Less Lethal Force in Law Enforcement

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: Sociology, Philosophy, Anthropology

Abstract

Use of force by law enforcement officials, including police and correctional officers, is a highly important issue. Yet whilst the situations in which these officials use firearms, and the effects of this use, are relatively well documented and understood, this is not the case with 'less lethal' weapons and 'less lethal' force. (For the purposes of this project, less lethal force, or LLF, includes the use of restraints, empty hand techniques and less lethal weapons. The latter are weapons, such as the electric-shock Taser, pepper spray or batons, intended to subdue or incapacitate rather than cause serious harm or death).

There is a recognition amongst academics and practitioners alike that this needs to change. Internationally, the current UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary and Arbitrary Executions has expressed the need for more research into LLF, as has the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture. Nationally, a recent article in Forensic Science and Medical Pathology called for research into, and better reporting of, less lethal force in the UK, as did the Experts' Meeting on Taser the PI convened in 2015 with ESRC funds. The National Police Chief's Council (NPCC) and College of Policing have stressed the pressing need for research into LLF, and the Home Secretary has called for more information on police use of less lethal force and has launched a review into Use of Force Reporting (the 'Reporting Review').

At least three key topics around less lethal weapons remain under-researched, and this project will tackle all three directly. First we lack a basic understanding of when, why, on whom, and how often, less lethal weapons are used - and whether certain groups of people (those of a particular gender, ethnic minority, mental health status or geographical origin) are more or less likely to have less lethal force used on them. This project will see the PI work closely with the National Police Chief's Council, the Home Office and UK police forces, utilizing datasets previously unavailable to academic researchers to answer such questions. Such issues are also relevant internationally, as shown by recent debates on police less lethal force in countries as varied as Armenia, Hungary and New Zealand.

Second, whilst these weapons are associated with saving lives, they have also been associated with serious injuries and fatalities. In the UK alone, several high profile deaths-including that of Ian Tomlinson and Jordan Begley-have occurred following police use of less lethal weapons. There are key questions around how so called less lethal force can impact the right to life, and their association with fatalities worldwide. Building on my PhD work focusing on injuries associated with Taser, this project will see the PI work with the UN Special Rapporteur to research the impact less lethal force has on the right to life in the UK and globally.

Third, if it is important to attend to the situations in which force is used, it is also important to look at how such force is monitored and governed. This requires working with police and government to help understand what data on less lethal force should be gathered and analyzed, and working with the independent oversight bodies that monitor places of detention (including police custody) to ensure that they have the necessary research to enable them to document the LLF used by state authorities. The UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture has highlighted the need for research to assist them in addressing and monitoring less lethal weapons and other physical infrastructure found in places of detention. The PI will work with key decision makers on these issues; with the UK government on reporting, and with oversight bodies via the SPT and its network of over 40 national bodies.

Planned Impact

Beneficiaries are split into UK & international for clarity,though in reality they are closely connected.

UK beneficiaries:
1) Individuals (100s of thousands) who have been or will be subjected to or affected by less lethal force (LLF), lawyers & UK NGOs Amnesty International & Omega Research Foundation. The latter has been involved in the development of the proposal, via a meeting to discuss bid content, and I have interviewed the former to understand their concerns. NGOs will benefit from a better understanding of circumstances in which LLF is used and why rates of Taser use vary - topics they lack capacity to research but note need more work. The research on UK LLF, the first of its kind, will deepen understanding of issues & good practice in the UK by providing new evidence, ensuring they are able to make informed decisions about where advocacy is needed. They will also benefit from meetings with civil society, academics & the civil service which will provide a safe space for them to exchange knowledge and benefit from research findings.

2) UK civil servants (incl. the NPCC, Home Office) will benefit via the PI's participation in the Use of Force Reporting Review, included at their request. Specifically they will benefit from i) research capacity & ii) insights into best practice from a social science perspective, including the need to capture certain variables.

3) UK police decision-makers & police officers will benefit from the PI's work on the reporting review, a crucial step towards the potential creation of a nationwide reporting system. The research the PI conducts on this system and/or on in-house force data will help answer crucial questions about LLF in the UK. Depending on findings it is anticipated to lead to changes in training (eg changes to techniques), police practice (eg deployment) & will promote evidence based policing.

Global beneficiaries:
4) The UN Special Rapporteur & team, who have been involved in this proposal by suggesting the work on LLF and right to life, will benefit through co-produced research in an area of long-standing concern. They will also benefit from the provision of an evidence base around the impact of LLF on the right to life which will help them push their recent call to the UN Human Rights Council for an expert body on this subject.

5) The UN Subcommittee on Torture Prevention (SPT), who have been involved in this proposal by suggesting the inclusion of co-produced research into standards for the use of non-human actors (including LLF) in detention & a manual on their documentation. Specifically, this will assist the SPT to i) conduct their own visits to places of detention & ii) to advise their network of over 40 monitoring bodies on their own visits, filling a gap in detention monitoring worldwide and helping to ensure rights of detainees.

6) Individuals who have been or will be subjected to or affected by LLF & legal representatives, NGOs & campaigners (Campaign Zero, Amnesty, Assoc. for Prevention of Torture), will benefit 3 ways. First they will gain insights into i) issues & good practice around LLF based on the UK experience, which will be applicable more broadly & ii) the connection between less lethal weapons and the right to life, both of which will help strengthen the evidence base for advocacy in their own countries. Second, they will use the manual in their own work, helping them report more effectively on the (ab)use of LLF. Third their advocacy on the creation of an international body on LLF will be strengthened by the PI's work.

7) Civil servants & police forces globally (incl. in Canada, USA, Netherlands, where the PI is linked) will benefit from a better understanding of issues & good practice around LLF in the UK & its implications. This, combined with an understanding of how LLF impacts the right to life & standards for LLF in detention will help them make decisions around which LLF to introduce and their regulation.
 
