Less Lethal Force in Law Enforcement

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: Sociology, Philosophy, Anthropology

Abstract

Use of force by law enforcement officials, including police and correctional officers, is a highly important issue. Yet whilst the situations in which these officials use firearms, and the effects of this use, are relatively well documented and understood, this is not the case with 'less lethal' weapons and 'less lethal' force. (For the purposes of this project, less lethal force, or LLF, includes the use of restraints, empty hand techniques and less lethal weapons. The latter are weapons, such as the electric-shock Taser, pepper spray or batons, intended to subdue or incapacitate rather than cause serious harm or death).

There is a recognition amongst academics and practitioners alike that this needs to change. Internationally, the current UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary and Arbitrary Executions has expressed the need for more research into LLF, as has the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture. Nationally, a recent article in Forensic Science and Medical Pathology called for research into, and better reporting of, less lethal force in the UK, as did the Experts' Meeting on Taser the PI convened in 2015 with ESRC funds. The National Police Chief's Council (NPCC) and College of Policing have stressed the pressing need for research into LLF, and the Home Secretary has called for more information on police use of less lethal force and has launched a review into Use of Force Reporting (the 'Reporting Review').

At least three key topics around less lethal weapons remain under-researched, and this project will tackle all three directly. First we lack a basic understanding of when, why, on whom, and how often, less lethal weapons are used - and whether certain groups of people (those of a particular gender, ethnic minority, mental health status or geographical origin) are more or less likely to have less lethal force used on them. This project will see the PI work closely with the National Police Chief's Council, the Home Office and UK police forces, utilizing datasets previously unavailable to academic researchers to answer such questions. Such issues are also relevant internationally, as shown by recent debates on police less lethal force in countries as varied as Armenia, Hungary and New Zealand.

Second, whilst these weapons are associated with saving lives, they have also been associated with serious injuries and fatalities. In the UK alone, several high profile deaths-including that of Ian Tomlinson and Jordan Begley-have occurred following police use of less lethal weapons. There are key questions around how so called less lethal force can impact the right to life, and their association with fatalities worldwide. Building on my PhD work focusing on injuries associated with Taser, this project will see the PI work with the UN Special Rapporteur to research the impact less lethal force has on the right to life in the UK and globally.

Third, if it is important to attend to the situations in which force is used, it is also important to look at how such force is monitored and governed. This requires working with police and government to help understand what data on less lethal force should be gathered and analyzed, and working with the independent oversight bodies that monitor places of detention (including police custody) to ensure that they have the necessary research to enable them to document the LLF used by state authorities. The UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture has highlighted the need for research to assist them in addressing and monitoring less lethal weapons and other physical infrastructure found in places of detention. The PI will work with key decision makers on these issues; with the UK government on reporting, and with oversight bodies via the SPT and its network of over 40 national bodies.

Planned Impact

Beneficiaries are split into UK & international for clarity,though in reality they are closely connected.

UK beneficiaries:
1) Individuals (100s of thousands) who have been or will be subjected to or affected by less lethal force (LLF), lawyers & UK NGOs Amnesty International & Omega Research Foundation. The latter has been involved in the development of the proposal, via a meeting to discuss bid content, and I have interviewed the former to understand their concerns. NGOs will benefit from a better understanding of circumstances in which LLF is used and why rates of Taser use vary - topics they lack capacity to research but note need more work. The research on UK LLF, the first of its kind, will deepen understanding of issues & good practice in the UK by providing new evidence, ensuring they are able to make informed decisions about where advocacy is needed. They will also benefit from meetings with civil society, academics & the civil service which will provide a safe space for them to exchange knowledge and benefit from research findings.

2) UK civil servants (incl. the NPCC, Home Office) will benefit via the PI's participation in the Use of Force Reporting Review, included at their request. Specifically they will benefit from i) research capacity & ii) insights into best practice from a social science perspective, including the need to capture certain variables.

3) UK police decision-makers & police officers will benefit from the PI's work on the reporting review, a crucial step towards the potential creation of a nationwide reporting system. The research the PI conducts on this system and/or on in-house force data will help answer crucial questions about LLF in the UK. Depending on findings it is anticipated to lead to changes in training (eg changes to techniques), police practice (eg deployment) & will promote evidence based policing.

Global beneficiaries:
4) The UN Special Rapporteur & team, who have been involved in this proposal by suggesting the work on LLF and right to life, will benefit through co-produced research in an area of long-standing concern. They will also benefit from the provision of an evidence base around the impact of LLF on the right to life which will help them push their recent call to the UN Human Rights Council for an expert body on this subject.

