Beyond contagion: Social identity processes in involuntary social influence

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sussex
Department Name: Sch of Psychology

Abstract

How and why do behaviours spread from person to person? In particular, how does aggression and violent behaviour spread? When, as in 2011, riots began in London, why did they then occur in Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool? One of the most common ways of addressing such issues is through the notion of 'contagion'. The core idea is that, particularly in crowds, mere exposure to the behaviour of others leads observers to behave in the same way. 'Contagion' is now used to explain everything from 'basic' responses such as smiling and yawning (where the mere act of witnessing someone yawn or smile can invoke the same response in another) to complex phenomena like the behaviour of financial markets and, of course, rioting. What is more, laboratory experiments on the 'contagion' of simple responses (such as yawning) serve to underpin the plausibility of 'contagion' accounts as applied to complex phenomena (such as rioting).
Despite this widespread acceptance, the 'contagion' account has major problems in explaining the spread of behaviours. In particular, there are boundaries to such spread. If men smile at a sexist joke, will feminists also smile in response to the men's smiles? If people riot in one town, why is it that they also riot in some towns but not others? For example, in 2011, disturbances spread from London to Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool but they did not spread to Sheffield, Leeds or Glasgow.
'Contagion' explanations cannot answer such questions because they assume that transmission is automatic. They do not take account of the social relations between the transmitter and receiver. We propose a new account of behavioural transmission based on the social identity approach in social psychology. This suggests that influence processes are limited by group boundaries and group content: we are more influenced by ingroup members than by outgroup members, and we are more influenced by that which is consonant with rather than contradictory to group norms. The social identity approach is therefore ideally suited to explaining the social limits to influence, both for 'basic' phenomena and rioting.
In order to advance both theoretical understanding and practical interventions, our research will develop a social identity analysis of transmission processes at multiple levels. Accordingly, the aims and objectives of this research project are as follows:
First, we will conduct a series of experimental studies on 'basic' behaviours (yawning, itching) to examine whether the effects of being exposed to a behaviour depend on observers and actors being fellow ingroup members. We will also examine 'complex' behaviours (aggression and rioting) to see if (1) observers are more influenced when the actors are ingroup members; (2) observers are more influenced by the responses of other observers when these are also ingroup members; (3) willingness to copy others depends upon whether their behaviour is consonant with observer group norms. Second, we will examine the spread of urban disorder during the 2011 English riots. We have been granted special access to the full data-set from the Guardian/LSE 'Reading the Riots' study (270 interviews with participants carried out immediately following the events). This, along with other secondary sources (such as detailed crime figures), will allow us to examine the extent to which the spread of these riots was linked to a sense of shared identity with those who had rioted previously (that is, those who rioted 'saw themselves' in those who rioted before them, and those who lacked such a sense were less likely to riot). Third, we will use our findings to generate a wider debate about the nature of psychological transmission and the practicalities of addressing them. Activities will include workshops which will bring together researchers, practitioners (e.g., the police) and policy-makers in local and national government to address how we can mitigate against the spread of riots and violence.