Description Thus far, my research has had impact at both national and international levels, including in the following areas. Nationally it has helped to; i) shape draft national guidance for police forces on how to handle potentially violent situations without resorting to the use of force (where appropriate) and help contribute towards the development of a more evidence-based consultative way of developing police guidance, via participation on the College of Policing's Scoping Guideline Committee; and ii) introduce a new use of force reporting system for forces in England and Wales, with regular (quarterly) publication of data, thus enabling detailed analysis and application of the results both by police forces and by journalists, civil society and other interested parties. Internationally, I have worked with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture (UN SPT), the Omega Research Foundation and others to research, map and draw together international standards and to produce a Practical Manual to assist torture prevention bodies in documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention. This has been warmly welcomed by the UN SPT and the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, and circulated to over 80 national torture prevention bodies, with detention monitors in Jamaica, Poland, the UK, Norway and elsewhere using it in their work. Please note this is a summary, not an exhaustive list, and is accurate at the time of writing - but may be subject to change due to the evolving nature of these initiatives. I have also been involved in a number of initiatives that are currently confidential and these are not reported here. This is a summary only and for further detail please consult the entries in the previous sections.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Impact on the work of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Please see my entry in the 'Engagement Section'.
 
Description Input into UN Special Rapporteur on Torture's Report to the UN General Assembly
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The UN Special Rapporteur presented this report to the UN General Assembly in July 2017. According to the UN Special Rapporteur himself, this report is important as 'ill-treatment in extra-custodial contexts ...(has) increased. The tighter the custody net...(becomes) the more likely abuse would move outside of that context, and extensive cases of abuse were occurring in the "wilderness" of extra-custodial settings, including at border crossings, which was also relevant in the migration context' .(https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/gashc4204.doc.htm). This report is intended to address this issue. Of the recommendations that I made on the first draft of the report, several were adopted in the final document that was presented to the General Assembly, including a recommendation that certain weapons (specifically body worn electric-shock belts and spiked shields) be classed as inherently cruel, inhuman or degrading (see the report listed in the url below at paragraph 51), and that States report and collect statistics on their use of force (paragraph 70). They also included one of my recommendations that, when deciding and reviewing which weapons are suitable for use by police officers and other officials, States should take into account 'the nature and severity of the... pain and suffering...inflicted' (see the report listed below, paragraph 60). As such it is hoped that this report will contribute towards an improved regulatory environment to assist with the implementation of the prohibition on torture and ill-treatment internationally.
URL http://undocs.org/A/72/178
 
Description Invited to input into Draft United Nations OHCHR Manual on Human Rights Training for Law Enforcement
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Model Use of Force Policy in the Caribbean
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact IN 2017 I was invited by the UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime as an 'international expert' for the Caribbean Use of Force in Law Enforcement Conference, organised jointly with INDECOM (the Jamaican police oversight body). I was responsible for developing and delivering a three day session on international standards and police use of force to policing, government and oversight bodies in the region, and for helping to draft a model Use of Force Policy. The impact of this work has been described by the UN Resident Co-ordinator's Office in Jamaica as follows: 'The Conference was an important experience and your contribution was critical for the good outcome beyond any doubt. I would even say it would not have been possible without your dedicated work in the caucuses. I know you made an exceptional effort outside your normal busy agenda. It contributed a great deal to the overall outcome of the Conference. I am confident that the process started will lead to a result that will set a sign in the police reform agenda in the Caribbean. The exposure to such a discussion was a unique experience to date and may not change the practice overnight, but a reflection process is indeed underway. To myself, it was very enriching to have you known and to learn from your experience and expertise'. Please note that I was asked to attend on behalf of a colleague, Neil Corney, at the Omega Research Foundation, where I work part-time. Neil was originally invited but was unable to attend so I was asked to go in his place, with expenses paid by the UN. Therefore this activity was not directly funded by the ESRC. However I have included it here as I was able to draw on and present both my PhD work on Taser, and my ESRC Future Research Leaders funded work on police use of force and Guideline Development.
URL http://www.coha.org/jamaica-moves-to-regulate-the-use-of-force-in-law-enforcement/
 
Description Participation on College of Policing's Guideline Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact As detailed in the engagement section, in 2016 I was invited to participate in the newly established College of Policing's guideline committee (GC) on Safer Resolution (i.e. additional guidance on how police officers can resolve potentially violent confrontations without the use of force, where this is appropriate). This independent advisory group was tasked with considering the evidence and developing guideline recommendations on Safer Resolution, taking into account the views of stakeholders, and will also help to pilot a new evidence based approach to the development of policing guidance more generally, thus contributing to an improved regulatory environment. The group has produced a draft policy document, which is currently (March 2018) open for public consultation. I am including this award in both my PhD and Future Research Leaders Award as, although the first meeting of this group happened before my Future Research Leaders Grant started, this funding has facilitated my continued involvement in the group.
URL https://www.app.college.police.uk/about-app/guideline-committee/
 
