AFLA - Assessment for Learning in Africa: Improving Pedagogy and Assessment for Numeracy in Foundation Years.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Education

Abstract

The low level of numeracy skills of millions of poor and marginalised students, particularly in developing nations, is of international concern. This project focuses on improving these through developing teachers' and teacher trainers' pedagogical and assessment skills in extremely deprived urban areas in South Africa and Tanzania. Eighteen schools and three training colleges will be involved.
Our approach is to develop classroom materials for primary school numeracy and use these as the basis for workshops and for the development of teacher learning communities in each area. The workshops will focus on how formative assessment ('Assessment for Learning') can be used to enhance the quality of the teaching and learning of numeracy. The aim is to improve teachers' own numeracy skills and their understanding of how numeracy can be more effectively communicated to their students. The workshops and teacher learning communities will draw on the extensive experience which has been generated by the implementation of Assessment for Learning internationally. One task for participants will be to adapt this experience to the limited resources of schools in slum areas (for example, large classes and few materials).
The project team includes researchers with extensive experience of implementing formative assessment internationally, numeracy specialists and academics based in the two countries who are familiar with local conditions. The work will take place over three years beginning in April 2016 and has four phases. The first is a preparatory phase in which participants are confirmed and briefed and materials are developed. Baseline testing is conducted. The second phase (January to March 2017) sees the implementation of the workshops in both countries, the establishment of teacher learning communities along with visits to schools by mentors. These continue in the third phase (April - December 2017) along with the analysis of the workshops and a second round of tests. The final phase (January 2018 - March 2019) incorporates interviews, visits and the production and dissemination of findings.
To monitor the impact of the project, the team will develop a variety of instruments. These include classroom observation schedules which monitor the fidelity of the implementation, contextually relevant SES measures, and numeracy tests for use in the classrooms. The tests will provide pre- and post- implementation data, matched to control schools, which will allow evaluation of the impact of the project on numeracy outcomes. The data will also be used to benchmark standards against other tests. Further analyses relating outcomes to demographic data will be conducted.
The wider impact of the project will be in providing new knowledge and expertise in an under-researched area: how to support the pedagogy and assessment of teachers working in challenging areas with limited resources. This includes producing material which can sustain implementation locally. A book for practitioners and teacher educators will be written for practitioners and teacher educators. Other outputs will include podcasts of best practices in classrooms and writing for a range of media outlets as well as interviews and other media appearances.
We know a good deal about the teaching of numeracy and productive Assessment for Learning. However this has been largely based on well resourced education systems. This project deliberately involves itself in far more challenging circumstances in order to develop ways of contributing to teaching and learning in the more marginal and disadvantaged circumstances in which millions of students find themselves.

Planned Impact

AfL and assessment literacy are central to successful pedagogy. Therefore AFLA has important implications for a wide audience in SA, TZ and developing countries more generally. Our impact strategy has been influenced by Tikly & Barrett's (2011) values-based approach to educational quality, Sebba's (2006, 2007) work on policy impact and Black & Wiliam's AfL impact plan (2003, 2005).
IMPACT UPON LEARNERS
Rarely are the children involved in research properly recognised as a stakeholder group (Elwood & Baird, 2013), but we see them as important beneficiaries of this research. AFLA will have impact upon numeracy outcomes for the children involved in the project. AFLA is designed to be scalable beyond the project and therefore has the capacity to have a broader impact. Learner participation and feedback are recognised as features of good teaching in Sub-Saharan Africa (Tickly & Barrett, 2011).
IMPACT UPON PRACTITIONERS IN SCHOOLS
Traditional, didactic teaching is particularly difficult to change in Sub-Saharan Africa. AFLA is designed to address methodology for helping teachers to shift from traditional pedagogic styles to learner-focused approaches. As such, it will impact upon practitioners within the study and provide an evidence-based, contextualised approach for practitioners beyond the project. AFLA will also impact upon teacher capacity in assessment literacy, building communities of practice and subject knowledge.
IMPACT UPON PRACTITIONERS IN TEACHER COLLEGES
How teacher educators can build capacity in assessment and related pedagogy is little discussed in the literature, but AFLA builds upon Kanjee's 'AfL district capacity development programme'on this topic in SA. Content of educational programmes, associated materials and theoretical insights regarding how professional communities are established in this area will be of interest to those running teacher education programmes in a wide range of settings, particularly in developing countries.
IMPACT ON TEACHER ORGANISATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA AND TANZANIA
Professional development of teachers and its impact upon learners are topics of central concern to teacher associations, including teacher unions in both research settings. As such, AFLA will engage with teacher associations to ensure that they are consulted and informed about the project and its findings. Engagement with professional organisations is key to sustainable impact upon practice and upon policy (Sebba, 2007).
IMPACT UPON POLICY AT DISTRICT LEVEL
Changing teaching and assessment practices within schools is problematical if those changes do not articulate with the wider structures within which the school operates. As such, it is important that AFLA has an impact upon policy not only at national level, but local to the schools. District officials are therefore a beneficiary of the project and how they can support the capacity development aspects of AFLA will be a crucial aspect of the impact of the project more widely.
IMPACT UPON POLICY AT NATIONAL LEVEL
Governments in a wide range of countries have engaged with AfL (Australia, Chile, England, Estonia, Holland, Hong Kong, Ireland, Italy, Macedonia, Peru, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Sweden) and it is a legal requirement in Norway. However, few documented research programmes have successfully influenced national policy on AfL in developing countries. This project team is experienced in working with policy-makers in these contexts and in the course of their work will engage them with AFLA. Exam boards policies affect learning and teaching. We also intend to influence policy through examination bodies. Ndalichako was the previous CEO of the exam board in TZ (NECTA) and Kanjee has worked extensively with the exam boards in SA. National assessments can be counterproductive for AfL practices and we will seek to work with exam boards to gain a better understanding of the ways in which national systems could better complement AfL practices and vice versa.
 
