age and its Effect on Human Rights Protection' on the 'Human Digitalisation' panel at the Eastern ARC Workshop 'Bytes, Bodies and Souls: Interrogating Human Digitalisation'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://twitter.com/bytesbodiessoul
 
Description Contributed to Roundtable Discussion on AI in Policing at Reform with Accenture and Chief Constable of Essex police (Pete Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Collaboration with Essex Police and Accenture to scope out the future of Artificial Intelligence in policing. Prof Fussey was invited to discuss the role of ethics in such practices. This has led to subsequent invites to engage with both the police and industry on these issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Countering Terrorism and Violent Extremism Online: What Role for Social Media Platforms? - Internet Governance Forum 2017 (Krisztina Huszti Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Krisztina Huszti Orban was invited to present her chapter on 'Countering Terrorism and Violent Extremism Online: What Role for Social Media Platforms?' at the 2017 Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in the context of the discussion organised by the IGF Dynamic Coalition on Platform Responsibility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://sched.co/CTqv
 
Description Data Driven Policing: Highlighting Some Risks Associated with Predicting Crime (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog summarises the HRBDT Project's submission to Home Affairs Committee's Policing for the Future Inquiry. The submission summarised the opportunities and risks associated with the police's adoption of 'data driven technologies,' which aid the bulk collection, storage, and analysis of data about persons, places, and practices. Data driven technologies can improve the efficiency of police work by offering law enforcement agencies methods of analysing crime data and generating predictions about crime that is yet to take place. However, existing research indicates a series of risks that must be considered when adopting data driven technologies. This submission highlights three risks associated with data driven technologies, focusing on: the quality of the input data, the potential for discriminatory decision-making, and privacy harms. This blog recaps the conclusion of the Project's submission by highlighting the risks associated with data driven technologies used to predict crimes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/data-driven-policing-highlighting-some-risks-associated-with-predicting-crime...
 
Description Data Governance Roundtable, organised by the British Academy and The Royal Society (Maurice Sunkin) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Maurice Sunkin participated in a roundtable meeting concerned with data governance. Presentations were given by experts - and discussion was stimulated - on matters including: gaps in the legislative/governance landscape; challenges facing data governance; the role of law and regulation; different approaches to data governance across jurisdictions; governance tools and techniques in a European context; developing principles to inform governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Data Protection Law Liability and User Generated Content: Ways Forward Under the GDPR (David Erdos) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conference paper by David Erdos; "Data protection law liability and user generated content: ways forward under the GDPR" at the Privacy Laws and Business conference in Cambridge, the chair being Elizabeth Denham (UK Information Commissioner).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Data for Social Change | An Interview with Andrew Stott (Daniel Marciniak and Vivian Ng) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Co-authored blog by Daniel Marciniak and Vivian Ng from an interview with Andrew Stott (former Director for Transparency and Digital Environment for the UK Government), who presented at the 'Big Data, Big Brother' panel at the Talk Big Data seminar series in November 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2017/02/13/data-for-social-change-an-interview-with-andrew-stott/
 
Description Doxing and White Nationalists' Right to Privacy (Ajay Sandhu and Daniel Marciniak) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog, authored by Ajay Sandhu and Daniel Marciniak, considers the potential impact of anti-racist doxing campaigns, including the risky consequences of denying white nationalists' their privacy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/doxing-and-white-nationalists-right-to-privacy/
 
Description Embedding Human Rights in Internet Governance (Lorna McGregor, Daragh Murray, Ahmed Shaheed and Catherine Kent) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact EJIL:Talk! blog that discusses the WSIS+10 review, opportunities and challenges presented by the use of ICT and big data and a human rights based approach to Internet governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ejiltalk.org/embedding-human-rights-in-internet-governance/
 
Description Essex Police Hothouse Event at BT (Adastral Park) (Ajay Sandhu and Peter Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Colleagues participated in a hothouse event with police officers and police agents from across the UK. The hothouse was intended to creatively discuss new technologically supported methods of addressing specific crime control issues. Researchers used this opportunity to develop their network of research participants and gather data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations in the Context of State Surveillance Activities? (Vivian Ng and Daragh Murray) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-authored blog by Vivian Ng and Daragh Murray examining the Investigatory Powers Tribunal decision in the case of Human Rights Watch & Others v The Secretary of State for the Foreign & Commonwealth Office & Others. The blog lays out issues for consideration should further claims be made to challenge the Tribunal's decision. Following publication, a new syllabus on International Law and Politics of Cyberspace at FGV Direito Rio included the blog post as compulsory reading.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2016/08/02/extraterritorial-human-rights-obligations-in-the-context-o...
 
