Technical change, EMPloyment & Inequality. A Spatial analysis of households & plant data

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sussex
Department Name: Sch of Business Management & Economics

Abstract

According to the London Futures Deloitte report (Frey and Osborne, 2014), 35 per cent of the current workforce in the UK is at risk of being made redundant over the next two decades as a result of the introduction of digital robots that will replace their tasks. For those that manage to remain employed, it is difficult to predict whether and how they are able to adapt their skills to the changing demand for occupational tasks. One emerging trend is that, after the introduction of new digital capital, firms dismiss large shares of medium-skilled workers, while seeking either low skilled workers to perform highly routinised tasks, or very high skilled people who provide creative ideas and apply sophisticated knowledge to maximise the benefits of digital capital.

The polarisation of demand for tasks and the skills required to perform them is likely to be reflected in a similar polarisation of wages. This will depend on how firms decide to increase digital mechanisation, for instance what type of hardware and software services they purchase, and what types of new occupations this new capital requires. Also, as pointed out by Piketty (2014), rising share of capital in production goes hand in hand with decreasing share of labour, favouring top income concentration. Overall, innovative firms might be responsible for increasing income inequality, both through higher concentration of capital returns in the hands of a few creative CEOs and a higher proportion of the wage bill going to a proportionally smaller share of very high-skilled workers.

This research aims to provide comparative evidence on the core mechanisms behind the effects of technical change on income inequality, by looking at the actors directly involved in their occurrence: firms investing in tangible, digital capital and R&D, and households providing skilled and unskilled workforce respectively employed in un-routinised and routinised tasks, and the associated distribution of wage and non-wage income.

The novel contribution of this research compared to the extant literature is in the following aspects. First, we will uniquely combine, at the spatial level, plant-level data on tangible, digital and R&D investments of firms located in a certain area, defined as Travel-To-Work-Area (TTWA) and data on occupational categories, wage and non-wage earnings of household living in the same TTWA. TTWAs are defined by the Office for National Statistics as self-contained local labour markets. Second, we will study how technical change, through creative destruction, changes top income shares, wage distribution, and capital income distribution, at the level of TTWA. Third, we will analyse the temporal and spatial associations between the level and composition of investments in tangible, digital capital and R&D in firms and (i) changes in individual's occupational choice across job categories, and (ii) changes in wages at different quantiles of the wage distribution.

This research adds to a debate on pressing social and policy issues: income inequality and unemployment. It is therefore particularly relevant not only for the academic community, but also for policy makers, innovative employers, public, social and private enterprises, trade unions, training institutions and young and old members of the workforce that seek and use information on employment and investment decisions. Our dissemination plan ensures that the findings of our research reach all the above stakeholders to inform their decision-making processes.

Planned Impact

WIDER BENEFICIARIES
The findings are of direct relevance for national and local governments required to foster innovation and social policies (including the Department of Education, BIS, DWP, the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST) and the Government Equalities Office (GEO), the Welsh Government and Leeds City Council), employers, including the CBI, civil society pressure groups, the third sector, including major funders with a focus on poverty and inequality such as the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and donor organisations such as Oxfam, trade unions, including TUC, and social innovators, including NESTA.
The results from the project will support all these stakeholders to articulate responses to the economic and social pressures induced by the increasing income inequality and the employment impacts of the future growth in robotisation. This research will inform evidence-based innovation policy to fine-tune incentives for firms to innovate, fuelling economic growth, while at the same time increasing inclusion, improving employment, and reducing income inequality.

ENGAGING WITH USERS THROUGH DISSEMINATION, COLLABORATION AND CAPACITY BUILDING
The project team is well constituted to ensure wide academic and non-academic impact through three engagement workshops across the UK, a dissemination workshop, and two policy reports, and informal interactions with the above stakeholders throughout the project activities. The project team is well constituted to ensure impact, having been engaged as consultants, advisers and members of committees in government, INGOs, and other organisations such as NESTA, EC, CEPR, and DFID.
The collaboration with the Young Foundation (YF) will be crucial to maximise the benefits of the results for users outside the academic community. YF has a long track record of influencing policy and a network of contacts in this area in several locations across the UK. Both the SPRU and the YF teams have substantial experience of writing for a non-academic audience and will produce policy reports that digests and summarises the main findings of the project for non-academic stakeholders.