Planned Impact

In addition to academic beneficiaries, there are two types of stakeholder in this project: government and professional organizations concerned with the spread of violence; and the general public
1. Government and professional organizations concerned with the spread of violence
The issue of the spread of violence is of concern to National and Local Government, to a range of general Government agencies (such as the military and the police) and also to a number of specialist organizations such as Glasgow's Violence Reduction Unit. Our work will be of relevance to such organisations in two ways. First, we will be in a position to explain the processes governing the spread of violence within particular events and articulate in clear terms how such factors can best be managed to avoid conflict and 'disorder'. Specifically, where we find that 'contagion' cannot explain the spread of conflict and that conflict is better accounted for through a combination of identity-based influence and relations with those in authority - particularly the police - we will point to the ways in which the actions of those in authority may contribute to the spread of violence and hence how they can avoid being a contributory factor. Second, we will provide for a better understanding of the factors which make it more or less likely that violence will spread between events to particular areas and hence allow for improved preparedness should rioting begin elsewhere. Such understandings will be particularly important for local authorities and policing organisations in determining how to invest increasingly limited funds in order to maintain resilience. Overall, we will contribute to a more reflexive approach to collective violence, which does not pathologise those involved from the outset (an approach which, hitherto, has been dominant - see Reicher & Stott, 2011) but rather examines the meaningful types of interaction between authorities and specific communities and how such dynamics may play important roles in the production and avoidance of conflict. We have unprecedented contacts with groups in all of the above-mentioned categories and strong infrastructures underpinning knowledge exchange with policing organisations. Drury and Reicher are members of government committees dealing with the behaviour of crowds in emergencies; Stott has excellent links with UK and international police agencies, an ESRC national impact award for this work and lectures at police academies across the globe; Reicher lectures regularly to the UK Defence Academy and has worked with the Glasgow Violence Reduction Unit. As detailed in the Pathways to Impact document, we will draw on these links in order to feed our findings into the various agencies to achieve change.
2. General Public
The notion of collective contagion (and hence crowd irrationality and mindlessness) is one of the few areas where ideas from psychology that has impacted public (mis)understanding of important social phenomena. All these assumptions are widely used in media coverage of collective violence in general and were common in the 2011 UK riots in particular (Reicher & Stott, 2011). Our work will help challenge these assumptions. In criticizing contagion as a concept, we will provide a space for less pathologizing alternative discourses to emerge and develop. Our work will therefore contribute towards a more informed discussion of the roots of collective disorder and hence to most effective responses to such disorder: what is the most appropriate balance between responses that prioritise punitive actions towards those who participated and responses that address the underlying causes of participation? A balanced debate clearly depends upon a more balanced understanding of the phenomena themselves. Public discourse will therefore benefit through stimulating and enriched public discussion. In this way, our work is of importance both at the level of individual understanding and of societal well-being.
 
Description 1. We analysed the initial spread of the August 2011 riots in Haringey. Our triangulated analysis of multiple sources of data identified a pattern shifting from collective attacks on police to looting. Analysis of 41 interviews with participants suggests that shared anti-police identity allowed local postcode rivalries to be overcome, forming the basis of empowered action not against the police and to address more long-standing grievances. This analysis is now published in the European Journal of Social Psychology.
2. We carried out a detailed triangulated analysis of the spread of rioting from Tottenham to Enfield. We found that the spread was made possible by empowerment occurring in the Tottenham events. The Enfield events were not, as they first appeared, a simple commodity riot, but in fact were a more complex conflict with the police, in which attacks on property were often strategic. Participants defined themselves in relation to a general 'other' characterized as 'government'/'big business', a characterization reflecting much of the pattern of targets. This analysis has now been submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal.
3. We examined the spread of rioting in 2011 from North to South London, including detailed triangulated analysis of the riots at each of Brixton, Croydon and Clapham. We found evidence for two types of influence. Participants in Brixton often saw events in Tottenham (the first location that rioted) as self-relevant; a shared sense of injustice was the basis of their collective action. By contrast, more of those participating in the Clapham and Croydon riots were empowered by the increasing vulnerability of a common enemy (the police). Local interaction dynamics created expectations of ingroup others' actions, which mediated the link between initial perceptions and collective action. This analysis is about to be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.
4. We completed draft triangulated analysis of the riots in Birmingham and Greater Manchester, and were able to show that the Salford events were a community or anti-police riot, compared to the Manchester events, which took the form of a commodity riot. This analysis will form the basis of our next journal article.
5. We have begun an aggregate analysis of predictors of the spread of riots, and have shown a relationship between factors such as deprivation and police 'stop & search' and rioting in London. This analysis has been included in our Interim Report and in our article in the Guardian newspaper, and will be the basis of a journal article.
6. Using a new experimental paradigm for studying transmission behaviours via online surveys, we have evidence that for those that identify with a target category (e.g. men) shared identity the target predicts greater transmission of (scratching and yawning) behaviours.
7. Using a new paradigm developed by colleagues at UCL (the Hive), we were able to study the effect of shared identification on following behaviour. When we grouped participants into reds or blues, they were more likely to follow a red or blue confederate dot on the screen in a variety of different tasks.
Exploitation Route 1. We have been disseminating our findings through Professor Stott's seminars for police commanders on public order policing, as part of the Keele University Policing Academic Collaboration. Therefore, one of the ways our findings are to be put to use by others is by first engaging with relevant practitioners to discuss the lessons that can be taken from the findings in terms of policing methods. Following our January 2019 event, the national public order lead said the police would be looking to improve procedures and to build better relations with communities.
2. We plan to engage theoretically with some of the mathematical modelling work on the spread of the 2011 riots, and hope to be in a position soon to assist researchers from other disciplines with a theoretical understanding of the spread of riots.
3. We have been working with the organizer of a violence reduction initiative in Mexico on developing first an empirical study for evidence of social identity processes in the transmission of violence among youth and second in the long term an intervention based on these principles. This has found support for the 'pluralistic ignorance' process and can be used in violence reduction planning.
4. We plan to examine, though the laboratory evidence, the role of social identity processes in the transmission of public health related behaviours, and have begun this process by presenting on this at the ICSIH4, Lausanne.
5. We have set up a Twitter account for the project - @BeyondContagion - and a project website: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/beyondcontagion/ .
6. As planned, Dr Neville the St Andrews PDRF went on the ESRC early career media training course.
7. We presented at two major international conferences in 2017 - EASP and ISPP. At the second of these, we successfully submitted a symposium proposal for the whole project team in order to present different aspects of the work as a whole.
8. Our public engagement event (January 2019), hosted by the Guardian newspaper, which was used to launch our interim report, led to an invitation from Shadow Home Secretary Diane Abbott MP for us to present our findings to a meeting in the House of Commons. The event was sold out.
9. Our Guardian article on the role of 'stop and search' in the 2011 riots (31st January 2019) led to an approach from a Haringey councillor who has invited us to participate in a round-table.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/beyondcontagion/projects
 