Description First Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy to the Human Rights Council (Lorna McGregor) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact EJIL:Talk! blog that discusses the first report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy to the Human Rights Council, including the scope of the mandate, safeguards, oversight and remedies, the definition of privacy and connecting initiatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ejiltalk.org/first-report-of-the-un-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-privacy-to-the-hum...
 
Description Harnessing Big Data for Patient Empowerment: An Interview with Nathan Lea (Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Blog written by Carmel Williams interviewing a speaker, Nathan Lea, who presented at the Talk Big Data series at the University of Essex (November 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/harnessing-big-data-for-patient-empowerment-an-interview-with-dr-nathan-lea/
 
Description Health and Gender: Global and Economic Perspectives Conference (Sonia Bhalotra and Paul Hunt) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This conference brought together new research on inequality in health, with a special focus on maternal health, the pre-school years and the design of public policy. Paul Hunt and Sonia Bhalotra both presented preliminary findings on the Brazil case study, Paul Hunt analysing this from a right to health perspective, and Sonia Bhalotra providing an economic analysis of the benefits of the family health program on the health of women and children in Brazil. Sonia has obtained further funding based upon a track record of research in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/events/conferences/2016-09-23
 
Description Human Rights Practice in the Digital Age Workshop (Sam Dubberley, Klaus McDonald-Maier, Baekkwan Park and Steve Zimmerman) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This workshop co-hosted and co-organised by the Centre for Governance and Human Rights at the University of Cambridge and the HRBDT Project brought together scholars and practitioners working in a range of disciplines (computer science, law, media and communications, political science, and sociology). The day was divided up into four themed sessions: fact-finding innovations, representing and advocating human rights in the digital age, clashes between new technologies and existing practices, and risk and human rights practice.

Human rights fact-finding innovations in the digital age
In this first session, we heard about cutting-edge developments in human rights fact-finding, some of which are underway and some in development. One is crowd-sourcing from digital platforms during crises, and the session explored how to think about this practice's implications for power relations between citizens and states. Another innovation is training computer vision to support the identification of human rights violations in online images. Algorithms are increasingly good at identifying objects, but not good at figuring out the story behind them - a key element of human rights evidence that still very definitively requires expert human judgement. The issue is similar for the automatic detection of hate speech on social media, which is highly context-dependent and therefore poses challenges for machine interpretation. (Side note - an alternative use of technology to counter online hate speech could be the deployment of bots to name, shame and generally overwhelm abusive users.) Instead of bringing in more machine power to deal with the volume and verification problems of potential digital human rights evidence, some fact-finders are looking to use technology to bring in more people power. The session addressed a case of a such collaboration between practitioners and scholars - Amnesty's Digital Verification Corps and Berkeley's Human Rights Investigations Lab. Amnesty has benefited from greater capacity for the time-intensive verification process, and the students have had the opportunity to participate in applied human rights work as well as to gain skills valuable for citizenship in the digital age.

Representing and advocating for human rights in the digital age
This session addressed how human rights activism, representation and advocacy practices are changing - as well as the implications of these changes. We heard how the techno-optimism around the role of social media for social movements in the Arab Spring has been tempered by subsequent events, including the state infiltration of these online spaces. Just as human rights situations are changing, how we measure them is as well; we are increasingly able to document violations, but this uptick in documentation should not necessarily be interpreted as an uptick in violations. This fallacy turns on the 'information effect,' namely changes in the data being related to changes in methods of measurement rather than changes in what is being measured. We learned in this session about how one can use sentiment analysis to test for potential information effects across time in human rights reports. The third presentation was on how persuasion might work over social media as part of human rights advocacy work - a pragmatic recognition of what it might take to pursue human rights accountability in the era of fake news and in contexts where the traditional discursive method of naming and shaming has diminished impact.