Description Use of Force Reporting Review
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact My membership of the Programme Board and the Project Team, bodies set up to provide strategic oversight and practical input on the National Review of Police Use of Force Reporting, has enabled me to advise on the creation of a national use of force reporting dataset. At the time of writing many of my recommendations and inputs have been considered, including: 1) Advice on the objectives of the Review (i.e. the need to ensure that the data captured is used to identify changes to policy and practice that need to be made). 2) Advice on the scope of the review (i.e. what kinds of use of force should be reported, specifically handcuffing, the drawing of weapons and improvised use of force techniques). 3) Advice on the scope of the review (i.e. that a form be filled out not only by police officers, but by any police employee who has used force, regardless of their position. This will help capture occasions where force is used by PCSOs and Specials). 4) Advice on the specific variables recorded (i.e. that severity of injury to officer and subject be captured; that the order in which force is used be captured; that subject resistance and presence of a weapon be captured; that the number of times Taser is fired be captured; whether Taser is available at the scene be captured, and whether Taser is used by an Authorised FIrearms Officer or Specially Trained Officer). 5) Advice on how the data should be recorded (i.e. a) through using a system of officer based reporting, with incident numbers so that records can be linked and b) that the system of officer based reporting requires a new form to be filled out every time an officer uses force on a particular subject - so if an officer uses force against two individuals in the same incident, two forms are filled out). 6) Advice on process (i.e. that a new reporting system should be introduced for all types of use of force simultaneously, instead of adopting a phased approach) 7) Advice on process (i.e. that the existing Taser forms should not be withdrawn until the system is up and running to replace them). 8) Advice on transparency of process (i.e. that documents relating to the review - e.g. minutes, terms of reference - should be proactively published. This has been agreed in principle, but at the time of writing the documents have not been made publicly available). 9) Advice on transparency of data (i.e. that original, raw data should be made publicly available by forces, as well as summarised by the Home Office Annual Data Requirement). 10) Advice on analysis of the data (i.e. that who will be responsible for analysing the data generated needs to be considered at the earliest stages, and when data collection is being designed). 11) Advice on analysis of the data (i.e. given that the longer term medical and psychological implications of force are understudied, the police and external agencies / researchers should be able to use this data as a starting point to conduct further research on this topic). Although some recommendations made have not been adopted either in full, or in part, the advice that has been adopted has has helped not only to ensure the creation of a national system for use of force reporting, but to ensure many variables of interest are captured within this system, and will be made publicly available for further analysis. Several of the key stakeholders involved in the Review have provided testimonies on the contribution that I have made to the process, which include the following: Detective Chief Inspector Paul Moxley (June 2015 to January 2016): Abi has been an instrumental part of a small project team undertaking initial work regarding the National recording of use of force across all 43 Police Forces. Her initial research worked focused on a baseline assessment to enable the team to determine the current 'as is' picture. From this initial work, Abi was able to identify trends and areas of concern, as well as some best practice which enabled the team to focus in on certain Forces who were already undertaking some ground breaking initiatives. Abi's contribution has been consistent and continuous throughout, and she continues to be an integral part of the multi partnership team. Her academic rigour and challenge has been both insightful and constructive during the development of detailed National metrics criteria which will undoubtedly change for the better the way that the UK police service records, analyses and publishes use of force data going forward. I would certainly consider taking on another placement student for such work should the opportunity arise in the future. Inspector James Ashton (January 2016 to June 2016): Abi provided great support to both the Project and Programme Team. Her academic background and experience gave a degree of independent credibility to the work of both groups and an added dimension and quality to the research phase of the project. Her approach was both supportive and constructively challenging and helped the team to better understand some of the information identified. Her assistance in the data review stage of the programme will be invaluable and I would thoroughly recommend academic support in any similar programme or project. Chief Constable David Shaw: The addition of Abigail Dymond as a PhD student to the Use of Force Programme brought a level of academic scrutiny and independence that would otherwise have been absent. Her experience, academic rigor and unbiased approach ensured that the "products" created by the Programme Board were academically and philosophically relevant and that any proposals from the board were held to account against independent standards. I am delighted to hear that further funding has been identified so that she can continue to support this piece of work as it progresses into the data collection and review phase. Neil Pattinson, Home Office: As the sole academic representative to the National Use of Force Data Review, Abi has made an invaluable contribution, both at the Programme Board level setting the direction and evaluating progress of the work, and as a key member of the Project Team tasked with delivery of the review. As well as providing drafting and editing solutions, Abi's research into the current status of police use of force recording provided a vital evidence base for the review, and an essential platform on which meaningful recommendations could be made on recording of data in the future. Utilising her extensive knowledge of police use of force and Taser, Abi provided real insight throughout this work, and her dedication and effort have been greatly appreciated. The Use of Force Data Review will make a real difference in increasing transparency on how the police use force in the future, and Abi has made a significant contribution in its successful delivery. Inspector Nick Sutcliffe (staff officer to the review from June 2016 to present day): 'Abi's unstinting enthusiasm and academic insight have been central to the development of this ambitious, unprecedented, and often very challenging, programme of work. Her on-going contribution has recently attracted the support of leading researchers from the College of Policing and University College London, who have combined their knowledge and resources to help ensure the future success of this programme.' Moreover, the creation of a unified use of force reporting system for all police forces in England and Wales has been described by The Minister of State for Fire and Policing, Brandon Lewis, as 'a significant factor in improving public trust and confidence in the police use of force. Improved transparency will contribute to delivering a real commitment on behalf of the police to respond to the genuine concerns raised by the public. For the first time, this data will allow meaningful comparison across the range of techniques and tactics used by the police, and this should in time directly influence and strengthen police training, and operational decisions around the most appropriate tactics and equipment available where needed. It will allow scrutiny of why force is being used, which will provide invaluable insight, particularly in respect of minority and vulnerable groups, and in locations of concern, such as hospitals, mental health institutions and custody cells'.
URL http://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.asp...
 
Description ESRC Celebrating Impact Award
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
 