Description AFLA has collected a huge amount of qualitative data, which will need further analysis, and the first preliminary results should therefore be interpreted with caution.
One of the most striking results so far, though, is that on all three research sites teachers have overall reported a better relationship to their students.

Another lessons learned, is to adjust the Assessment for Learning strategies to the specific context. Most of previous research has been in more developed contexts, the AFLA research has lessons to be learned from working with teachers who faces up to 150 students in the classroom and still are able to use some of the strategies previously been done in classroom of 30 students at the most. Successful use of AfL strategies have been reported when they have been adjusted to the local context and adapted to the special needs found in the classrooms.
Exploitation Route We have agreed to make the finding available in policy briefs and also continue to publish available resources for teachers, practitioners, policy makers and others on our online platforms. In Tanzania, the teachers have formed a WhatsApp group where they also share knowledge in Kisahwhili. This works better than the Facebook website we made, as FB has been less popular than we thought it would be.
The WhatsApp group has allowed teachers to share information in their own language, and it has turned out to be more useful. It will be considered for future plans on how to make sustainable networks among teachers and research group.
Sectors Education

 
Title AFLA District Officials Individual Interview guide Cape Town 
Description The semi-structured interview guide was developed to collect data on how District Officials has supported and experienced the AFLA project, and to understand challenges with implementation, as well as lessons learned for future work. They were asked for advice on how to secure sustainability of the work and what to do next. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Title AFLA Focus group interviews Subject Advisors Cape Town 
Description The AFLA team created this semi-structured interview guide to collect data from subject expert advisors who worked with participating teachers. The interview guide has open questions which allows the researcher to add follow up questions. It is thematically focused allowing for analysis based upon themes such as assessment for learning/ formative assessment, teaching strategies and advice for the future. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Title AFLA Learner Focus Group Interview Cape Town 
Description The AFLA team has developed a Learner Focus Group interview to interview the students in Cape Town. The interview guide is semi structured with open questions allowing the researcher to prompt and follow up with clarifications and questions. The students were interviewed in groups, due to their young age. The language is simple, but builds upon theory from assessment for learning, with the aim to understand whether students have experienced teaching practices involving group work, peer assessment and learning goals. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. Analysis and results still to be written up. 
 
Title AFLA Lesson Observation Schedule Dar Es Salaam 
Description The team developed a paper and pencil based classroom lesson observation schedule, to fit the context of schools in Dar Es Salaam. It covers teaching strategies used, which observer will tick off it is in use. It is developed based upon previous work on Assessment for Learning, basically in western classrooms, and adapted to the local context. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We share the classroom observation tool in a network of classwork researchers, who attended the EARLI conference in August 2018. It was demonstrated by PI Hopfenbeck who organised a workshop together with Prof and Advisor for AFLA, Prof Nancy Perry. 
 
Title AFLA Teacher Focus Group Interview Cape Town 
Description The AFLA Team developed a semi-structured interview guide to collect data on teachers' experience of participating in the AFLA project. The interview guide is thematically structured to capture knowledge of teaching strategies, teachers' experience of the workshops, their relationship to headteachers, district leaders and subject advisors as well as their relationship to the learners in the classroom. They were also asked about their expectations to AFLA and advice for the future. Interview guides were translated from Afrikaans to English, many interviews conducted in Afrikaans by research assistants. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report, but preliminary analysis suggests that teachers have reported better relationship with learners after using Assessment for Learning strategies in their teaching. Further analysis will focus upon these findings. 
 