Clashes between new technologies and existing practices
Presentations in this session focused on what happens when new technologies meet existing human rights practices, often resulting in unanticipated and even undesirable consequences. Speakers explored reasons why human rights NGOs can be slow to adopt technologies - including because existing practices relying on face-to-face communication bring affordances unmatched by digital communication, such as trust and reciprocity. Furthermore, human rights defenders are worried about security issues and about new technologies' possible obsolescence. For human rights defenders who do incorporate digital evidence into their fact-findings practices, a significantly detrimental consequence is secondary trauma, namely trauma experienced through witnessing others' trauma via digitally-mediated images and videos. This consequence - as we learned in this session - is also significantly under-acknowledged, both by fact-finders themselves and by their employing organizations. The third session speaker addressed the digital representation of subjects of human rights violations in advocacy, which raises new ethical concerns that often seem at odds with the highly-visual and fast-paced culture of social media.

Risk and human rights practice in the digital age
Having started the day considering the opportunities at the boundaries of human rights and technology worlds, we finished it by focusing on the risks, including how they are talked about and perceived. We heard about how human rights practitioners undertaking digital security training encounter the practice of threat modelling, which is borrowed from the tech world. This practice can have its drawbacks, such the individualization of risk. We also heard about how risk can be silencing for human rights defenders - not only because of risks actually manifesting for these defenders, but also because of what defenders do in anticipation of these perceived risks. One such category of cases covered in this session was the experience of conducting digital rights advocacy in Africa in the context of internet shutdowns.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2017
 
Description Human Rights in the Digital Age: The Perils of Big Data and Technology (Part II) (Vivian Ng and Catherine Kent) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Co-authored introductory blog by Vivian Ng and Cath Kent on the perils of big data and technology for human rights in the digital age.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/human-rights-in-the-digital-age-the-perils-of-big-data-and-technology-part-ii...
 
Description Human Rights in the Digital Age: The Promises of Big Data and Technology (Part I) (Vivian Ng and Catherine Kent) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Co-authored introductory blog by Vivian Ng and Catherine Kent on the promises of big data and technology for human rights in the digital age.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/human-rights-in-the-digital-age-the-promises-of-big-data-and-technology-part-...
 
Description Internet Governance Forum 2015 (Ahmed Shaheed and Catherine Kent) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral submission made by Ahmed Shaheed at an IGF session and questions raised by both Ahmed Shaheed and Catherine Kent during IGF sessions, raising awareness of the Project and debating the human rights based approach to Internet governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/
 
Description Interview for Inter Press Service News Agency Article on World's Poor Trailing Far Behind Rich in Digital Technology (Ahmed Shaheed) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview with Ahmed Shaheed for an Inter Press Service News Agency article on 'World's Poor Trailing Far Behind Rich in Digital Technology'. This followed the Project's two submissions to the WSIS+10 Review, which is discussed therein.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ipsnews.net/2015/12/worlds-poor-trailing-far-behind-rich-in-digital-technology/
 
Description Interview for ProPublica Article on So What the Hell Is Doxxing? (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Ajay Sandhu was interviewed and cited for Decca Muldowney's What the Hell is Doxxing? article on ProPublica.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.propublica.org/article/so-what-the-hell-is-doxxing
 
Description Investigating Human Rights Violations in the Digital Age (Sam Dubberley) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sam Dubberley participated in a panel discussion with Alexa Koenig (Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley School of Law) and Hugh Williamson (Human Rights Watch), which was moderated by Basak Çali (Hertie School). This panel discussion discussed: how digitalisation has changed investigating, verifying and reporting on human rights violations? How have digital sources and big data been successful in investigating human rights violations? How can digital techniques be used in human rights work to affect change, address attribution of responsibility and fight impunity? What are the pitfalls and ethical concerns with using digital sources in human rights investigations?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.hertie-school.org/en/events/event-previews/2017/investigating-human-rights-digital-age/
 