RELEVANCE
The topic addressed by this research is at the frontline in both the UK and international debate, following the recent publication of the Deloitte Report (London Futures) on the effect of robotisation causing the loss of 35% of the jobs in the UK in the next two decades. The project will produce high quality academic research, based on the use of ESRC data, on the fundamental micro-level mechanisms responsible for the effects of technical change on employment and income distribution.
Decision makers will be able to formulate medium term policies on inequality and firm investments with a better knowledge on specific leverages and incentives that, while promoting innovations, reduces its impact on unemployment, underemployment, and inequality, driving a more inclusive growth and fair society.
Findings will allow the engaged stakeholders to increase awareness about the relevant aspects of current inequalities, intervene in defence of the least represented and weakest groups in society, and lobby for a more equal and just society targeting the main effects of innovation on employment dynamics.
For similar reasons the findings will definitely benefit the actions of trade unions, particularly with reference to those dimensions of inequality more directly related to employment, earnings, and job security, such as education, skills, benefits.
While the stakeholders mentioned above will benefit from the research directly, our purpose is to have a wider impact on the society. We hope that a clearer understanding of the different competing mechanisms of innovation and inequality will inform policies to lower inequalities in the mid to long term. We hope to stimulate further research and data analysis and collection, which will further inform decision making beyond the national level.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The objectives of the project are: (1) to empirically disentangle the effects of innovation on employment growth and composition, skills and wages, through full use of ONS data at the TTWA (local labour markets) level and the use of frontier econometric techniques; (2) to cooperate with non-academic partners to maximise engagement and policy impact; (3) to produce high quality academic outputs; (4) to ensure training and capacity development of Early Career Researchers (ECRs). Over the project's life, the objectives were fully met. In line with the requirements of a SDAI grant, the ECR Salgado Chavez devoted a substantial effort in learning, refining and using frontier techniques (for instance, the use of a Bartik and trade-induced instrument) and identification strategies on several ONS data sets, among which BERD, HBPS, ASHE and adding further data set such as the Census and COMTRADE. The team was also involved in delivering a related report for the JRF on the effect of productivity growth on lower-paid jobs. Relevant results on the effects of firm R&D spending in employment and self-employment in local labour markets have been published as a SPRU Working Paper. A full report and a policy brief on the effects of the (weak) productivity recovery after the financial crisis on the lower paid jobs' wages have been published on line and quoted in events aimed to support evidence for the Industrial Strategy. A substantial interest in academic and non-academic audience has raised around the effects of innovation on self-employment and more in general on the "mixed blessing" effects of R&D investments, depending on the initial characteristics of the local labour markets. This resonates with the interests raised in Local Industrial Strategies within the White Paper, which our evidence substantially contributes to. Important results were also found on the extent of the gender pay gap resulting from investments in R&D, even in top innovative firms, which substantially contributes to evidence on the impact of innovation on gender inequality, as well as on skills and wage polarisation. Interests in our research has come from NESTA, the JRF, the UKRI and the recently launched UK Productivity Insight Network. The team is still in the process of finalising publications on the effects of R&D investments on wage polarisation and will submit the three outputs to top level academic journals. As it often happens in research, the team spent time in exploring avenues to best identify the impact of innovation on labour and wages, which resulted in dead ends, because the analysis was not robust enough. This resulted in a large amount of learning and ended in three outputs that provide robust findings on the timely questions object of the grant, Also, the ECR left two months before the end of his contract to take up a research position at the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB). We expect obj 3 to be fully met over the next months, once the finalised versions of the academic outputs are submitted to journals, and subject to the usual academic publication timing. Objective 2 of engagement with public, policy makers and other stakeholders was mainly met through the team and particularly the PI efforts to disseminate results. The team has produced a policy brief and a non-academic summary of the research, and organised the final dissemination and policy event in June. The PI has since been asked to contribute written comments or evidence in support of the Industrial Strategy, the APPG on Women and Work which was then cited in the final report, also through her membership of the Innovation Caucus. She is currently contributing to the activities of a EC High Level Expert Group on the impact of Digital Transformation on the EU labour markets, which will be largely based on the evidence produced within this award (see also details below). The non-academic partner contributed to engagement and dissemination by organising the first stakeholders engagement event in Leeds, in July 2017, the HoL policy round table in June and helping organisation of the final academic policy event in June.
Exploitation Route Both during the project and after the end date of the grant, we have organised and been part of several engagement and dissemination activities, mostly international, and largely well-received by the academic community and by other stakeholders (please see section of Engagement, which includes also events to take place in 2019). Among these, a final dissemination and policy event at the YF premises, where we invited to present and share results young and frontier scholars, policy makers, and industry representatives. We also hosted a policy round table at the House of Lords, hosted by Baroness Glenys Thornton, and involving key discussants such as Kate Bell, Head of Economic and Social Policy at TUC, Rushanara Ali MP and Maria Savona. Results were also disseminated at a workshop organised by the Understanding Society and the ESRC on the Future of Work. We expect the findings of TEMPIS to be highly relevant, among others, for the UK Industrial Strategy and more at large to understand the impact of digital technologies on European Labour Market. Professor Savona is part of the EC High Level Expert Group that advise the Commission on the most appropriate policy response to the effect of automation on jobs, skills and working conditions. We also expect the JRF to contribute to the outreach of our results to general public and policy makers. Our analysis on the effects of R&D on employment and self-employment has covered all the sectors of the UK economy, and all the TTWAs. In terms of sectoral and spatial characteristics, our analysis is therefore of interest to most of the sectors indicated below, particularly the education and all non-tradable services. Also, our findings are of interest to governmental bodies that are called to acting upon the regulation and taxation of self-employed categories, platform jobs, gig economy and more in general self-employed workers across several sectors.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Environment,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Retail,Transport

URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/swps2018-08
 
Description Despite the grant has just finished, some evidence of impact and benefit to non-academic stakeholders has already materialised. Our evidence and policy suggestions on the need to better regulate (women) self-employment have been cited in the APPG Final Report on Women and Work on "Making the Industrial Strategy work for women" . Our work on the effects of productivity growth on low-paid wages has been mentioned within the Industry & Innovation Team, Regeneration & Economic Development unit of the GLA, where our research was cited in relation to the Industrial Strategy foundational objectives of raising productivity and distribution benefits across low paid sectors of the economy. Also, The policy implications mentioned in our policy brief have been considered by the Senior Management of the UKRI, Economic Performance and Environment, directly relevant to their planning of new investments in productivity. Our research was also mentioned in the policy recommendations provided to the EC on "Rebalancing labour power for an Innovation-fuelled Sustainable Inclusive Growth" resulting from a related H2020 Project on Innovation-fuelled Sustainable Inclusive Growth and taken forward in the directions taken by the DG EMPL. The PI has been involved in framing policy recommendations on Inclusive Innovation Policy, based on the grant's results. In addition to the above, evidence emerged from this grant has been presented at the European Commission High Level Expert Group on the Impact of Digital Transformations on the EU Labour Markets by Professor Savona (R&D, Employment and Wage Distribution. Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose? Presented at the HLEG on The Impact of Digital Transformation on EU Labour Markets, 10th October 2018). Citations of scientific output related to this grant are included in the report of the HLEG, which synthesizes the policy recommendations on how to make labour markets more inclusive. In particular, the Working paper (by Ciarli T., Marzucchi, A., Salgado, E., Savona, M., The Effect of R&D Growth on Employment and Self-Employment in Local Labour Markets, SPRU Working Paper Series 2018-08) providing evidence on the link between innovation and Self-Employment in the UK has been considered relevant and a number of policy recommendations relates to the emergence of alternative forms of work. We therefore expect impact examples in the UK and EU circles to grow steadily over the next months.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Citation in the Annual Report 2017 from the All Party Parliamentary Group on Women and Work
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The report quoted evidence that I presented in a APPG on Women and Work held in the House of Commons in October 2017, so I estimate the impact in a change in public attitude and policy makers on the issue of the role of women and workers more in general within the Gig or Platform Economy. The APPG Annual Report quoted: "Professor Maria Savona, Professor of Innovation and Evolutionary Economics at the University of Sussex highlighted some areas of concern around conditions of workers in the gig economy, including the precarious and fragmented nature of jobs relying on digital platforms."
URL https://connectpa.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Women-and-Work-APPG-Annual-Report-2017-LR.pdf
 