Description 1. We are engaging with relevant practitioners to discuss the lessons that can be taken from the findings in terms of policing methods. This includes Professor Clifford Stott's regular seminars for police commanders on public order policing, as part of the Keele University Policing Academic Collaboration. In response to our K-PAC policing event (January 2019) and our Interim Report, the National Police Chiefs Council lead for public order Chief Constable BJ Harrington stated "The disorder seen in 2011 was unprecedented in its scale of violence and the way in which events escalated rapidly. A significant police presence was needed to restore order and keep the public safe. We are continuing our work with the College of Policing and others to improve our understanding of, and responses to these incidents. We have already learned a great deal about where policing was successful in 2011, and also where our response could have improved. We recognise there are some within the communities we serve who lack trust in the police and we will continue to make every effort to build their trust." 2. We have been able to disseminate the arguments coming out of the research project through a number of media opportunities (see 'Engagement' under 'Outputs). Our second 'Conversation' article was shared widely in the police: https://twitter.com/WYP_OwenWest/status/934347341947076608 3. We made extensive use of social media to (1) construct and circulate a narrative account of the 2011 riots (2) publicly bring together existing evidence and critiques in relation to emotional transmission (see 'Publications' under 'Outputs'). Each of these were extensively read and re-tweeted. Our social media articles have displayed considerable reach. Our website: Page visits = 2974 (2164 unique) by February 2018. Our blogpost: > 34K views (Feb 2018). Our BBC article:> 431K views (Feb 2018). 4. Our public engagement event (January 2019), hosted by the Guardian newspaper, which was used to launch our interim report, led to an invitation from Shadow Home Secretary Diane Abbott MP for us to present our findings to a meeting in the House of Common. The event was sold out. 6. Our Guardian article on the role of 'stop and search' in the 2011 riots (31st January 2019) led to an approach from a Haringey councillor who has invited us to a round-table on the topic. 7. We organized a public event at the British Library for A level students and demonstrated the links between our research and the A level Psychology syllabi. This event was sold out. Through this event and the accessible report we have distributed, we expect to influence the content of Psychology teaching in schools and colleges (on crowds, social influence, aggression). 8. Through collaboration with colleagues at Warwick University, we created a publicly available web-searching tool for use with Twitter data (which we have made use of with our own analyses).
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description CPD workshop on mass emergencies
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.keele.ac.uk/kpac/newsandevents/events/title,180330,en.php
 
Description Keele Policing Academic Collaboration CPD
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Keele Policing Academic Collaboration Course
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.keele.ac.uk/kpac/newsandevents/events/title,217201,en.php
 
Description Police shared our article
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://twitter.com/WYP_OwenWest/status/934347341947076608
 
Title Twitter harvesting website 
Description A website for search and harvesting of Twitter data, developed by Hamish Lacmane, supervised by Rob Procter, with input from Roger Ball and Fergus Neville. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not known yet. 
URL http://35.178.239.174:8000/
 