Title Assessment for Learning in Africa (AFLA) Teacher's Interview Guide Dar Es Salaam 
Description The Interview Guide was developed by the AFLA team to collect data from the 12 Mathematis teachers in the six participating schools in the AFLA project in Tanzania. It is a semi-structured interview guide, to allow for follow up questions and clarifications and to make sure teachers could speak freely.The aim of the interview guide is to collect data on the individual teacher's understanding of Assessment for Learning (AfL), their perspective on their role as a teacher in the AfL context, their motivation and strategies used during the project, challenges and success stories. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to give full report, but preliminary findings which we are currently writing up, suggest more than half of the teachers has changed their practice with respect to their teacher and student relationship. They claim to address students' needs more when they are teaching Mathematics, and the teachers would like to understand the individual child better. We have captured examples where teachers clearly understand better what is going on with the individual child, and has changed behaviour/teaching strategies accordingly. The results are mixed, as some of the participating teachers appreciated the workshops, but did not report to change their teacher role. 
 
Title Assessment for Learning in Africa Lesson Observation Schedule Endline Dar Es Salaam 
Description AFLA Lesson Observation Schedule Enplane tool was used in the last observations, after the teachers had attended the workshops and implemented assessment for learning strategies. Observations were compared to the first observations, to document any changes. The Observation tool is therefore similar to the original one used. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have still to finalise the analysis and will not report anything at the moment. We expect to have our analysis by December 2019 
 
Title Assessment for Learning in Africa School Profile Form Dar Es Salaam 
Description The team developed a School Profile form to better understand the profile of each participating school. It made it easier to categorise the different schools, and understand more of the challenges they were facing. The School Profile form asks for information about school infrastructure such as walls around schools, classrooms, space, desk and chair pr child, staffroom, offices, library, computer rooms, playground for children, power supply, access to water, medication and toilets. Further information with respect to Head Teahers and teachers academic background, qualification and experience. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have not yet finalise the analysis. 
 
Title Assessment for Learning in Africa Teacher Profile Dar Es Salaam 
Description AFLA Teacher Profile was document to collect information about the participating Mathematics teachers in the AFLA project. They were asked background information such as age and gender, name of schools currently employed, highest academic qualification, years of teaching experience, and years of teaching mathematics, as well as questions on why they decided to join the teaching profession, what they like about teaching, and what they find most challenging about teaching. They were also asked about their teaching schedule and how many students they were teaching. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Title Head Teachers Individual Interview Guide Cape Town 
Description The Head Teacher Individual Interview Guide was developed by the AFLA team to collect data from Head Teachers' experience with the AFLA project. They were interviewed individually about their experience with teachers from their school, the workshops, challenges and lessons learned on how to implement the new ways of teaching. The Interview guide allowed for further explanations and clarifications, and was designed to be able to compare response to those given by teachers. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Title Headteacher Interview guide Dar Es Salaam 
Description The interview guide was developed to collect data from the 6 participating head teachers in Dar Es Salaam. It is a semi structured interview guide which allows the researcher to ask clarifying questions as well as follow up questions. It also allow the head teachers to speak freely about their understanding. Questions were framed to capture headteachers understanding of Assessment for Learning (AfL) pedagogy, how they have participated and supported their teachers, their understanding of policy and support for AfL in Tanzania, as well as challenges with implementation and success histories of AfL in their schools. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Title Student Interview guide Dar Es Salaam 
Description The interview guide was developed to interview four students in each of the six schools in the AFLA project, but on a one-to-one basis. The language of the interview guide and interview was Swahili. The interview was developed to capture students understanding of how they learn Mathematics, through talking about how they work on Mathematics in the lessons, what the teachers do, how they know that they know something in Mathematics, what they find challenging, and what the teacher do to help them. They were also asked whether they knew about the AFLA project, and asked how they would have explained the project to a friend in their own words. They were also asked whether they thought anything should have been done differently in the AFLA project. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Title Classroom Observation protocol for Tanzania 
Description Lesson observation was a significant component of the research and data collection work in AFLA. In the six case study schools in Dar es Salaam a total of 48 lessons were observed. Observation data was recorded on observation schedule, artefacts from classroom were collected, some photos were also taken (with due consent) and in the subsequent lessons audio recorder was used with collar microphone for the teacher and a selected group of students. Researchers also wrote a one-page reflections on their observations. The observation schedule used was specifically designed so that it was aligned with the purpose of AFLA. For example, the section on Learning and Assessment for Learning incorporated principles of 'assessment for learning' drawn from literature. The observation schedule also included within it elements of good practice in mathematics education because research was grade-4 mathematics classrooms. For example, the item on mathematical example was included because in mathematics education literature it is noted that the level of challenge for the pupils could be different depending on the mathematical examples used by the teacher in the course of teaching. Different 'example spaces' provide different learning opportunities. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report 
 