Title National Use of Force Reporting 
Description From April 2017 onwards, following the national Use of Force Reporting Review which I have been advising on (see Engagement and Impact sections), police forces in England and Wales have started to collect and publish, on a quarterly basis, standardised data-including the ethnicity and other characteristics of those subjected to force, injury data, and the outcome of incidents-when force is used by the police. A subset of these statistics have also been published by the Home Office, providing a rich source of evidence to develop policing policy and practice.The National Police Chief Council Lead for Self-Defence, Arrest and Restraint describes this development as follows: 'Police officers have always held information about how and why they used force in a particular situation but this was contained in evidence notes rather than a consistent, formal procedure across all forces.We have now provided forces with a template form, which has been designed to collect the right information without being unduly bureaucratic for officers. The form consolidates other additional forms of monitoring, such as Taser recording... police forces will be regularly publishing data on their officers' use of force - whether that is a form of restraint, handcuffing, use of a Taser or irritant spray'. Many forces are publishing data on their websites quarterly as well as providing it to the Home Office annual data requirement. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The collection and analysis of Use of Force data has had impact on police practice. Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary notes that at least 30 forces have been using the dataset to inform their own policies and practices, including; Cumbria, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, Durham, Greater Manchester, Humberside, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Merseyside, Northumbria, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, and my research indicates that this is also happening in South Wales too. This list is not exhaustive, as other forces, may well be using the data collection to inform policy and practice,but these forces have been considered to have elements that others may learn from. The use of force data-set has also encouraged newspaper reporting on use of force incidents, with over 20 news stories featuring statistics gathered from the new Use of Force Reporting Requirement. These have highlighted important issues about police use of force locally, the use of force on children, and concerns about disproportionate use on ethnic minorities. A selection of these are shown below (accessed 12th March 2018): Local newspapers: 1. https://www.northamptonchron.co.uk/news/northamptonshire-police-officers-used-force-4-452-in-one-year-1-8393985 2. https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/police-use-force-against-suspects-138-times-a-day-in-london-figures-show-a3601176.html 3. https://www.getwestlondon.co.uk/news/west-london-news/new-figures-reveal-use-force-13413348 4. https://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/crime/yorkshire-police-forces-reveal-how-often-officers-use-force-and-the-number-of-police-dog-bites-1-8690846 5. https://www.plymouthherald.co.uk/news/plymouth-news/city-police-use-force-50-514222 6. https://www.cambridge-news.co.uk/news/cambridgeshire-polcie-use-force-children-13392460 7. http://www.dorsetecho.co.uk/news/15550808._Our_officers_face_dangerous_situations_every_day___Shock_figures_show_extent_of_assaults_faced_by_police/ 8. https://www.hemeltoday.co.uk/news/use-of-force-statistics-revealed-for-hertfordshire-police-1-8078649 9. https://www.devonlive.com/news/devon-news/how-often-police-use-pepper-515200 Specialty Press: 10. http://www.policeprofessional.com/news.aspx?id=29807 11. http://www.polfed.org/blogs?item=123 12. http://www.fsmatters.com/page_869254.asp National and international Press: 13. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/metropolitan-police-force-statistics-brutality-guns-tasers-black-people-disproportionate-ethnic-a7871811.html 14. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/jul/08/police-criticise-staggering-bureaucracy-for-recording-use-of-force 15. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/aug/01/met-police-using-force-against-disproportionately-large-number-of-black-people 16. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/metropolitan-police-officers-use-force-every-ten-minutes-zvhq2sq0m 17. https://news.sky.com/story/met-police-officers-aimed-guns-at-suspects-three-times-a-day-figures-reveal-10969720 18. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/metropolitan-police-use-of-force_uk_598067f3e4b0d6e28a1065e2 19. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-40535694 20. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4735360/Force-admits-handcuffed-runaway-child-aged-just-TEN.html 
URL http://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.asp...
 