Description Bristol Riots of 1831 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Bristol Riots of 1831, and the Newport link. Presentation at the Newport 11th Annual Chartism Convention
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://thechartists.org/13-chartist-convention-2017.html
 
Description British Science Festival (Brighton) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the British Science Festival in Brighton we ran an interactive public engagement exercise, involving talks and experiences of experiments on scratching and smiling, which received excellent independent feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/beyondcontagion/impact/engagement/britishsciencefestival
 
Description British Science Museum residency 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact With colleagues at UCL, we were awarded a prestigious residency at the Science Museum, London, in which we ran an experiment using a computer mediated tool for observing and measuring collective behaviour, the 'Hive'. Over 1300 participants took part.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=live-science.pdf&site=557
 
Description Canadian Television Network interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Live television interview for the Canadian Television Network on the experience of crowd participation (focus on collectively watching the eclipse).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/CTVNewsChannel/videos/1522373484490644/?fref=mentions&pnref=story
 
Description Conference paper at 4th International Conference on Social Identity and Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Drury, J. (2018). Beyond social contagion: A social identity analysis of network effects in public health behaviour. International Conference on Social Identity and Health 4, Lausanne, July.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.icsih.com/
 
Description Conference paper at 4th International Conference on Social Identity and Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Neville, F., Ganz, G., Ayon, L., Williams, D., Kassanjee, R., Drury, J., & Ward, C. (2018). Group norm misperception and violence. International Conference on Social Identity & Health 4, UNIL, Lausanne, July.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.icsih.com/
 
Description Conference paper at BPS social psychology section annual conference, Keele, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Stott, C., & Drury, J. (2018). The social psychology of the spread of the 2011 riots: from Tottenham to South London. British Psychological Society social psychology section annual conference, Keele, August
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bps.org.uk/events/social-psychology-section-annual-conference-2018/programme
 
Description Conference paper at BPS social psychology section annual conference, Keele, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Drury, J. (2018). The politics of 'contagion': Why we need a new account of 'passive' social influence. British Psychological Society social psychology section annual conference, Keele, August
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bps.org.uk/events/social-psychology-section-annual-conference-2018/programme
 
Description Conference paper at Urban Transformations Good City conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Drury, J. Stott, C., Ball, R., Neville, F., Reicher, S., & Choudhury, S. (2018). Control beyond contagion - understanding the spread of riots across a city. The Good City: Urban Transformation, Comparison, and Value, University of Oxford, April.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.oxfordsmartcity.uk/oxblog/the-good-city-urban-transformation-comparison-and-value/
 
Description Debate - Re-reading the riots: Could it happen again? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 275 members of the general public, postgraduate students and policy makers attended and took part in discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://membership.theguardian.com/event/rereading-the-2011-riots-could-it-happen-again-51209577224
 
Description Edmonds, D. (2016). Don't demonise the rabble: why everything you think about crowds is wrong. New Statesman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Edmonds, D. (2016). Don't demonise the rabble: why everything you think about crowds is wrong. New Statesman, November 3rd
Article about our work on crowds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/uk/2016/11/don-t-demonise-rabble-why-everything-you-think-about...
 
Description Experiments in school (Dundee) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Social identity and social influence. Interactive experiments for high school psychology pupils. The High School of Dundee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.highschoolofdundee.org.uk/latest/latest_news/2164_expert_individual_helps_pupils_examine...
 
Description Festival interactive event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact British Science Festival event (Drury, Neville, Reicher, Ball, Choudhury)
(Summer 2017). We ran an interactive public engagement exercise, involving talks and experiences of experiments on scratching and smiling, which received excellent independent feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/beyondcontagion/impact/engagement/britishsciencefestival
 
Description Foundation year psychology lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 'Contagion'? 'Passive' influence of simple and complex aggression. Foundation year psychology lecture, University of Sussex.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Guest presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Drury, J. (2017). Beyond contagion: Towards a new account of behavioural spread. Guest presentation at Nottingham Trent University, Psychology Department (November 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Guest presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Drury, J. (2017). (Dis)empowering prejudice through collective action: An elaborated social identity model. Guest presentation at Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Escuela de Psicología (May, 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Guest presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Drury, J. (2017). (Dis)empowering prejudice through collective action: An elaborated social identity model. Guest presentation at University of Massachusetts - Amherst, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences (April, 2017) Invited speaker.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.umass.edu/newsoffice/article/social-psychologist-john-drury-discuss-how
 