Title Numeracy test for Primary students 
Description The team in Tanzania and Oxford worked together to develop a numeracy test which would be fit for purpose. Test items from ILSA studies and items developed from the TZ team were piloted and tested spring 2017. It turned out that most of the items were too challenging, and the items on the test were therefore adjusted based upon a Rasch analysis of the test and checking of the wording of the items. May 2017, we collected data through a Midline test, and in December 2017, we further collected data through an Endline test.The data will be linked with data we have collected from a SES survey.The team are now working on the analysis of the tests and SES survey. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Title Observation instrument for classrooms in South Africa 
Description The Classroom Observation instrument developed for the AFLA project in South Africa, was derived from AfL project where it was piloted and tested. It was adjusted for the AFLA project by the AFLA team. It is a tool based on obtaining evidence of teachers use of AfL strategies and techniques as proposed by Wiliam and Thompson (2007) during the lesson. Teaches were introduced to the tool in advance of workshops and observations, and it was agreed what would be observed in the classroom. Feedback was provided to teachers after lesson observation using AfL feedback techniques. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We are still finalising the analysis and writing up of the observations. 
 
Title Socioeconomic Survey for primary students living in challenging contexts 
Description In 2017, the Oxford team worked together with the team in SA and TZ to develop a survey which could be used for the students in the AFLA project. We have ended up with two different surveys, one targeting the research contexts in SA and one for the research context in TZ. The survey will be linked to participating students achievement outcomes in Mathematics. A review of previous research on SES in Africa informed the development of the items, as well as previous surveys. All items were reviewed by the local teams to make sure that the items would be fit for purpose. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to report. 
 
Description Network for classroom research on self-regulation 
Organisation University of British Columbia
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Nancy Perry, University of British Columbia and Professor Therese N. Hopfenbeck have established a network of researchers interested in classroom based research on self-regulation. It has been very useful, as Nancy Perry has been advisor for AFLA, and it opens up for including AFLA researchers from Africa in the network with future possibilities for networking and capacity building. Perry and Hopfenbeck were responsible for a Work Shop in Zurich in August 2018, where AFLA was also presented. The paper was co-authored with Anjum Halai, Josh McGrane and Veronica Sarungi.
Collaborator Contribution Prof Nancy Perry has continued to support AFLA also after the official AFLA project has ended. She is now supporting in data analysis, more particularly on the classroom observations and dissemination of key-issues.
Impact Conference presentation in Zurich, August 2019 and establishing of network. New proposal for funding to continue the network to be submitted by October 2019.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Supporting Self-regulation in Schools Initiative - Network with international partners 
Organisation University of British Columbia
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am principle Investigator on a Connection Grant together with Professor Nancy Perry and Associate Professor Josh McGrane. The connection grant seeks to '"knowledge mobilization activities-such as networking, disseminating, exchanging and co-creating research-based knowledge-as an important element of publicly engaged scholarship, and as a means of strengthening research agendas". Perry, McGrane and I collaborated on the proposal and has beeb awarded $71,769 (CAD) from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) Connection Grant (2020- 2021). The award will cover travels, accommodation and two workshops where participating collaborators from 7 different countries will exchange knowledge on how to work with teachers in schools to improve students self-regulation. Anjum Halai and Veronica Sarungi from the AFLA project are partners in the new project. The first workshop will (depending upon the Corona outbreak) take place in late April 2020 in Vancouver, British Columbia, on April 23 and 24, 2020. Our goal is to bring researchers together with professionals to focus on enhancing support for self-regulation in schools. We have identified a small number of research groups, internationally, whose scholarship, we believe, can inform and improve policy and practice in this area. Hopfenbeck will particularly be responsible for a session on how to interact with policy makers, based upon previous experiences.
Collaborator Contribution Nancy Perry has beed leading the process and connected us with experts in Canada on how to work with teachers. Through her international network, we have also been able to draw upon other researchers capacity and we will continue to do so in the year to come. We have particularly also invited younger researchers, such as Veronica Sarungi, to support researchers in TZ also after the AFLA project has officially ended.
Impact We have just been awarded the new grant and will launch the project in April 2020.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Invited Seminar at the School of Education, Bristol University UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Halai, A. (Oct 2, 2019). Teachers' perspectives and practice of assessment for learning in
Tanzania: challenges of a development context. Invited Seminar at the School of Education, Bristol University UK