5) The UN Subcommittee on Torture Prevention (SPT), who have been involved in this proposal by suggesting the inclusion of co-produced research into standards for the use of non-human actors (including LLF) in detention & a manual on their documentation. Specifically, this will assist the SPT to i) conduct their own visits to places of detention & ii) to advise their network of over 40 monitoring bodies on their own visits, filling a gap in detention monitoring worldwide and helping to ensure rights of detainees.

6) Individuals who have been or will be subjected to or affected by LLF & legal representatives, NGOs & campaigners (Campaign Zero, Amnesty, Assoc. for Prevention of Torture), will benefit 3 ways. First they will gain insights into i) issues & good practice around LLF based on the UK experience, which will be applicable more broadly & ii) the connection between less lethal weapons and the right to life, both of which will help strengthen the evidence base for advocacy in their own countries. Second, they will use the manual in their own work, helping them report more effectively on the (ab)use of LLF. Third their advocacy on the creation of an international body on LLF will be strengthened by the PI's work.

7) Civil servants & police forces globally (incl. in Canada, USA, Netherlands, where the PI is linked) will benefit from a better understanding of issues & good practice around LLF in the UK & its implications. This, combined with an understanding of how LLF impacts the right to life & standards for LLF in detention will help them make decisions around which LLF to introduce and their regulation.
 
Description **This Award is still in progress at the time of writing. The information given below should not be considered full or final.**

The use of 'less lethal' force (such as electric-shock weapons, pepper spray and handcuffs) by police and prison officials has been a neglected area of research but has far reaching implications for officers, those on whom force is used and for police and state legitimacy more broadly. As such, it is thus essential that use of force is well-understood, regulated and monitored. This award has responded to these challenges by:

i) Generating detailed evidence, for the first time ever, into police use of force in England and Wales via detailed statistical analysis of use of first year's worth of data gathered under the ground-breaking use of force reporting requirement introduced in 2017. This focuses on factors associated with the use of different types of force, assaults on officers and injuries to officers and members of the public, amongst other topics. A second strand of work has focused on advancing our understanding of the electric-shock weapon the 'Taser' in England and Wales, using qualitative, mixed methods.

A firm evidence base is necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure appropriate use of force. Achieving this also requires:

ii) Enhanced guidance, regulation and training, nationally and internationally. At the national level the Award has contributed to new police guidance on Conflict Resolution (i.e. handling potentially violent situations without resorting to the use of force, where appropriate), via my membership of the drafting committee, and to new police training. I contributed to the development of a standardised training curriculum on use of force tactics such as handcuffing, empty hand techniques, baton and pepper spray, via participation on the curriculum working group. This is particularly important as previous research indicated widely differing practices between forces. At the international level, I helped develop new United Nations Guidance on Less-Lethal Weapons in Law Enforcement, via participation in the Academic Working Group which drafted the text. This is timely as previous international standards are dated and have not kept pace with technological development.