Description High School lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Riots, 'contagion' and social influence: The theory and practice of crowd psychology. Invited lecture, The High School of Dundee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk at Humbolt State University, California - S.D. Reicher, Understanding leadership and social influence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Reicher, S.D. (2019) Understanding leadership and social influence. Invited talk at Humbolt State University, California, Feb 5th, 2019
50+ students attended and took part in discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk to SPSP Groups Pre-Conferenc, Portland, Oregon - S.D. Reicher, The truth about social psychology and the truth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Reicher, S.D. (2019) The truth about social psychology and the truth. Invited talk to SPSP Groups Pre-Conference. Portland, Oregon, Feb 7th 2019.
The 2019 Group Processes and Intergroup Relations Pre-conference will focus on social psychology's role in explaining and addressing social and societal issues through scientific inquiry. This conference aims to connect scholars whose interests span the breadth of this increasingly important discipline. Leading researchers will share work on diverse topics such as emotional contagion and collective action, diversity perceptions in the work place, cognition and context in intra and intergroup relations, and contact and prejudice reduction. An early career scholar from the poster submissions pool will present as one of our distinguished speakers. Attendees will enjoy a poster session highlighting the work of junior scholars and the day will conclude with the a round table discussion between graduate student attendees and our invited, aimed at promoting the next generation of GPIR scholars.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://meeting.spsp.org/preconferences/gpir
 
Description Lecture on Quantitative Research Methods - F.G. Neville 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Discussed the Beyond Contagion project in a lecture on "Quantitative Research Methods" to make the point that quantitative data can complement qualitative data using our data on the spread of the riots from Tottenham to Enfield as an example of this. The lecture was for Masters students in the School of Management, University of St Andrews, to prepare them for their individual dissertations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lecture on The Predictors and Patterns of Collective Protest - F.G. Neville 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact An analysis from the project was used to explain social influence and the spread of protests and riots (through shared identity and common outgroup empowerment) to Masters students in the School of Management, University of St Andrews, as part of the course "Contemporary Conceptual Issues in Management".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lecture to Foundation Year Psychology students, University of Sussex 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 26th April 2018 lecture to foundation year ''Contagion'? Unintended influence of simple and complex aggression'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sussex.ac.uk/study/undergraduate/courses/foundation-years/psychology-with-a-foundation-y...
 
Description Myth of the Mob (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07zyl4d
 
Description National radio interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Live radio interview for BBC Radio Scotland on football crowds (emotionality, intimacy and masculinity).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/2qsqhs0wplxa6ou/Good%20Morning%20Scotland%20-%20Crowds%2C%20intimacy%20and...
 
Description Neville, F.G. (2016). Beyond contagion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Neville, F.G. (2016). Beyond contagion: Social identity processes in involuntary social influence. School of Psychology & Neuroscience Seminar, St Andrews, 23rd September.

This was a short presentation in a School seminar about new grants/projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description New York Times article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Three members of the Beyond Contagion research team were interviewed in The New York Times on the experience of watching the eclipse in a crowd.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/science/why-some-say-the-eclipse-is-best-experienced-in-a-massive...
 
Description Phys.org - How the 2011 English riots spread-new evidence shows sense of identity was key 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact News article on our report, based on Sussex University press release
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at public popular science event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor John Drury: Crowds, riots and simple behaviours: Beyond contagion
'Contagion' usually translates as influence or spread of behaviour that occurs through mere touch, like a disease. Numerous simple behaviours (such as smiling, scratching, yawning, and laughing) and complex phenomena (such as riots) have been described as cases of contagion. A key problem for all these accounts is the evidence of social group boundaries to influence - mere touch is not sufficient. John suggests alternative ways of thinking about unintended influence in groups and crowds, based on the concept of shared social identity. John Drury is Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Sussex. He has researched numerous crowd events including the Hajj, the London bombings of July 7th 2005, the Hillsborough disaster and the 2011 English riots. His research has informed the training of the UK Fire and Rescue Service and crowd safety managers and stewards. He is currently the editor of the British Journal of Social Psychology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://brighton.nerdnite.com/2018/10/08/nnb-55-taxidermy-islamic-architecture-psychology/
 