Description CURRENTLY CONFIDENTIAL: Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm 
Organisation Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights
PI Contribution The organisations listed above, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) are working on developing an international Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm, so to as promote further international standards on this issue. I was one of only 20 participants invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, at which the future role of the group and the development of additional documents, and the process was discussed. Please note that, although this is not covered by a formal confidentiality agreement, I have ticked the box below as participants were informed of the importance of keeping this initiative and discussions confidential at this early stage in the process. I am therefore reporting this only for ESRC internal processes, not for publication.
Collaborator Contribution The Geneva Academy, Cambridge and Pretoria organised a series of meetings in Geneva and London to which I was invited (see detailed description above), with the Geneva Academy covering the cost of flights and hotel.
Impact None as of yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description CURRENTLY CONFIDENTIAL: Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The organisations listed above, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) are working on developing an international Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm, so to as promote further international standards on this issue. I was one of only 20 participants invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, at which the future role of the group and the development of additional documents, and the process was discussed. Please note that, although this is not covered by a formal confidentiality agreement, I have ticked the box below as participants were informed of the importance of keeping this initiative and discussions confidential at this early stage in the process. I am therefore reporting this only for ESRC internal processes, not for publication.
Collaborator Contribution The Geneva Academy, Cambridge and Pretoria organised a series of meetings in Geneva and London to which I was invited (see detailed description above), with the Geneva Academy covering the cost of flights and hotel.
Impact None as of yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description CURRENTLY CONFIDENTIAL: Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm 
Organisation University of Pretoria
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The organisations listed above, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) are working on developing an international Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm, so to as promote further international standards on this issue. I was one of only 20 participants invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, at which the future role of the group and the development of additional documents, and the process was discussed. Please note that, although this is not covered by a formal confidentiality agreement, I have ticked the box below as participants were informed of the importance of keeping this initiative and discussions confidential at this early stage in the process. I am therefore reporting this only for ESRC internal processes, not for publication.
Collaborator Contribution The Geneva Academy, Cambridge and Pretoria organised a series of meetings in Geneva and London to which I was invited (see detailed description above), with the Geneva Academy covering the cost of flights and hotel.
Impact None as of yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description CURRENTLY CONFIDENTIAL: National Taser Reference Group 
Organisation Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have worked with the NPCC (previously ACPO) and Amnesty International throughout 2017 - 2019 to set up the National Taser Reference Group, which brings together senior officials and decision makers from the NPCC, College of Policing, the Home Office, CAST, the IPCC and the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Medical Impact of Less Lethal Weapons as well as academics, civil society groups, medical experts and other stakeholders, in order to provide a forum for engagement, evidence-based discussion and critical scrutiny of Taser policy and practice. My ESRC Future Research Leader's funding has allowed me to play an active role in the establishment of this group, by suggesting members for the group (with all my suggestions taken up), drafting the Constitution, setting agendas and acting as group Co-ordinator between meetings up until the establishment of the Chairperson at the end of 2019. I have also included this collaboration under my PhD Award, as it was this piece of research which laid the foundations for this year.
Collaborator Contribution The NPCC and College of Policing have helped set up the Group by ensuring the attendance of key representatives at meetings, and by providing administrative support to set dates of meetings and organised facilities.
Impact A Constitution / Terms of Reference for the group has been agreed and a website is in the process of being developed. Importantly, the NPCC have shared confidential working documents amongst the Group for our thoughts on policy decisions. I was also invited to attend the Less Lethal Weapons Working Group (the high level policy and co-ordination forum comprised of representatives from the NPCC, Home Office, Ministry of Defence, DSTL, SACMILL, police forces and other stakeholders) on behalf of the Group, the only academic present. As the work of the Group is in its early stages, please keep this information confidential until the website goes live.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment 
Organisation United Nations (UN)
Department Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
PI Contribution Please see detailed description in the 'Awards and Recognition section'.
Collaborator Contribution Please see detailed description in the 'Awards and Recognition section'.
Impact Contribution to the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment and Punishment's Report to the United Nations General Assembly on 'Extra-custodial use of force and the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment' as discussed in more detail in the Awards and Recognition Section.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture and the Omega Research Foundation on a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention. 
Organisation Omega Research Foundation Ltd
PI Contribution As PI, I drafted a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention for consideration by the UN SPT, drawing together international norms and standards on this issue and providing practical tools and checklists (including a stand-alone pocket guide) to help monitoring bodies implement these norms and standards.
Collaborator Contribution i) The involvement of the UN SPT: The Practical Manual was reviewed by Sir Malcolm Evans, Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture, who commented and helped shape the draft text on three occasions. Sir Evans also enabled me to have a slot on the UN SPT's 2017 and 2018 meeting to discuss a draft version of the documents with the Committee, and then to present the final version. Looking forward, he will help me to have a slot at the June SPT Plenary Session to present the final documents later in 2018, and is assisting me on how to best engage with the Committee and other stakeholders in order to assume maximum take up of the document. He has also contributed a foreword to the document. The costs in kind listed above relate to his time, which he has given for free. I have selected the confidentiality agreement below as, although no formal confidentially agreement is in place, certain Committee meetings are usually kept confidential. ii) The involvement of the Omega Research Foundation: The Omega Research Foundation have commented and helped shape the draft text on at least five occasions, drawing on their extensive technical and human rights knowledge of weapons and restraints, and detailed knowledge of international human rights norms and standards. They also assisted with dissemination of a draft version of the document and consultation with various stakeholders (e.g. torture prevention bodies and the OSCE in summer and autumn 2017). They have also paid for designers to produce the pocket book, and to design the final report.
Impact A draft Practical Manual and Pocket Book to assist torture prevention bodies and bodies visiting prisons and other places of detention to monitor the use of weapons and restraints, including for torture and ill-treatment. This has had impacts at the global, regional and national levels. At the global level the final research was presented to the SPT in their 2018 session. This session also acted as a 'training of the trainers' allowing the SPT to apply it during their country visits and in their engagement with NPMs. Members noted the 'invaluable practical tools underpinned by high quality academic work' and the Chair noted that, 'as a direct consequence SPT members are now encouraged to ask additional questions concerning the use of torture equipment, weapons and restraints on in-country visits are better placed to follow up on and record their concerns in their confidential reportsto establish whether international standards in this area are being respected and to develop a systematic, standardised approach to documentation in this critical and neglected area'. The documents were also shared with the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, who noted that the 'excellent' research provided his team with a 'handy checklist of questions to focus on during monitoring visits. At the regional level the document was also cited extensively in the OSCE and PRI's Guidance Document on the Nelson Mandela Rules, a publication designed to assist prison staff and management to implement human rights norms and standards. At the national level the SPT, Omega, PRI, APT and the OSCE circulated the documents to the 65 NPMs and other detention monitors. In Jamaica, the oversight body INDECOM used the 'greatly helpful' research to assist in engagement with police and prison authorities and cited it in a forthcoming publication on the topic focusing on the use of baton and pepper spray. In Norway the NPM found it really valuableespecially given the scant research available out there about practices that are really at the core of torture prevention' and used them to strengthen their engagement with the Directorate of the Police over proposals to use pepper spray in police cells. In the UK the NPM noted the 'relevance for inspectors and monitors working in the UK' (NPM Co-ordinator), its utility in 'helping IMBs monitor force' (IMB Chair) and used it as an opportunity to reflect on current practice, reviewing it against their existing training on use of force for our volunteer monitors of police custody' (Independent Custody Visitors Association). In Poland, a workshop with the Polish NPM, organised jointly with the OSCE and Omega, was held at their request. Following the training, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture and the Omega Research Foundation on a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention. 
Organisation United Nations (UN)
Department Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
PI Contribution As PI, I drafted a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention for consideration by the UN SPT, drawing together international norms and standards on this issue and providing practical tools and checklists (including a stand-alone pocket guide) to help monitoring bodies implement these norms and standards.
Collaborator Contribution i) The involvement of the UN SPT: The Practical Manual was reviewed by Sir Malcolm Evans, Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture, who commented and helped shape the draft text on three occasions. Sir Evans also enabled me to have a slot on the UN SPT's 2017 and 2018 meeting to discuss a draft version of the documents with the Committee, and then to present the final version. Looking forward, he will help me to have a slot at the June SPT Plenary Session to present the final documents later in 2018, and is assisting me on how to best engage with the Committee and other stakeholders in order to assume maximum take up of the document. He has also contributed a foreword to the document. The costs in kind listed above relate to his time, which he has given for free. I have selected the confidentiality agreement below as, although no formal confidentially agreement is in place, certain Committee meetings are usually kept confidential. ii) The involvement of the Omega Research Foundation: The Omega Research Foundation have commented and helped shape the draft text on at least five occasions, drawing on their extensive technical and human rights knowledge of weapons and restraints, and detailed knowledge of international human rights norms and standards. They also assisted with dissemination of a draft version of the document and consultation with various stakeholders (e.g. torture prevention bodies and the OSCE in summer and autumn 2017). They have also paid for designers to produce the pocket book, and to design the final report.
Impact A draft Practical Manual and Pocket Book to assist torture prevention bodies and bodies visiting prisons and other places of detention to monitor the use of weapons and restraints, including for torture and ill-treatment. This has had impacts at the global, regional and national levels. At the global level the final research was presented to the SPT in their 2018 session. This session also acted as a 'training of the trainers' allowing the SPT to apply it during their country visits and in their engagement with NPMs. Members noted the 'invaluable practical tools underpinned by high quality academic work' and the Chair noted that, 'as a direct consequence SPT members are now encouraged to ask additional questions concerning the use of torture equipment, weapons and restraints on in-country visits are better placed to follow up on and record their concerns in their confidential reportsto establish whether international standards in this area are being respected and to develop a systematic, standardised approach to documentation in this critical and neglected area'. The documents were also shared with the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, who noted that the 'excellent' research provided his team with a 'handy checklist of questions to focus on during monitoring visits. At the regional level the document was also cited extensively in the OSCE and PRI's Guidance Document on the Nelson Mandela Rules, a publication designed to assist prison staff and management to implement human rights norms and standards. At the national level the SPT, Omega, PRI, APT and the OSCE circulated the documents to the 65 NPMs and other detention monitors. In Jamaica, the oversight body INDECOM used the 'greatly helpful' research to assist in engagement with police and prison authorities and cited it in a forthcoming publication on the topic focusing on the use of baton and pepper spray. In Norway the NPM found it really valuableespecially given the scant research available out there about practices that are really at the core of torture prevention' and used them to strengthen their engagement with the Directorate of the Police over proposals to use pepper spray in police cells. In the UK the NPM noted the 'relevance for inspectors and monitors working in the UK' (NPM Co-ordinator), its utility in 'helping IMBs monitor force' (IMB Chair) and used it as an opportunity to reflect on current practice, reviewing it against their existing training on use of force for our volunteer monitors of police custody' (Independent Custody Visitors Association). In Poland, a workshop with the Polish NPM, organised jointly with the OSCE and Omega, was held at their request. Following the training, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'.
Start Year 2017
 