Anjum Halai shared experiences from the AFLA project with researchers and students at a seminar in Bristol with focus upon working in challenging contexts.
The presentation sparked further interests on how to better implement assessment for learning in challenging contests, and work collaboratively with teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited key note: Researcher in AFLA, Joshua McGrane gave the presentation "Psychometric research in challenging educational contexts", for the 2nd International Conference on Educational Measurement Evaluation and Assessment (ICEMEA 2018), Abu Dhabi, UAE. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact More than 300 delegates attended the international assessment conference in Abu Dhabi in October 2018. Associate Professor Joshua McGrane was invited to give a talk about the development of measures used in the AFLA project, and discuss how to better measure achievement in challenging contexts.

Interests was created particularly in relation to involving participants in specific contexts in the development process of new measures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 8 Workshops in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact As a part of the AFLA project, the team in Tanzania, led by Professor Anjum Halai, has held a total of 8 workshops. The first three workshops were held in January 2017. The first workshop focused upon teachers' understanding and learning and hot it takes place, the second workshop had an introduction to mathematic and Assessment for Learning tasks and strategies, the third workshop looked at the 'Target Learners' from 6 schools participating in the project, and the teachers prepared tasks for these students. In addition to teachers, the workshop also included a coordinator of a Teachers' Resource Centre, Head teachers, and Ward Education officers. Workshop four and five took place in April 2017, and focused upon students' well being in the classroom and the difference between rote learning and deeper understanding in mathematics. Workshop 6 took place in June, workshop 7 in July and workshop 8 in August. The final workshops focused upon how to improve the quality of instructions when using Assessment for Learning techniques, and teachers shared their experiences from the classroom.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://oucea.education.ox.ac.uk/research/recent-research-projects/assessment-for-learning-in-africa-...
 
Description AERA 2019, paper presentation, 5 - 9th April Toronto: AfL in Africa: How can formative assessment improve students' mathematics learning in challenging contexts? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is a research conference, we networked with researchers interested in working with children in challenging contexts. The paper presentation is also based upon the first article we aim to submit based upon the observation data from Tanzania.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description AFLA social media out research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We have set up a Facebook for AFLA where we update our teachers in TZ and SA about research activities and outputs in relation to AFLA. We further include information which can be useful for teachers such as links to material, videos, interviews etc. Participating teachers in the project also use the social media to connect to each other. We have further linked teachers and researchers using WhatsApp as it was suggested from teachers in TZ this was what they used. We changed our ideas of writing blogs in AFLA to use Facebook and WhatsApp instead, after attending the first meeting with TZ teachers, where they explained they preferred WhatsApp and Facebook.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL https://www.facebook.com/Assessment-for-Learning-in-Africa-AFLA-582983588568129/
 
Description Assessment for Learning in Africa Paper presentation at international research conference AERA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Principle Investigator Therese N. Hopfenbeck presented a paper Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Toronto, Canada, April 2019, with Anjum Halai, Veronica Sarung, Kristine Gorgen, Jesscia Chan and Joshua McGrane as co-authors. The paper is currently being prepared as the main publication coming out of the research study in TZ, with focus upon the changes teachers have made in their instruction of mathematics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Assessment for Learning in challenging contexts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at Association for Educational Assessment in Europe conference in Arnhem - Nijmegen, The Netherlands
7th-10th November 2018, Hopfenbeck presented key findings from the AFLA study and the observations from schools in Tanzania, on a paper submitted by the AFLA team: Therese N. Hopfenbeck1, Joshua McGrane1, Yusuf Sayed2, 3, Anjum Halai4, Veronica Sarungi5, Anil Kanjee6
1University of Oxford, United Kingdom
2Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
3University of Sussex, United Kingdom
4Aga Khan University, Pakistan
5Aga Khan University, Tanzania
6Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://easyconferences.eu/aea2018/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Programmaboekje_AEA_conferentie_2018_WE...
 
Description Conference Presentation Assessment for Learning in Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PI Therese N Hopfenbeck, and Co-Investigators Anil Kanje and Yusuf Sayed presented AFLA at the UKFIET 2017 conference in Oxford, 5th - 7th September 2017. The purpose was to make the project more known to relevant collaborators, researchers and organisations in the region and to network for future possibilities/ funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://programme.exordo.com/ukfiet2017/
 
Description Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society. San Francisco USA. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Halai, A. Sarungi, V., Hopfenbeck, T. (2019). Teachers' Perspectives and Practice of
Assessment for Learning: Insights from Classrooms in Tanzania. Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society. San Francisco USA.