Description Outputs associated to this grant have been cited in the Report by the EC high-level expert group on THE IMPACT OF THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION ON EU LABOUR MARKETS. The report will be presented at the High-level conference: The Future of Work: Today. Tomorrow. For All. to be held on the 9th of April in Brussels, hosted by the Presidents of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker, the President of the European Parliament Antonio Tajani and the President of the European Council Donald Tusk and introduced by the Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility Marianne Thyssen, who has commissioned the report to the HLG.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Prof Savona has been appointed member of the European Commission High Level Expert Group on the Impact of Digital Transformation on European Labour Markets. the HLG woll advice the EC on policies to address the effect of digitisation on jobs, skills, working conditions and income distribution.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/high-level-expert-group-impact-digital-transformation-...
 
Description Professor Maria Savona has been invited to be part of NESTA Innovation Policy Advisory Committee (IPAC) to advise on the relevant directions of innovation policy that the institution should consider. Other members of the Committee include members of the Board of Trustees and other academics.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Professor Savona as member of the EC High Level Expert Group on the Impact of Digital Transformations on EU labour markets has given evidence based on the outputs of this grant to the high level expert group and members of the European Commission DG CONNECT and DG EMPLOYMENT in a presentation held on the 10th of October 2018 titled: "R&D, Employment and Wage Distribution. Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose? 10th October 2018.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description SPRU Training Course 2019: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for Turbulent Times. This training course is designed for mid-career policy professionals and executives working in government and non-government organisations with a focus on science, technology and innovation policy design, implementation and evaluation
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/about/training
 
Description the LOcal Distribution of productivity Gains: heterogeneous Effects (LODGE) - APE003 02
Amount £36,454 (GBP)
Funding ID APE003 02 
Organisation Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description 10th European Meeting on Applied Evolutionary Economics (EMAEE 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The EMAEE (European Meeting on Applied Evolutionary Economics) is a biennial international conference aiming at promoting the work of young researchers, doctoral students and post-docs, in the field of innovation and economic dynamics, in the light of evolutionary and more generally heterodox methods and theories. The 2017 edition focused on the persistence of the current economic crisis in most of European countries combined with the environmental and social challenges the world is facing has led a growing number of academics to question the relevance of the traditional orthodox economic models. In particular these models appeared not to be suitable for describing economic processes in a changing environment. Hence, a renewal of the economic toolbox as well as theoretical frame becomes necessary.
For a few decades, Evolutionary Economics has developed both a theoretical and applied body of literature placing technological, organisational as well as institutional changes at the core of the understanding of economic dynamics. As such, it appears well suited to take up those challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://wipo.econ.kit.edu/english/1211.php
 
Description 14th ENEF Meeting on ``Technological change and employment dynamics at the firm and industry level'' S'Anna School of Advanced Studies 14 September 2017, Pisa, IT 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact An annual specialist workshop from the European Network on the Economics of the Firm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://enef2017.sciencesconf.org/
 