Description Keynote Talk at Pre-Conference of International Health Economics Association workshop (Rodrigo Saures) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Rodrigo Saures, one of the researchers/co-authors on the Brazil Family Health project in Workstream 3, presented the findings at a research seminar in Rio at a Brazilian research centre (FGV) on 4 July 2017 and this Keynote address
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Leadership, Leverage and the Special Challenges of Big Data - 2016 United Nations Forum on Business and Human Rights (Sheldon Leader and Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Human Rights, Big Data and Technology Project, together with the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights and the Institute for Human Rights and Business, organised a panel in the context of the 2016 United Nations Forum on Business and Human Rights, where Sheldon Leader participated as a panellist. The session was centred around the following topics: defining big data and setting a link with human rights principles via the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights; addressing the challenges posed by the use of big data for identifying good business leadership in standard setting and enforcement; exploring ways for responsible collection and use of data by government and business, given the vast amount of new knowledge about possible human rights impacts, both positive and negative. Several members of the audience approached members of the Project to inquire about the Project and modalities for cooperation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Business/ForumSession5/Nov16/LeadershipLeverage.pdf
 
Description Leveraging New Sources of Data for Human Rights Protection without Harming the Individual at RightsCon 2017 (Sam Dubberley and Lorna McGregor) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Sam Dubberley organised and spoke, along with Lorna McGregor, on panel at the international conference RightsCon in Brussels, Belgium in March 2017. This is the largest and most important technology and human rights event globally. The panel aimed to address the ethical concerns raised out of research on advancing human rights and humanitarian responses - namely how to use big data technologies without causing harm to the subject of research. The panel brought together several academic and professional experts in the area, and the audience was a wide-range of human rights practitioners engaged with technology and big data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with Guy Cohen (Privitar Ltd) (Centre for Science and Policy, University of Cambridge) (Krzysztof Garstka) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Krzysztof Garstka met with Guy during a visit organised by the Centre for Science and Policy. The conversation focused on anonymisation of personal data, in the light of Big Data analytics. Krzysztof Garstka was able to provide Guy with new information on the interplay between privacy and data protection. Additionally, Krzysztof made Guy aware of various initiatives undertaken within the HRBDT project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with Sarah Connolly (Director, Security and Online Harms at Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) ) (Centre for Science and Policy, University of Cambridge) (Krzysztof Garstka) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Krzysztof Garstka met with Sarah during a visit organised by the Centre for Science and Policy. The conversation focused on regulation of illicit content online - Krzysztof Garstka was able to propose various legal and regulatory solutions to the issues currently faced by the DCMS. Additionally, Krzysztof made Sarah aware of various initiatives undertaken within the HRBDT project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Microsoft Human Rights Roundtable (Lorna McGregor) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The meeting was convened on 5 July 2016 for Microsoft to solicit external input for the company's Vision 2020 strategy roadmap to enhance its implementation of the UN Guiding Principles. Lorna McGregor was invited to provide expertise from a human rights perspective. The roundtable enabled networking and developed relationships with a broad range of participants, including other academics, non-governmental organisations, and socially responsible investors. The Vision 2020 strategy was finalised and approved at the end of 2016 and will be publicly released in November 2017. The roadmap contains four work streams: class leading due diligence, rights aware decision making, transparent leadership and proactive engagement. The first year of recommendations are in the process of being implemented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Microsoft and the European Business Network for Corporate Social Responsibility Roundtable on Advancing Human Rights in the Era of Big Data (Daragh Murray) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Daragh Murray participated in an informal roundtable on 'Advancing Human Rights in the Era of Big Data', organised by Microsoft and the European Business Network for Corporate Social Responsibility, where he made a presentation entitled 'The International Framework'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.csreurope.org/roundtable-advancing-human-rights-era-big-data#.WMcp_xLyhp-
 
Description Module on Human Rights in the Era of Big Data and Analytics at the Institute for Analytics and Data Science's Summer School (Daragh Murray and Catherine Kent) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Postgraduate students, academics and practitioners attended a Project-run module on 'Human Rights in the Era of Big Data and Analytics' at the Institute for Analytics and Data Science's Summer School (September 2016 and July 2017). This sparked questions and discussions afterwards on the human rights implications of big data and associated technology in the digital age.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://www.essex.ac.uk/iads/events/summer-school.aspx
 
Description Motion Systems Perspectives Conference 2016 (Klaus McDonald-Maier) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Klaus McDonald-Maier presented research at the Motion Systems Perspectives conference in Jena, Germany. This was a large conference with academics and media in attendance, and resulted in several related approaches from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.motionscience.uni-jena.de/conference/
 