Sharing findings from the qualitative part on how to support teachers building teacher networks, to enhance the quality of instructions.
Focus upon teacher education and partnership between researchers and teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Facebook website for project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We have developed a Facebook group for AFLA, where we share updates on the project - and information regarding Assessment for Learning. The Facebook can be used by the participants in the project, but also for the broader public that is interested in following the project and learn more about it. It is supposed to be an easy available source of information for participating teachers, where material will be provided and shared online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/Assessment-for-Learning-in-Africa-AFLA-582983588568129/
 
Description Halai, A. Sarungi, V., Hopfenbeck, T. (2018). Assessment for Learning in Africa: Insights from Classrooms in Tanzania. AfricaRegional Congress of ICMI on Mathematics Education. Dar es Salaam Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The AFLA Team presented results from the classroom observations, and discussed the quality instructions of mathematics to more than 100 delegates from 16 countries. The conference was opened by the Minister of Education, Science and Technology of Tanzania, and both practitioners and researchers participated. The aim was to disseminate the results from AFLA, with a focus upon the change in teachers' instruction and how to better secure pupils' understanding of mathematic concepts. The presentation sparked interests and discussions, and practitioners and researchers have reported interest in the project.

A link to the conference is here: https://www.mathunion.org/icmi/news-and-events/2017-12-15/africme-5-2018
Unfortunately, the link to the presentations and abstracts is broken, it can be found in the conference link above.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Information on University website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact After the launch in Cape Town, a news item was published on the Universities website to make academics and students at CPUT and other universities aware of the project. The text was published February 16th 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.cput.ac.za/newsroom/news/article/3288/cput-launches-project-to-improve-learning-in-schoo...
 
Description Interview for Swedish School and Research Magazine 'Skolporten' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was asked to be interviewed for a Norwegian School and Research magazine, they have both print editions and online articles. Primarily, they wanted to make a feature article of PI Therese N Hopfenbeck, as a researcher in Oxford, but I was able to use the opportunity to talk about the AFLA project and the importance of working on Assessment for Learning strategies in challenging contexts around the world. The interview used a photo from our latest work meeting in Dar Es Salaam, showing the team members working on data analysis from classrooms in TZ.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Josh McGrane was invited to give a keynote at the 2nd International Conference on Educational Measurement, Evaluation and Assessment [ICEMEA 2018] 2nd International Conference on Educational Measurement, Evaluation and Assessment [ICEMEA 2018]- presentation can be found here: http://www.ecae.ac.ae/icemea/presentations/7Psychometric_Research_in_Challenging_Educational_Contexts_McGrane.pdf 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited key-note, presented by AFLA member Associate Professor Joshua McGrane, to an international audience. The presentation sparked interest for the development of context specific measurements. The main outcome has been networking with relevant stakeholders for future collaboration, and contacts for future plans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ecae.ac.ae/icemea/speakers.html
 
Description Launch Cape Peninsula University, Mowbray Campus for the AFLA project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The aim of the launch was to engage with researchers, academics and students at Cape Peninsula University and present the AFLA project.
PI Hopfenbeck gave an overview of the project, Co-I Sayed presented the work in Cape Town. Dr Brian Wilson, Head of Curriculum Co-ordination in the Cape Winelands Education District, gave a presentation where he focused on the need to progress from 'assessment of learning' to 'assessment for learning' to ultimately 'assessment as learning'. He spoke of the importance of the AFLA project for the region. Prof Stobart presented some key concepts in Assessment for Learning. Co-I Sayed then led a discussion, after the presentations had sparked many questions and comments. The audience, mostly academics, shared their expertise and gave advice on how to successfully work on the project. All presenters were interviewed about the project for the Universities website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.cput.ac.za/newsroom/news/article/3288/cput-launches-project-to-improve-learning-in-schoo...
 