Description A co-production Workshop by the Young Foundation and SPRU on AUTOMATION, EMPLOYMENT and INEQUALITY", Leeds, July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact SPRU and YF organised a co-production, stakeholders engagement workshop in Leeds on the 6th of July 2017, to share preliminary findings of the research and engage relevant stakeholders from the North of England on the topic of the effect of Automation on Employment and Inequality in the North and beyond and what we can do about it. In this activity, participants were asked to individually suggest ideas for policies or initiatives to ensuring that technological innovation benefits the whole of society, not just the minority. These were categorised depending on whether they related to central government, local government, businesses or individuals. Every participant was then given the chance to vote for what they felt were the three most effective suggestions across all four categories. The format sparked a lively informal debate on the topic and the most popular ideas in each category were:
Central government
1. In recognition of the fact that every investment in R&D creates losers, regulation should be introduced to make it the job of central government to distribute/redistribute these losses.
2. A reduction in tuition fees so more young people go to university rather than resorting to bad quality self-employment.
3. Education policy could make innovation and innovative thinking part of the curriculum for both vocational and academic qualifications.
4. Greater regulation for self-employed workers' rights (i.e. contracts, benefits, pay), together with central government support for (new kinds of) labour organising/unionisation. Reforms to labour employment laws etc. to match evolving labour market.
5. Responsible innovation at central government level to keep track of technological developments, to have a strategic vision for tech. futures rather than leaving it to entrepreneurs and the market alone.
6. Central government should integrate local government before and after plans for R&D, incentives in innovation/industrial policy.
7. Central government should ensure via regulation that people are paid for their time rather their output (unit) and should ensure that 'jobs' involve sufficient hours to make a decent living which are agreed in advance.
8. Training programmes - firms may retrain employees either to keep working in the firm or grant them a type of skill insurance. Government could give tax credit to firms that train workers.
9. Central government could incentivise key innovators/companies to share their expertise across the UK, especially 'working class' skill deficiency areas.
Local government
1. Local government could have the autonomy to adapt learning curriculums to build skills across its population to match the emerging need and opportunity, together with a greater place-based and cultural understanding in the development of skills and training offers.
2. Local government should reward or incentivise businesses (e.g. via lower business rates) which resist wage polarisation in response to R&D e.g. by sticking to maximum wage ratios.
3. Emphasis on quality - traditional craftsmanship in local areas - encouraging diffusion of knowledge.
4. Constraints on the impact [of technological innovation] through mobility of labour, capital and competition between local authorities. How far to encourage 'industrial districts' and specialisation?
Businesses
1. Creation of new organisational models that allow for fluid development (and personalisation) of roles.
2. Businesses should develop innovation/R&D strategies which focus on the creation of new jobs where any are lost due to technological innovation.
3. Businesses operate skills-sharing workshops and open viewing on their processes, active targeting teenagers with an inclination to creative industries.
4. Involvement of workforce in decision making especially over incremental change. Reform/restructure of financial system to better fund society-friendly forms of innovation.
5. Allow/enable greater worker deliberation and input in tech implementation - every technology is capable of having unintended consequences on the experience of work.
Individuals
1. Individuals should unionise to pressure businesses to ensure that technological innovation benefits employees as well as employers.
2. Form co-operatives and local groups to empower individuals.
3. Creative use of unions - thinking about how can self-employed people unionise more effectively.
4. Individuals granted money (£500?) to propose an innovation with potential to scale up.
5. Individual workers - inequalities in access to opportunities to make the most of tech innovation - not just about life-long learning, reskilling or training - need new mind-sets & approaches to technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Blog on the SPERI (Sheffield Political Economy Research Institute) on The Industrial Strategy and Inclusive Structural Change 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The Blog posted on the SPERI website is based on Professor Savona's contribution to What We Really Mean When We Talk About Industrial Strategy, edited by Craig Berry, and published by Future Economies at Manchester Metropolitan University with the support of the British Academy. The ebook is available for free at: https://www2.mmu.ac.uk/media/mmuacuk/content/documents/business-school/future-economies/WHAT_IND-STRAT___BERRY_NOV18.pdf
The book was launched and presented to policy makers and wider stakeholders on the 21st of January 2019 at the University of Bristol premises in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://speri.dept.shef.ac.uk/2018/12/17/industrial-strategy-and-inclusive-structural-change/
 