Description New Zealand Human Rights Commission Workshop on Big Data and Human Rights (Paul Hunt and Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Paul Hunt and Carmel Williams were keynote speakers at this workshop, which brought together 25 participants - predominantly policy makers from various government departments in New Zealand. The workshop focused on the importance of human rights when using big data, and the role of big data in holding the government to account for their human rights obligations. The participants engaged actively with the panel, asking insightful questions about their own use of big data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Panel Discussion on SDGs and Big Data at University of Massachusetts, Boston (Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Carmel Williams joined a panel of four, all authors in a special edition of the International Journal of Human Rights on 'Human Rights and the Sustainable Development Goals', who addressed a postgraduate class of about 30 international students in UMass Boston. She spoke about the role of big data in SDG accountability. This sparked questions and discussion, and follow up emails.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in Surveillance Focused Workshop Hosted by Hebrew University and Israel Democracy Institute in Jerusalem (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop, held at the Israel Democracy Institute, examined the development and application of measures designed in national and regional legal systems to ensure the proportional execution of communication networks surveillance by the relevant surveillance authorities, with a particular focus on the notion of proportionality employed, the different proportionality options considered in the course of policy making (and its role in facilitating right limitation by policy makers), difference in regulation of surveillance by police and other security agencies and the actual lessons learned from practice. Description taken from website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://en.idi.org.il/events/15852
 
Description People Just Don't Get It - An interview with Kade Crockford of the ACLU of Massachusetts about Why Surveillance Issues Aren't Getting the Attention They Deserve (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This blog post summarises an interview with Kade Crockford, the Director of the Technology for Liberty Program at the American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts (ACLUM).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/people-just-dont-get-it-an-interview-with-kade-crockford-of-the-aclu-of-mass...
 
Description Police Data Visibility - Part 1: How Data Can be Used to Monitor Police Work and How it Could be Used to Predict Fatal Force Incidents (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This blog post discusses the importance of studying how the police are monitored using digital technology and big data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2017/04/12/the-polices-data-visibility-1-how-data-can-be-used-to-moni...
 
Description Police Data Visibility - Part 2: The Limitations of Data Visibility for Predicting Police Misconduct (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This blog post discusses the importance of studying how the police are monitored using digital technology and big data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.hrbdt.ac.uk/the-polices-data-visibility-part-2-the-limitations-of-data-visibility-for-pr...
 
Description Presentation on Big Data and UPR methodology, University of Geneva Health and Human Rights Summer School (Carmel Williams) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I presented on the role of Big Data in human rights accountability, using the UPR research in New Zealand as a case study
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation on Hiding in Plain Sight: Right to be Forgotten and Search Engines in the Context of International Data Protection Frameworks - Internet Governance Forum 2017 (Krzysztof Garstka and David Erdos)) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Krzysztof Garstka and David Erdos were invited to present their chapter on Hiding in Plain Sight: Right to be Forgotten and Search Engines in the Context of International Data Protection Frameworks at the 2017 Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in the context of the discussion organised by the IGF Dynamic Coalition on Platform Responsibility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://sched.co/CTqv
 
Description Presentation on When The Truth Kills Truth: Regimes of Veridiction in Technologically-Mediated Forms of Suspicion at Tensions of Europe Conference (Pete Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Pete Fussey gave a presentation on 'When The Truth Kills Truth: Regimes of Veridiction in Technologically-Mediated Forms of Suspicion' at a session on 'Borders and Technology' at the 2017 Tensions of Europe Conference in Athens.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://8toe2017.phs.uoa.gr/
 
Description Presentation to Policy Makers Connected to Smart City Initiatives in India (Pete Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Pete Fussey presented on 'Digital Data, Ethics and Rights' connected to HRBDT Project findings to urban planners in Kerala, regional politicians and members of the Indian civil service as part of an Urban Observatory event in Kochi, India. The audience comprised of fifty delegates from policy, industry and research backgrounds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to the UK Data Service/Archive and the Administrative Data Research Network (Maurice Sunkin and Catherine Kent) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Employees at the UK Data Service/Archive and the Administrative Data Research Network attended a presentation to hear more about the Project's research, which sparked questions about and discussions of areas of mutual interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Privacy: System Failure | An Interview with Gus Hosein (Vivian Ng and Daniel Marciniak) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Co-authored blog by Vivian Ng and Daniel Marciniak from an interview with Gus Hosein (Executive Director of Privacy International), who presented at the 'Big Data, Big Brother' panel at the Talk Big Data seminar series in November 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2017/01/16/privacy-system-failure-an-interview-with-gus-hosein/
 