Description National Use of Force Reporting Review 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The ESRC, via the SWDTC, funded a 12 month part-time placement between June 2015 - 2016 to enable me to provide research and advice to the National Review on Use of Force Reporting, as announced by the Home Secretary, conducted by the Home Office and National Police Chiefs' Council and led by Chief Constable David Shaw (now retired), sometimes referred to as the Shaw Review. My contribution during this placement included: i) Conducting a survey of, and writing a report on, current use of force practices and good practice, in UK forces, which was presented to the then Home Secretary, the Rt. Hon. Theresa May.ESRC/SWDTC placement funding allowed me to take up this opportunity and to conduct a baseline survey of existing practices which provided 10 recommendations to the review. This included recommendations around variables captured, publication of record-level data and the need to ensure feedback into policing policy and practice. Nine of these recommendations were taken up by CC Shaw in full or part, and all Shaw's recommendations were accepted by the then Home Secretary. As a result, as of 2017, police forces in England and Wales have started to collect and publish, on a quarterly basis, standardised data-including the ethnicity and other characteristics of those subjected to force, injury data, and the outcome of incidents-when force is used by the police. Use of force statistics will also be included in the Home Office's Annual Data Requirement for 2017 - 2018, providing a rich source of evidence to develop policing policy and practice. ii) I also provided (and continue to provide) advice on the creation, oversight and analysis of this dataset via two distinct routes of engagement. The first is membership of the Programme Board to the review, set up to provide strategic oversight to the review, and the second is membership of the Project Team of the review, set up to take the review forward between Programme Board meetings. Thanks to ESRC funding via my Future Research Leaders Award (part-time between January 2017 - March 2020), I have been able to continue to participate in both the Programme Board and the Project Team.
Collaborator Contribution The ESRC funded my research time on this collaboration between June 2015 - June 2016, via the SWDTC and the NPCC covered my travel expenses during this period As of January 2017, my ESRC Future Research Leaders' Award (which I will report on separately on ResearchFish) has allowed me to continue serving on the Programme Board and Project Team going forward.
Impact i) A survey of, and report on, current use of force practices, and good practice, in UK forces, presented to the Home Secretary. ii) Membership of the Programme Board to the review, set up to provide strategic oversight to the review. iii) Membership of the Project Team of the review, set up to take the review forward between Programme Board meetings. iv) A presentation on the survey and research findings, given at the Use of Force National Conference, Ryton, to which all 43 police forces in England and Wales, the Programme Board and Project Team were invited. v) The creation of a national use of force reporting requirement, with police forces in England and Wales collecting and regularly publishing data on their officers' use of force - whether that is a form of restraint, handcuffing, use of a Taser or irritant spray.
Start Year 2015
 