Description Bristol Festival of Ideas - Will the Fourth Industrial Revolution Bypass the Home of the First? November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Manufacturing is poised for what is often called the Fourth Industrial Revolution, a range of new technologies such as AI, robotics and nanotechnology expected to transform production and lead to major innovations. But other countries are at the forefront of many of these innovations, and investment by British companies is low. Will we miss out - or could a new Industrial Strategy help the UK stay near the technological frontier? The panel, chaired by Rory Cellan-Jones (BBC), includes Giuliana Battisti (University of Warwick), Jonathan Haskel (Imperial College London), Richard Jones (University of Sheffield) and Maria Savona (University of Sussex).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ideasfestival.co.uk/events/will-the-fourth-industrial-revolution-bypass-the-home-of-the-f...
 
Description Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research, Georg August University of Goettingen, 6 December 2017, Goettingen, DE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Invited special seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chevening National Debate, University of Sussex: "Are technology and globalisation destined to drive up inequality?" 26 of February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A panel organised by the University of Sussex for Chevening Scholarship students and engage them in the topic. This has bee excellently received
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description City-REDI seminar series on Firm Innovation and Wage Inequality 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The City REDI seminar is taking place on the 26th of March 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/schools/business/research/city-redi/events/2019/01/city-redi-seminar-se...
 
Description DRUID Society Conference 2018, Copenhagen Business School (DK) 11-13 June 2018, "The Effect of R&D growth on employment and self-employment in Local Labour Markets" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Dr Alberto Marzucchi presented TEMPIS results at the DRUID Society Conference 2018, Copenhagen Business School (DK) 11-13 June 2018, "The Effect of R&D growth on employment and self-employment in Local Labour Markets"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://conference.druid.dk/Druid/?confId=57
 
Description Dr Tommaso Ciarli gave a keynote speech on "Innovation, Employment and Inequality" at the International workshop on "Innovation, Industrial Dynamics and Industrial Policy, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogota Colombia, Octiber 12, 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The keynote speech on the results of this grant have been presented at an international workshop in an emerging country and was attended by both faculty and policy makers. Several people including early career researchers and post graduate students attended and benefited from learning of the methodologies developed during the grant. Plans were made to replicate questions, methods and results in Colombia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Dr Tommaso Ciarli gave a talk on "Innovation, Employment and Inequality" at the Future of Work Hub Event, University of Sussex, February, 13, 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The University of Sussex Business School has a Future of Work Hub and Dr Ciarli presentation disseminated the results of this grant with the aim of engaging in future initiatives of the Hub.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Expert level working group at Comision Nacional de Comercio Exterior (International Trade Commission, Argentinian Government) - 04 August 2017, Buenos Aires, AR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a expert working group attended by policy makers in Latin America
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description GEOINNO - Geography of Innovation Conference, Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Geography of Innovation Conference provides a forum for discussion to scholars interested in scientific, policy and strategic issues concerning the spatial dimension of innovation activities. Presentation was delivered within a special session. The TEMPIS team organised jointly with LSE Geography Department two special sessions on " Innovation, local labour markets and regional development" which was extremely well attended by the conference participants and is likely to maximise dissemination/impact effort of our results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://geoinno2018.com/
 
Description INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: REASSESSMENT AND PERSPECTIVES OF LABOUR POLICIES 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Outcome presented within an organised special session titled - Theoretical, empirical and policy analyses of the European labour
markets to benefit from informed high level expertise
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://host.uniroma3.it/associazioni/astril/db/d2037f24-12d8-4cf1-b89d-7aaca3097bc2.pdf
 