Description Project Launch Event (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Official launch of the Project in London, including an overview of the Project's research and a keynote lecture delivered by Ambassador Eileen Donahoe (Director of Global Affairs, Human Rights Watch) followed by a Question and Answer session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.essex.ac.uk/events/event.aspx?e_id=10029
 
Description Regulating Surveillance in the UK (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The IPA establishes wide-ranging surveillance powers while incorporating measures intended to protect rights and introducing an innovative 'double lock' oversight regime. This post provides a brief overview of the powers established by the IPA, and then highlights a few initial human rights considerations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://csrcl.huji.ac.il/blog/regulating-surveillance-uk
 
Description Seminar at Federal University of Pernambuco, located in Recife (Sonia Bhalotra) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar discussing evaluation of the Brazilian family health programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Shooting the Messenger: Challenges in Devising Human Rights-Compliant Intermediary Liability Frameworks - Expert Workshop on Responsibility of Home States, the European Union, and International Organisations in the area of Business and Human Rights (Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 2-3 October 2017, Krisztina Huszti-Orban was invited to present her research on 'Shooting the messenger: Challenges in Devising Human Rights-Compliant Intermediary Liability Frameworks' in the context of the expert workshop on 'Responsibility of Home States, the European Union, and International Organisations in the area of Business and Human Rights', organised by the University of Aarhus/INTRAlaw and the University of West Virginia. Participants included human rights practitioners from five continents, as well as members of the United Nations Working Group on Business and Human Rights.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Smartphone Data Tracking Is More Than Creepy - Here's Why You Should Be Worried (Vivian Ng and Catherine Kent) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The blog addresses the ways in which smartphones generate digital profiles of intimate information about personal lives and some of the resulting impacts thereof. To date, it has been viewed over 60,000 times, translated into Indonesian for republication in The Conversation Indonesian and republished in print by the i newspaper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://theconversation.com/smartphone-data-tracking-is-more-than-creepy-heres-why-you-should-be-wor...
 
Description Social Media Platforms: The New Gatekeepers of Free Speech? - 2017 United Nations Forum on Business and Human Rights (Sheldon Leader and Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Human Rights, Big Data and Technology Project organised a snapshot session in the context of the 2017 United Nations Forum on Business and Human Rights. Sheldon Leader and Krisztina Huszti-Orban addressed the different ways in which internet intermediaries de facto regulate online content, either in response to state demands in this respect or by carrying out tasks and functions delegated by the state, and explore related human rights implications of these developments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Business/ForumSession6/SnapshotProgramme.pdf
 
Description Social Media Platforms: The New Gatekeepers of Free Speech? - Geneva Academy Wednesday (Sheldon Leader and Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Sheldon Leader and Krisztina Huszti-Orban participated in a panel discussion organised by the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. The panel addressed the role played by social media platforms in preventing and eliminating hate speech as well as 'terrorist' and 'violent extremist' content with particular focus on the human rights implications of having corporate entities carry out what amounts to quasi-executive and quasi-adjudicative tasks, effectively outsourced to them by governments under the banner of self- or co-regulation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.geneva-academy.ch/event/geneva-academy-wednesdays/detail/67-social-media-platforms-the-n...
 
Description Surveillance and Democracy: Privacy Rights in the Digital Age Symposium, hosted by the Irish Council for Civil Liberties (Pete Fussey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Pete Fussey was given a 10 minute slot from the floor and invited to give a talk in response to the panel themes. This talk consisted of an overview of the Project and articulation of the key research themes, particularly regarding the limitations on the concept of privacy as a means of conveying the broader harms of surveillance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.iccl.ie/articles/surveillance--democracy-privacy-rights-in-the-digital-age-symposium-.htm...
 