Description National Use of Force Reporting Review 
Organisation National Police Chiefs Council
PI Contribution The ESRC, via the SWDTC, funded a 12 month part-time placement between June 2015 - 2016 to enable me to provide research and advice to the National Review on Use of Force Reporting, as announced by the Home Secretary, conducted by the Home Office and National Police Chiefs' Council and led by Chief Constable David Shaw (now retired), sometimes referred to as the Shaw Review. My contribution during this placement included: i) Conducting a survey of, and writing a report on, current use of force practices and good practice, in UK forces, which was presented to the then Home Secretary, the Rt. Hon. Theresa May.ESRC/SWDTC placement funding allowed me to take up this opportunity and to conduct a baseline survey of existing practices which provided 10 recommendations to the review. This included recommendations around variables captured, publication of record-level data and the need to ensure feedback into policing policy and practice. Nine of these recommendations were taken up by CC Shaw in full or part, and all Shaw's recommendations were accepted by the then Home Secretary. As a result, as of 2017, police forces in England and Wales have started to collect and publish, on a quarterly basis, standardised data-including the ethnicity and other characteristics of those subjected to force, injury data, and the outcome of incidents-when force is used by the police. Use of force statistics will also be included in the Home Office's Annual Data Requirement for 2017 - 2018, providing a rich source of evidence to develop policing policy and practice. ii) I also provided (and continue to provide) advice on the creation, oversight and analysis of this dataset via two distinct routes of engagement. The first is membership of the Programme Board to the review, set up to provide strategic oversight to the review, and the second is membership of the Project Team of the review, set up to take the review forward between Programme Board meetings. Thanks to ESRC funding via my Future Research Leaders Award (part-time between January 2017 - March 2020), I have been able to continue to participate in both the Programme Board and the Project Team.
Collaborator Contribution The ESRC funded my research time on this collaboration between June 2015 - June 2016, via the SWDTC and the NPCC covered my travel expenses during this period As of January 2017, my ESRC Future Research Leaders' Award (which I will report on separately on ResearchFish) has allowed me to continue serving on the Programme Board and Project Team going forward.
Impact i) A survey of, and report on, current use of force practices, and good practice, in UK forces, presented to the Home Secretary. ii) Membership of the Programme Board to the review, set up to provide strategic oversight to the review. iii) Membership of the Project Team of the review, set up to take the review forward between Programme Board meetings. iv) A presentation on the survey and research findings, given at the Use of Force National Conference, Ryton, to which all 43 police forces in England and Wales, the Programme Board and Project Team were invited. v) The creation of a national use of force reporting requirement, with police forces in England and Wales collecting and regularly publishing data on their officers' use of force - whether that is a form of restraint, handcuffing, use of a Taser or irritant spray.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Appointed by the UN OHCHR and UNODC as an 'international expert' at the Caribbean Use of Force in Law Enforcement Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IN 2017 I was invited by the UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime as an 'international expert' for the Caribbean Use of Force in Law Enforcement Conference, organised jointly with INDECOM (the Jamaican police oversight body). I was responsible for developing and delivering a three day session on international standards and police use of force to policing, government and oversight bodies in the region, and for helping to draft a model Use of Force Policy.
Please note that I was asked to attend on behalf of a colleague, Neil Corney, at the Omega Research Foundation, where I work part-time. Neil was originally invited but was unable to attend so I was asked to go in his place, with expenses paid by the UN. Therefore this activity was not directly funded by the ESRC. However I have included it here as I was able to draw on and present both my PhD work on Taser, and my ESRC Future Research Leaders funded work on police use of force and Guideline Development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://opm.gov.jm/speech/caribbean-use-of-force-conference-hosted-by-indecom/
 
Description Attendance at the International Law Enforcement Forum, a 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In August 2017 I attended the International Law Enforcement Forum, a forum attended by police officials, government representatives, policy makers and industry representatives world wide and dedicated to the statement that the ' pursuit of minimal force and less-lethal options, the policy and legal aspects of developing and employing such technology, and the surrounding debates, should be conducted openly and on the basis of informed scientific and medical assessment set against clearly articulated operational requirements by professionals who have experience in policy, command, operational theaters of use and tactical deployment. This thus represented a unique chance to engage with law enforcement, and there were an estimated 50 - 60 individuals in attendance, from countries including England and Wales, Northern Ireland, the USA, Canada, with the bulk of attendees coming from American law enforcement agencies. I gave a presentation entitled 'The Need for International Standards on Less Lethal Weapons and the role of ILEF', which provoked a long discussion and questions afterwards, and wrote a short paper for inclusion in conference proceedings. This helped to raise awareness of the issues and concerns with less lethal weapons, and of statements by UN Torture Prevention bodies, and the conference organisers gave their 'thanks, Abi. We appreciate you being a presenter and an active participant in our workshop. Your perspective on the issues discussed is always welcome and very insightful'. I have listed the most significant outcome as being a change in views, opinions or behaviour only to the extent to which attendees are now more aware of the concerns and issues around less lethal weapons.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description College of Policing Guideline Scoping Committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In 2017 I was invited to participate in the newly established College of Policing's guideline committee (GC) on Safer Resolution (i.e.the management of violence and aggression by the police). This independent advisory group is tasked with considering the evidence and developing guideline recommendations on Safer Resolution, taking into account the views of stakeholders, and will also help to pilot a new approach to the development of policing guidance more generally, and is an excellent opportunity to have an impact nationally. Te group has produced a draft policy document, which is currently open for consultation (as of March 2019). . My involvement in the Group has been described by the College of Policing's Evidence and Evaluation Advisor as follows: 'Abi has been a highly valued member of the Committee. She has made thoughtful contributions during Committee meetings, drawing on her own research and challenging assertions that are not supported by evidence, and provided detailed feedback on working documentsandon the processes of guidance development.Her academic insights have helped shape the draft national guidance, and will help the College to refine its approach to developing evidence-based guidance after the initial pilot'. I am including this award in both my PhD and Future Research Leaders Award as, although the first meeting of this group happened before my Future Research Leaders Grant started, this funding has facilitated my continued involvement in the group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL https://www.app.college.police.uk/about-app/guideline-committee/
 
Description Engagement and workshop with torture prevention bodies on the Practical Manual 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity is the circulation and dissemination of the The Practical Guide to monitoring weapons and restraints in places of detention, produced in collaboration with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture and the Omega Research Foundation (please see publications for further details). This was circulated to over 80 national torture prevention bodies, and designed to enhance their capacity to monitor weapons and restraints that could be used for torture and ill-treatment, with the following impacts. In Jamaica, the oversight body INDECOM used the 'greatly helpful' research to assist in engagement with police and prison authorities and cited it in a forthcoming publication on the topic focusing on the use of baton and pepper spray. In Norway the NPM found it really valuableespecially given the scant research available out there about practices that are really at the core of torture prevention' and used them to strengthen their engagement with the Directorate of the Police over proposals to use pepper spray in police cells. In the UK the NPM noted the 'relevance for inspectors and monitors working in the UK' (NPM Co-ordinator), its utility in 'helping IMBs monitor force' (IMB Chair) and used it as an opportunity to reflect on current practice, reviewing it against their existing training on use of force for our volunteer monitors of police custody' (Independent Custody Visitors Association).