Description International Conference - 6th Conference on Corporate R&D and Innovation (CONCORDI), JRC- European Commission Seville (SP) 27 - 29 September 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 6th Conference on Corporate R&D and Innovation (CONCORDI), JRC- European Commission Seville (SP)
27 - 29 September
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://iri.jrc.ec.europa.eu/concord/2017/index.html
 
Description Invited Seminar - INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Seminar Series, University of Valencia, Spain 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This was a special invited seminar with top level specialists that feedbacked on an earler version of the paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited speaker to Departmental Seminar at the Faculty of Economics, University of Cagliari, IT 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Maria Savona was invited to present results of the TEMPIS project at the Departmental Seminar at the Faculty of Economics, University of Cagliari, IT, on Firm Innovation and Wage Inequality
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker to Departmental Seminar at the Faculty of Economics, University of Roma Tre, IT 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Professor Maria Savona was invited to present at theDepartmental Seminar at the Faculty of Economics, University of Roma Tre, IT on Firm Innovation and Wage Inequality
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Lectures at the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbeans on: "The Impact of R&D on Employment and Self-Employment Composition in Local Labour Markets" and "Firm Innovation and the Wage Elasticity Across Occupations and Gender", Santiago del Chile, August 13-17 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Tommaso Ciarli delivered lectures at the Annual International Summer School at the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbeans, with about 30 Post-Graduate students from a variety of developing countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://escueladeverano.cepal.org/2018/en
 
Description Lectures delivered at the PhD Summer School at the Center of Technology, Innovation and Culture at the University of Oslo, Norway (April 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Maria Savona was invited to deliver Post-Graduate teaching at the PHD Summer School at the Center of Technology, Innovation and Culture at the University of Oslo, Norway, on Technical Change, Employment and Inequality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/sv/tik/TIK9022/v18/tik9022-v18-program---oppdatert.pdf
 
Description MIoIR invited seminar on Firm Innovation and Wage Inequality 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker at The Manchester Institute of Innovation Research (http://www.research.mbs.ac.uk/innovation) at Alliance Manchester Business School (University of Manchester) seminar series (http://www.research.mbs.ac.uk/innovation/Seminars). Reached Faculty members, Post graduate and under-graduate students. To be held on the 25th of March
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Making the Industrial Strategy work for people and places Roundtable to share ideas and new research questions Wednesday 23 May 2018, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The event was jointly organised by Understanding SOciety and the ESRC and the aim was to discuss issues related to
1. Sectors: What sectoral strategies can be adopted to achieve productivity growth and wage growth? Is there evidence to justify supporting both growing and productive sectors as well as low productivity sectors to promote inclusive growth? 2. Technology: How can the dividend from new technology (automation, artificial intelligence, robotics and digital) be more equitably shared (or risks minimised), particularly in terms of work and employment? How can the "regional innovation system" engage more individuals and firms in the innovation process? 3. Skills and enterprise: Are there lessons to be drawn from investment in skills and entrepreneurship that are helping to promote inclusive growth? How can less prosperous areas enhance and attract skills and enterprise? 4. New ideas: What's missing from the Industrial Strategy? Are there other drivers and policies that can play a bigger or different role in improving productivity whilst reducing inequality? 5. Future research: What conceptual thinking and evidence gaps are limiting our understanding of the interaction between productivity, regional disparities and inequality? What micro-data at individual and firm level are needed to help tackle these gaps? Are different metrics needed to measure the impact of inclusive growth approaches? 6 Governance: Are there potential tensions between the sector and place nexus? How well are the governance mechanisms suited to drive and manage inclusive growth, particularly in terms of intra-regional disparities - and stakeholder co-ordination?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nice/Autor workshop: Beyond Routine Replacing Technical Change: Trade, Innovation and the Changing Nature of Jobs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Discussion with and dissemination to top scholars in the field
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://unice.fr/laboratoires/gredeg/contenus-riches/agenda/conferences-et-workshops/workshop-beyond-...
 