Description Talk Big Data Seminar Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The HRBDT Project, together with the Administrative Data Research Network and the Business and Local Government Data Research Centre, hosted a series of public seminars during the 2016 Autumn term, titled the 'Talk Big Data' series. These events aimed to engage the general public and University community in interesting and challenging discussions on topical questions surrounding big data and society. Please find more information about the topics and speakers below, which attracted a range of audience members from across Essex. The series sparked questions and discussions on these issues, raising awareness of opportunities and challenges in the digital age, as well as of the three projects at the regional level.

1. Charities, Humanitarian Action and Big Data: Friend or Foe?

Chair: Geoff Gilbert (Professor of Law, University of Essex)
Speakers: Wendy Betts (Director, eyeWitness to Atrocities); Joanne Mariner (Senior Crisis Response Adviser, Amnesty International); Duncan Ross (Director, DataKind UK)

2. Big Data in Business: Help or Hindrance?

Chair: Neal Kellard (Professor of Finance, University of Essex)
Speakers: Jasmine Birtles (Founder, Moneymagpie); Ian Hutchinson (Lead Software Developer, Projects By If); Helen Simpson (Professor of Economics, University of Bristol)

3. Changing Lives Through Data Research

Chair: Katherine McNeill (Director, UK Data Archive)
Speakers: Patrick Guthrie (Head of Public Service Reform, Essex County Council); Mounia Lalmas (Director of Research, Yahoo! London); Stephen Simpkin (Senior Analyst - Organisational Intelligence, Essex County Council); Sharon Witherspoon (Deputy Chair, ADRN and Acting Head of Policy, Academy of Social Sciences)

4. Big Data, Big Brother?

Chair: Daragh Murray (Professor of Law, University of Essex)
Speakers: Gus Hosein (Director, Privacy International); Nathan Lea (Senior Research Associate, Institute for Health Informatics); Andrew Stott (Former Director for Transparency and Digital Engagement for the UK government)

5. Big Data and Society: Is it a Game Changer?

Chair: Lynn Wyeth (Head of Information Governance and Risk, Leicester City Council)
Speakers: Heather Laurie (Pro Vice Chancellor of Research, University of Essex); John Pullinger (UK National Statistician); Lord David Willetts (Former UK Minister for Universities and Science)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.essex.ac.uk/events/big-data/
 
Description The 10th Enquire Conference: Identity, Belonging and Activism in the 21st Century (Vivian Ng) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The 10th Enquire Conference: Identity, Belonging and Activism in the 21st Century, organised by the University of Nottingham School of Sociology and Social Policy, was held on 24 February 2018. Vivian Ng's paper was accepted for a session on Identity, Belonging, and Activism, with fellow presenters from the University of Birmingham and the University of Leicester. The presentation focused on one element of her paper on identity in the digital age, addressing particularly how organisation and mobilisation has changed as a result of the digital age, and how that bears on the capacity of individuals and groups to exercise their rights to freedom of opinion and expression, assembly, and association, and how that contributes or impedes the development of identity. The presentation received positive feedback and questions from participants provided new perspectives of sociological theories that support the premises of the paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://blogs.nottingham.ac.uk/enquire/2017/12/20/10th-enquire-conference-identity-belonging-activism...
 
Description The Data Visibility of Police - Canadian Sociological Association Conference (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Ajay Sandhu participated in a roundtable discussing the development of big data technology and its influence on social institutions and presented research on the data visibility of police.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Irish Times - Technology has not delivered on human rights, re:publica conference hears (Daragh Murray) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Irish Times reported on the re:publica 2016 conference in Dublin. The article 'Technology has not delivered on human rights, re:publica conference hears' cited Daragh Murray's comments at the re:publica panel on 'Privacy and Data Protection in the Digital Age'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.irishtimes.com/business/technology/technology-has-not-delivered-on-human-rights-re-public...
 