Description Launch Tshwane University of Technology for academics, researchers and Ministry 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 60 participants attended the launch of AFLA in Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria West, February 6th 2017. The launch was for academics, researchers and members of the Ministry, with the aim to engage with the wider research community in SA about the AFLA project. PI Hopfenbeck, Co-I Kanjee, and Prof Stobart all had presentation about the AFLA project, and Kanjee led an hour question and answer session. The session led to further interest, and researchers outside the AFLA study have been in contact to share their expertise, and be involved in the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Launch of AFLA in Dar Es Salaam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact AFLA was launched in Aga Khan University in Dar Es Salaam 24th of January 2017. Teachers and school leaders from the participating schools, district leaders, policy makers, mentors and researchers in the project, teacher educators and representatives from the Ministry, were invited. The audience was addressed by Professor Sylvia Temu, from the Higher Education, she spoke on behalf of Minister of Education, Science, Technology and Vocational Training, Professor Joyce Ndalichako. On behalf of Co-I Anjum Halai, Veronica Sarungi introduced the AFLA project in Tanzania. PI Hopfenbeck gave an overview of previous implementation of Assessment for Learning in an international perspective. The presentation sparked many questions. The participants continued the discussions in smaller groups, before the group leaders summarised and gave feedback to the research team what they had discussed. The launch was covered by the local TV and news papers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Institute-launches-learning-project/1840340-3786180-format-xhtml-15...
 
Description Leading a work shop on how to use develop and use classroom observation tools at an international conference: Honing Protocols and Practices for Studying Self-Regulation in Classroom 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Hopfenbeck was invited to lead a workshop together with AFLA advisory board member Professor Nancy Perry at the EARLI SIG 16 Conference in Zurich, August 2018, to share knowledge on how collecting high quality classroom data (in this case, observations) when researchers do not understand the language of instruction and how teachers and researchers have collaborated on interpreting observed lessons in Tanzania.
The workshop sparked a lot of interest in the research community and a network of researchers have been establish to tackle the questions on how to improve research in challenging contexts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.earli-sig16.uzh.ch/en/programme/post-conference-workshops.html
 
Description News paper article on AFLA in Dar Es Salaam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact After the launch of AFLA in Tanzania, there were two newspapers which published on the AFLA project. In the following news paper, Mwanachi, the title was: Aga Khan, Oxford Kupima Maendeleo shall za msingi - and it was on the front page. It also included pictures of participating teachers, and one of the research members from TZ.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.swahilihub.com/habari/HABARI-ZA-KIMATAIFA/Aga-Khan--Oxford-kupima-maendeleo-ya-elimu-ya-m...
 
Description Newspaper article on the launch of AFLA in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A newspaper article in The Citizen, on the launch, with the title: 'Institute launches learning project'. It included pictures of participating teachers and members of the research team in Tanzania.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Institute-launches-learning-project/1840340-3786180-dp638m/index.ht...
 
Description Official Website for the AFLA project, University of Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The website on University of Oxford is designed to engage with different stakeholders such as teachers, academics, researchers, the public, different organisations and policy makers. Under the tab AFLA Updates we publish milestone activities such as presentations, workshops, launches, data collections, and seminar and meetings. We have also a tab for AFLA publications, were we keep a record of all written material (AFLA flyers for Tanzania in English and Kiswahili) and dissemination in the media (radio interviews, podcasts, website, social media such as Facebok and twitter). The website includes information on the research team in Tanzania, South Africa and England, and the AFLA Advisory board.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://oucea.education.ox.ac.uk/research/recent-research-projects/assessment-for-learning-in-africa-...
 
Description Ramollo, J, & Kanjee A. (2918, Oct). Enhancing pedagogies of engagement in Quintile 1 mathematics classrooms: Findings from the Assessment for Learning in Africa Project. Paper presented at the annual South African Education Research Association Conference. Tshwane. 22-24 October 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The AFLA team in SA, led by Co-P Anil Kanjee disseminated results from AFLA to discuss findings with researchers and practitioners. It has sparked further interests and policy makers would like AFLA to continue and scale up to more schools. 18 counties was represented, and members from the teacher unions expressed interest in work and requested meetings to share findings
Also other University staff expressed interest, and plans have been made to attend and share findings at future events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description SAERA panel discussion Supporting teachers to enhance pedagogy and Assessment for Learning (AfL): Problems and Prospects 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on AFLA: Supporting teachers to enhance pedagogy and Assessment for Learning (AfL): Problems and Prospects
Venue: Southern Sun Elangeni Maharani, Durban
Date: 23 October, 2019