Description Organisation of a final academic dissemination event at the Young Foundation (5th of June 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The final dissemination workshop aimed at presenting SPRU's team work but also other frontier research in the area of innovation, employment and inequality. The workshop was structured around two themes: 1. The impact of innovation on employment and local labour dynamics; 2. The impact of innovation on wage distribution
The aim of these sessions was to take stock of the most recent evidence and generate recommendations for policy on what can be done to ensure that technological innovation leads to an inclusive and prosperous economy for all. Presenters included Davide Consoli (Ingenio CSIC-UPV), Dr Neil Lee (LSE), Andres Rodriguez-Pose (LSE), Carlo Menon (OECD), Antonin Bergeaud, Rob Joyce (IFS) and Madeleine Gabriel (NESTA) as confirmed speakers and discussants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://youngfoundation.org/events/innovation-employment-wages-workshop-implications-policy-practice...
 
Description Organisation of a large conference on the Economics, Governance and Management of AI, Robotisation and Digital Transformations (EMAEE, European Meeting of Applied Evolutionary Economics) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The EMAEE19's theme is the economics, governance and management of artificial intelligence (AI), robotisation and digital transformations. The conference aims to bring together research on the opportunities and challenges arising from AI and digital transformations, particularly to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and deal with related societal challenges. AI and robotisation have the potential to provide solutions to societal challenges, such as economic development and structural change, health, education, participation of the global south to global value chains; new opportunities to replace routinised and alienating jobs; the adoption of green technologies; incentives to start-ups. Also, advances in machine learning and data science are providing new methods to study social phenomena and design new policy tools. However, as for earlier technological revolutions, the underlying transformations raise challenges, such as job displacement, income polarisation, horizontal inequalities, governance of big data and data protection, power concentration, environmental footprint. Research is needed to understand how to best exploit opportunities and address challenges.
EMAEE19 aims to be a forum to feed the current debate on the economics, management and governance of AI, robotisation and digital transformations in relation to SDGs and societal challenges. The conference will host 100+ excellent papers, several engaging keynote speakers, thematic sessions and round tables and an INET Young Scholars Initiative (YSI).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/newsandevents/events/emaee2019
 
Description Organisation of an International Workshop, the 2018 ENEF (European Network on the Economics of the Firm) on "Firm Automation in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: The Future of Organisation, Employment and Productivity", 13-14 September 2018, SPRU University of Sussex (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The TEMPIS team organised the 2018 ENEF (European Network on the Economics of the Firm) meeting "Firm Automation in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: The Future of Organisation, Employment and Productivity", 13-14 September 2018, SPRU University of Sussex (UK), with Keynotes by Tera Allas (McKinsey Global Institute) and Guy Michaels (LSE), and an international audience of young scholars.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.enef.group.shef.ac.uk/ENEF%202018%20cfp_final.pdf
 
Description Policy Round Table at the House of Lords 26th June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Hosted by Baroness Glenys Thornton, the round table discussion was chaired by Indy Johar. Key discussants include Kate Bell, Head of Economic and Social Policy at TUC, Rushanara Ali MP and Prof. Maria Savona, University of Sussex.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation of TEMPIS results "The Impact of R&D on Employment and Self-Employment Composition in Local Labour Markets", 4th International Conference on the Dynamics of Entrepreneurship ZEW Mannheim, DE (18-19 June 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Dr Tommaso Ciarli presented TEMPIS results at a highly reputed academic conference (4th International Conference on the Dynamics of Entrepreneurship ZEW Mannheim, DE (18-19 June 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.zew.de/en/das-zew/aktuelles/vierte-internationale-gruendungskonferenz-am-zew/
 
Description SPRU Departmental Seminar on "R&D, Employment and Wage Distribution. Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Outputs attributable to the grant has been presented at the departmental seminar with members of faculty and PG students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Royal Economic Society Conference - University of Sussex, March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation within a top level international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.res.org.uk/view/0/2018conference_home.html