In Poland, a workshop with the Polish NPM, organised jointly with the OSCE and Omega, was held at their request. Following the training, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'.
The main output was a workshop which has enhanced the capacity of attendees to monitor the use of weapons and restraints by the police and in places of detention. Other participants noted that

• 'It was an incredibly interesting training, fascinating. From my perspective, our baseline was not very developed especially with regards to Tasers. Some technical stuff we never talked about before so I think it will give us food for thought and further development in our team'
• 'I'm very happy I could participate in the training. I appreciate your preparation very much. You ladies are great experts and(it was) very well prepared both in terms of substance and process, as well as visually, and with the use of video clips. It was top notch, perfect, it is really unique and very valuable for us'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://socialsciences.exeter.ac.uk/sociology/newsandevents/news/articles/universityofexeteracademic....
 
Description Meeting with Home Office and CAST, with Amnesty International UK and the Omega Research Foundation, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I convened a meeting between the Home Office and the Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST), myself, AMnesty International UK and the OMega Research Foundation to discuss emerging policy issues around less lethal weapons and to provide them with an update on my ESRC Future Research Leaders' research. This resulted in additional information about a review of the Home Office Code of Conduct on Firearms and Less Lethal Weapons, and a better understanding of the technical aspects of new weapons. It also gave us the chance to express some concerns about the current regulation and use of Taser and other less lethal weapons in England and Wales. Meeting notes are available on request, on the condition they are not circulated further at this stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description National Use of Force Reporting Review 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact As discussed in the collaborations section, the ESRC, via the SWDTC, funded a 12 month part-time placement between 2015 - 2016 to enable me to provide research and advice to the National Review on Use of Force Reporting, as announced by the Home Secretary, and conducted by the Home Office and National Police Chiefs' Council. My contribution (carried out between June 2015 to June 2016, on a 2.5 basis) includes:

i) Conducting a survey of, and writing a report on, current use of force practices and good practice, in UK forces, which was presented to the Home Secretary herself.

ii) Providing advice on the creation of a national use of force reporting dataset, the first ever in the UK, via two distinct routes of engagement. The first is membership of the Programme Board to the review, set up to provide strategic oversight to the review, and the second is membership of the Project Team of the review, set up to take the review forward between Programme Board meetings. ESRC funding, via my Future Research Leaders Award, has allowed me to continue to serve on the Programme Board and the Project Team from 2017 onwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.asp...
 
Description PLEASE KEEP CONFIDENTIAL - Invited Comments on College of Policing Student Officers and CED: Application for Conducted Energy Device Training and post use monitoring. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In light of on-going discussions around the roll out of the so called 'less lethal' electric-shock weapon the Taser to probationary officers, the National Police Chief's Council Lead on Less Lethal Weapons (which includes Taser) sent me a draft paper written by the College of Policing, and asked for my thoughts on the initiative. She praised my input, and in particular one of the recommendations I had made in the Less Lethal Weapons Working Group meeting, whilst the College of Policing Lead on Taser noted that I provided; 'Some very useful and thoughtful comments. Some of which we could no doubt spend a day debating!'.

As this relates to an on-going policy development, please do keep this confidential.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PLEASE KEEP CONFIDENTIAL - Presentation at an initial meeting to discuss the establishment of an 'Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security equipment that might cause harm' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Geneva Academy on Humanitarian and International Human Rights Law, Cambridge and Pretoria Universities, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) are working on developing an international Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm, so to as promote further international standards on this issue. I was one of only 20 participants, drawn from academics, the UN, donors, and civil society organisations invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, at which the future role of the group and the development of additional documents, and the process was discussed. At the request of the meeting Convenor, I also worked with a colleague to produce a short briefing on recommendations for next steps with the Working Group , and the scope of a potential document to be produced by the group. The document is available on request but participation in this meeting was conditional on confidentiality, so please do not disseminate this information further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture's 32rd meeting in the June Plenary Session 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I presented an initial draft of the Practical Manual on documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention to the SPT in June 2017, in order to try to secure their future / ongoing support for this work, and their co-operation. The Chair of the SPT has described the outcome of this presentation as follows: 'Dr. Dymond was invited to present a working draft of this research to the full plenary session of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture on the occasion of its 32rd Session in June 2017-a unique invitation--and her research was warmly welcomed. Committee members recognised the value of the research, draft report and checklist, and welcomed its contribution to our work. It is particularly important that the practical tools are underpinned by high quality academic work. This makes it easier for the Committee to establish whether and to what extent international norms and standards in this area are being respected in places of detention and allows it to develop a systematic, standardised approach to documentation in this critical and neglected area. As a direct consequence of this work, SPT members are now encouraged to ask additional questions concerning the use of torture equipment, weapons and restraints on their in-country visits and members are better placed to follow up on their concerns and to record them in their confidential visit reports'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/OPCAT/Pages/OPCATIndex.aspx
 
Description Submission on the Draft UN Human Rights Committee's General Comment No. 36 on article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, on the right to life. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In July 2017, during its 120th session, the Human Rights Committee finalised its first reading of draft General Comment on article 6 of the Covenant and invited all interested stakeholders to comment on the Committee's Draft (see below). My submission was a response to this request, and has been published on their website. The Human Rights Committee is due to produce a final draft during its meeting in 2018 and I look forward to seeing the final text and how my points have been incorporated, if at all.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CCPR/Pages/GC36-Article6Righttolife.aspx
 
Description Support for the Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture's speech to a Side Event at the United Nations meeting, October 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In 2017 I provided advice and input to the Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture's speech to a Side Event at the United Nations meeting, October 2017. This included requesting that the Chair use the occasion to highlight the Draft Practical Manual on documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention, as detailed in the 'Collaborations' section. The Chair gave me this feedback on the side event: ' In September 2017 the EU, supported by Chile and Mongolia, launched a major global initiative on the trade in torture goods. A 'side event' was organised by the Danish Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York in October at which I was invited to speak. I was delighted to be able to point to the work which the SPT had already undertaken on this topic with Dr Dymond and this was very well received and there was considerable interest at the meeting in draft manual and checklist'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017