Co-Investigators of AFLA, Profs Y Sayed and N Kanjee presented AFLA for an audience to discuss lessons learned from the project and future possibilities. It is part of the AFLA strategy to continue working for sustainable changes in the instruction and teaching linked to assessment in SA, with particular focus upon how to built teacher professionalism.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Tshwane West District Launch of Assessment for Learning in Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 24 teachers and 6 school leaders from the participating schools in the AFLA project attended the launch, as well as official district leaders. The PI Hopfenbeck presented the overall aim and goal of the project, and Co-I Kanjee presented the local projects, aims and purpose. In addition, Kanjee led a panel discussion where head teachers, researchers and teachers shared their views on the project. The presentation and panel discussions sparked questions and dialogues with the audience. Participants have reported back that they are interested in the project, and particularly the assessment part.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Voice of the Cape (VOC) radio interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Co-Investigator Prof Yusuf Sayed and Dr. Osman Sadeck participated in a radio program, The Education Indaba program, on Voice of the Cape (VOC) radio, and were interviewed about the AFLA project. The audience were the general public in Western Cape and listeners streaming from other locations. The Education Indaba program attracts listeners interested in Education. Many of them are themselves educationist. The purpose was to advocate AfL and to create an awareness of the relative importance of assessment in the teaching and learning process. The radio interview took place Sunday 12th of February and listeners were allowed to call in and ask questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.iono.fm/e/391243
 
Description Work shop for researchers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Therese N Hopfenbeck and Professor Nancy Perry who is one of our advisors on the AFLA project, convened a work shop at the EARLI sig conference August 30th in Zurich:
Honing Protocols and Practices for Studying Self-Regulation in Classrooms, Work shop organised by Nancy Perry and Therese N. Hopfenbeck, invited. EARLI sig conference in. Zurich, 30th August, 2018.
The goal was to share experiences from working with teachers in classrooms and how to use research tools which better capture instructions in the classroom.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop for primary school teachers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Applying AfL to Systemic results: towards the use of assessment results to improve teaching and learning (Dr O Sadeck, Mr T Nakidien)
Venue: Amstelhof Primary School, Paarl
Date: 10 July, 2019
(8 Foundation phase teachers)

Interactions and dialogues to increase the understanding of the relation between assessment and learning. The purpose is to enhance the sustainability of lessons learned from the AFLA project, after the project is officially over in June 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Workshop for teachers in Cape Town - 6 more since last reporting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The aim of the workshops is to support teachers in their development of Assessment for Learning techniques to be used in the classroom. Teachers are also offered support between the workshops, by a team in Cape Town. Teachers are supposed to try out different ways of teaching to enhance students' understanding of mathematics. In addition to teachers, subject advisors have attended the workshops. Post -workshop feedback sessions have taken place where participants have discussed whether they feel that the workshops' objectives have been achieved. Workshops were held at 22 April; 13 May; 10 June; 29 July; 26 August; 16 September 2017 in Cape Town.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop for teachers in Cape Town Saturday 11th of February 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research team from Cape Peninsula University of Technology and Tshwane University of Technology collaborated on the first workshop for teachers and district leaders in Cape Town, with the aim to work on how to use assessment for learning in the classroom to enhance students numeracy skills. PI Hopfenbeck and Co-I Sayed opened the workshop and stressed the importance of the project. Co-I Kanjee led the workshop with different activities over 6 hours and the whole research team observed and supported the event. The workshop was also video recorded. The teachers engaged in discussions as the workshop involves activities, group discussions, peer discussions, time to read and write for personal reflections. The teachers and district leaders shared their experience, views on assessment and learning and gave examples from their teaching. The research team had developed a booklet containing materials for the workshop and also for use in the classroom after the workshop. Teachers were supported with video clips and links to relevant theory and presentations online. The teachers reported that sharing of ideas were of importance. The research team also had feedback from district leaders on what they saw as the most challenging factors in the project, and the PI received information about relevant reports to read for the project, from researchers attending the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop for teachers in Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Researcher Veronica Sarungi and a team of mentors led a work shop in TZ with participating teachers from the 6 AFLA schools, 27th of January 2017. The workshop was the first of 8 work shops, and teachers were introduced to key concepts of Assessment for Learning and shared their knowledge and experience of teaching mathematic in primary years.
24 pupils, 4 from each participating schools, were invited to the work shop and they were taught by the teachers, one by one, while the rest of the teachers observed and documented the teaching. After these teaching sessions, the mentors and research team led reflective discussions with the participating teachers on how to improve the quality of the mathematic instructions. Three members from the University of Oxford, including PI Hopfenbeck observed the workshop and took part in the discussions with teachers, supported by a translator.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshops in Pretoria 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The research team held workshops for teachers 18 March; 13 May; 20 May; 5 August; 9 September 2017 in Pretoria. All workshops had to be held over the weekends, as teachers cannot leave the school to participate. The team in Pretoria has developed a booklet with Assessment for Learning examples, and the teachers who participated in the workshop, practiced teaching with Assessment for Learning examples in their own classrooms. When coming back to the workshops, teachers discussed and reflected how they had experienced using the different AfL techniques in their own classroom. The intervention program was also adjusted according to feedback from teachers, on what they experienced as feasible.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017