Description Presentation to Open University students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on the Beyond Contagion research, as part of the Open University London Psychology student conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.oups.org.uk/recordings-presentations/social-psychology-in-the-21st-century
 
Description Presentation to Sussex Social & Applies Psychology group 'Beyond contagion of simple behaviours' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on oyr experimental research on yawning (25th April 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public engagement event for sixth-formers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The new psychology of group influence, from yawning to rioting
In this presentation event, social psychologists from Sussex, Keele and St Andrews Universities showcase the latest scientific research on the spread of behaviour. We present new interactive experiments on simple behavioural influence, demonstrating that 'who we are' - our social identity - determines whether others influence us or not. We also present new groundbreaking research on the social psychology of the 2011 riots. Why did some places in England riot but others did not? Why did some places join in before others? In order to understand the spread of these kinds of events, we first need to understand what happened and when, using multiple data sources (archives, crime data, social media, and videos). Then we need to examine how participants experienced the events and their motivations, using a combination of interviews and qualitative analysis. Together these methods allow us to see the role of social identity processes in riot spread, similar to those operating in leadership, conformity and minority influence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/the-new-psychology-of-group-influence-from-yawning-to-rioting-tickets...
 
Description Radio programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The World Service science programme which answers questions from listeners around the globe comes to the Free Thinking Festival for the first time. Join presenter Marnie Chesterton and help her answer questions about human behaviour in a group. She's joined at Sage by Professor Bahador Bahrami, University College London; Dr Tali Sharot, University College London and Professor Stephen Reicher, University of St Andrews.

Are you the master of your own decisions? Independent-minded? A free spirit? Like it or not, the answer to these questions is almost certainly no. Because although we like to think we're in control of our lives, in reality we are profoundly influenced by the choices, ideas and preferences of the people around us. But why do humans follow the crowd? And what is it that makes being part of the consensus so irresistible? The BBC CrowdScience team and our expert panel of neuroscientists, psychologists and social media gurus bring to Sage a session filled with fun experiments and insights into the origins of your inner sheep.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.sagegateshead.com/event/ftf-crowd-science
 
Description Radio programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Jim Al-Khalili brings BBC Radio 4's science interview programme back to Sage Gateshead. He'll be joined by Stephen Reicher, Wardlaw Professor in the School of Psychology and Neuroscience at St Andrews University, to discuss the way we behave in crowds and the relevance of his research to current social issues such as immigration and nationalism. He is the co-author of Mad Mobs and Englishmen? Myths and Realities of the 2011 Riots and The New Psychology of Leadership: identity, influence, and power.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.sagegateshead.com/event/ftf-the-life-scientific
 
Description Senior Honours Teaching (Elaborated Social Identity Model) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Senior Honours lecture with undergraduate students on the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM). This included a discussion of our "Beyond Contagion" hypotheses, methods and initial findings, and how these extend ESIM. The students were also encouraged to follow the project on Twitter to receive future updates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Social psychology workshop for MSc students (Consumer and Business studies) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact From 19th-21st June Fergus Neville ran a social psychology workshop for MSc students (Consumer and Business studies) at the University of Bayreuth, Germany. He spent a lot of time talking about social identity and influence/leadership, and used the Beyond Contagion project to illustrate these points. He also let them do the Hive experiment on social influence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The National - Scottish experts say 'poverty' drove London riots - not crime 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact fjgfnv
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.thenational.scot/news/17401073.scottish-experts-say-poverty-drove-london-riots-not-crime...
 
Description The myth of the mob: How crowds really work (Magazine article about our work) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The BBC magazine article about our work on crowds and contagion accompanied a BBC Radio 4 programme on the same. The purpose was to make the arguments and evidence available to the public. The link to the article was widely shared on Twitter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-37646972
 
Description The new psychology of group influence, from yawning to rioting - The British Library 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 100+ A level students, undergraduate and postgraduate students and members of the general public attended. The event was of particular interest for A level students and included material relevant to the following A level syllabuses; AQA: 3.1.1 Social influence, 3.3.8 Aggression; Edexel: 1. Social psychology: 1.1.4 Social identity theory; 1.4 Crowd behaviour, rioting; OCR: Social psychology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/the-new-psychology-of-group-influence-from-yawning-to-rioting-tickets...