Description The Role of Businesses in Content Regulation on the Internet and the Resulting Impact on Freedom of Expression and Democratic Participation at Bytes, Bodies and Souls: Interrogating Human Digitalisation Conference, University of Kent (Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 30 May 2017, Krisztina Huszti-Orban was invited to present on 'The Role of Businesses in Content Regulation on the Internet and the Resulting Impact on Freedom of Expression and Democratic Participation' at 'Bytes, Bodies and Souls: Interrogating Human Digitalisation' Conference, organised the University of Kent Law School in conjunction with the Eastern Academic Research Consortium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Role of Consent in the Collection, Retention, Processing and Sharing of Data by Business Enterprises - MyData 2017 (Krisztina Huszti-Orban) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Krisztina Huszti-Orban was selected to present her research on 'The Role of Consent in the Collection, Retention, Processing and Sharing of Data by Business Enterprises' at the MyData 2017 conference organised in Tallinn and Helsinki. Krisztina has been approached by participants inquiring about the Project's work on consent and potential modalities of cooperation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://mydata2017.org/session/regulating-data/
 
Description United Nations Research Institute for Social Developments New Technology and Human Rights Project Development Workshop (Catherine Kent, Sheldon Leader and Sabrina Rau) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This project development workshop served as a brainstorming session exploring the intersections between new technology and human rights across a range of dimensions relevant to inclusive, sustainable development. The event's aims were to identify and discuss key questions and areas of research on the issues of human rights and new technology. Participants from academia, civil society and international organisations discussed how to incorporate a human rights-based approach to the challenges and opportunities of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and started to develop a collaborative research proposal to further explore these issues. This thematic approach, intentionally broad, covers a range of different questions related to privacy, employment, social security, health care, migration, gender, inequality and social dimensions of sustainable development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BD6AB/(httpEvents)/F77F39E2685939F4C125823500578710?OpenDocument
 
Description Using Technology to Facilitate Human Rights Work (Author: Sam Dubberley) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This is a blog post discussing the possibilities of using digital tools to advance human rights and improve humanitarian work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2016/12/07/using-technology-to-facilitate-human-rights-work/
 
Description Vicarious Trauma of the Private Counter-Terror Workforce: Extending the Duty of Care (Vivian Ng) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This blog post focused on interrogation of the duty of care owed to the so-called private counter-terror workforce, as a response to increasing investment by social media companies in expanding teams of content moderators to review content on social media platforms. It addressed the human rights obligations engaged by the evolving role and responsibility of technology companies broadly. By drawing parallels to the issue of vicarious trauma experienced by staff in human rights and humanitarian organisations, the post suggests that content moderators working for private companies experience comparable vicarious trauma from reviewing distressing material on social media platforms. The post argues that this increasingly demands duty of care responsibility and rights due diligence by their employers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://hrcessex.wordpress.com/2017/08/04/vicarious-trauma-of-the-private-counter-terror-workforce-e...
 
Description Why Refusing to Give Up Passwords is Illegal under UK Terror Law By Chris Baraniuk of the New Scientist website (Ajay Sandhu) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview contribution to New Scientist article brief discussion of judicial oversight of the police's Schedule 7 powers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/2148644-why-refusing-to-give-up-passwords-is-illegal-under-uk-t...
 
Description Workshop at the University of Haifa, focused on exploring the possibilities of implementing the doctrine of fair use within the field of online copyright enforcement, through the adequate development and use of algorithms (Krzysztof Garstka) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact On 9 July 2017, Krzysztof Garstka participated in a pioneering workshop at the University of Haifa, focused on exploring the possibilities of implementing the doctrine of fair use within the field of online copyright enforcement, through the adequate development and use of algorithms. The international, multidisciplinary group of participants included scholars from Israel, USA and the UK, as well as representatives of Google.

Krzysztof delivered a presentation on the issue of accountability in algorithmic copyright enforcement, outlining various legal implementation patterns which could be embraced in order to improve accountability in the discussed field.

The workshop was organised by the University of Haifa's Centre for Cyber Law & Policy, Learning in a NetworKed Society (LINKS) initiative, and University of California Los Angeles' Program on Understanding Law, Science, & Evidence (PULSE).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.cipil.law.cam.ac.uk/press/news/2017/08/krzysztof-garstka-speaks-fair-use-design-expert-w...
 
Description World Bank, UNICEF and Preliminary Findings of Brazil Case Study (Sonia Bhalotra) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Sonia Bhalotra presented preliminary findings from the Brazil case study to policymakers in UNICEF and the World Bank. These stakeholders, in addition to the Latin American Development Bank and the Brookings Institution Delhi, have shown interest in how the research on Brazil can influence policy choice in other countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016