iii) Enhanced capacity of detention monitoring and torture prevention bodies. Working alongside the UN Subcomittee for the Prevention of Torture (SPT) and the Omega Research Foundation, the award produced a Practical Manual to assist torture prevention bodies in documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention. This has been warmly welcomed at the international level by the UN SPT, the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and the OSCE Torture Prevention Lead. At the national level it has been circulated to over 80 national torture prevention bodies, translated into 7 languages, used as a baseline to assess police policies and practices in Jamaica and formed the basis for specialist trainings for detention monitoring bodies in Poland, Slovenia, Indonesia, Brazil and Uzbekistan. Closer to home, my appointment to Her Majesty's Inspectorate of the Constabulary's External Reference Group on Legitimacy has allowed me to directly shape their policies and practices on monitoring force.
Exploitation Route Substantively, my research-described as 'ground-breaking' by the College of Policing-has, for the first time, been able to explore factors associated with use of force in England and Wales. It has provided valuable evidence of issues of concern around ethnic disparities, mental health and single crewing, to name a few factors, and points to important areas for exploration by future work. Methodologically, by utilising the use of force data generated by the new reporting system in England and Wales-a form which I played an important role in developing, and which has resulted in police use of force data becoming publicly accessible-this research a) reinforces to the police and other key decision makers the value of capturing such data; b) demonstrates to academics and other stakeholders the rich potential of such data resources for their work; and c) highlights further improvements that could be made to the existing data collection. Theoretically, my work on Taser, actor-network theory and Science and Technology Studies has opened up new research questions around the contribution, effects and 'agency' of less lethal technologies. This highlights new avenues for work on policing and on the exercise of discretion by street level bureaucrats more broadly. Please note this statement has focused on 'academic routes' specified in your question; for 'non-academic routes' please see the narrative impact section.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description Analysis of the use of force data is being 'used to support improvements to officer safety training and to inform future policies in this area' (Home Office statistician) and to help the National Police Chief's Council 'examine national policy and practice'. It also helped inform the College of Policing's 'analysis and recommendations to Chief Constables' as part of the National Review of Officer Safety. New national training and guidance in England and Wales and new United Nations standards
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Capacity building on Use of Force Monitoring for the Independent Monitoring Board at Exeter Prison
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact I was personally invited to develop and present a series of bespoke, tailored briefings and resources for the Independent Monitoring Board at Exeter Prison, based on the Practical Manual on documenting weapons and restraints developed through ESRC funding. This has directly impacted their practice and strengthened their capacity to monitor force in the institution. This is particularly important as Independent Monitoring Boards are part of the UK National Preventive Mechanism under the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and have a remit to monitor day to day life in their local prison and ensure that proper standards of care and decency are maintained. Previous reports of conditions in Exeter Prison by the IMB and Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons have indicated concern around the use of force, and the way in which it is reported and analysed, in the establishment. The Chair of IMB Exeter noted that 'I personally requested Dr. Dymond's input and advice on our current practice around use of force monitoring, as this is an issue of some importance for theIMB in Exeter and elsewhere. Abi's briefings and presentations have assisted us to improve our monitoring of the use of force in Exeter Prison, both by encouraging us to bring greater focus to this issue and helping us to do so in an effective and systematic manner. As a result of her briefings, the Board is better equipped to comment on the use of force incidents we observe on our monitoring visits; to review use of force paperwork, statistics and other records; and to assess the use of force governance in the Institution. Consequently, we are better able to recognise good practice around the use of force, to identify and advocate for change where necessary, and thereby help to monitor and protect the rights of prisoners in situations where force may be used. This is a crucial issue, given the relatively high levels of use of force in Exeter Prison, recent concerns expressed by the HMIP, the vulnerability of many in the prison population and the possible introduction of PAVA and Taser in the future'.
 
Description Developing national use of force and officer safety training
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Helped shape new United Nations Guidance on the use of Less Lethal Weapons
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact While law enforcement officials frequently use less-lethal weapons during assemblies, international United Nations guidance on their design, production, procurement, testing, training, transfer, and use was lacking. This new guidance, drafted by an international Academic Expert Group, to which I was personally appointed by the Convenor of the Expert Group, and member of the UN Human Rights Committee, Professor Christof Heyns, aims to fill this gap by providing direction on the lawful and responsible use of less-lethal weapons and related equipment and, as such, to help ensure appropriate use (and minimise misuse) by police and other state agents. The impact of this new United Nations guidance has the potential to be considerable. As Professor Christof Heyns has noted, 'the publication of this guidance is an important step forward in ensuring the proportionate, lawful and accountable use of less lethal weapons and restraints' and the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) similarly noted the importance of the guidance, explaining that 'OHCHR relies on the guidelines when conducting legal and technical review of statements by the High Commissioner related to use of force...OHCHR field offices and special missions also rely on the guidelines to determine whether law enforcement officers have used force and less-lethal weapons improperly[For example, our] human rights monitoring missions in Chile and Bolivia are relying on the document as they assess the law enforcement response to current protest. The guidance document advances our understanding of the international norms and standards on the use of less lethal weapons, thereby promoting accountability among law enforcement officials and non-violent behavior by civilians' (Sec 5, ref 17). The Convenor of the Expert Group, and member of the UN Human Rights Committee, Professor Christof Heyns, noted that my contribution, made possible thanks to this grant, was 'particularly valued and directly led to changes in the text, including the wording and evidence base on the section on specific risks associated with Taser, the list of equipment that should not be used by law enforcement and recommendations on use of force reporting'. He further noted that 'the publication of this guidance is an important step forward in ensuring the proportionate, lawful and accountable use of less lethal weapons and restraints, and Dr Dymond has played an important role in its' development' (Sec 5, ref 17).
URL https://www.geneva-academy.ch/news/detail/269-new-human-rights-guidance-on-the-use-of-less-lethal-we...
 
Description Impact on the work of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Please see my entry in the 'Engagement Section'.
 
Description Influence on HMIC Police Inspections
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Her Majesty's Inspectorate of the Constabulary and Fire and Rescue Services, or HMICFRS, has a mandate to independently assess and inspect police forces in England and Wales. In designing and evaluating its inspection methodology, HMICFRS holds external reference groups with subject matter experts, in order to gather the views of external partners and stakeholders and draw on knowledge and expertise nationally. I was personally appointed to membership of the External Reference Group that focuses on assessing police legitimacy, including police use of force and stop and search. In this capacity I attended 2 meetings in 2019 to shape the questions, techniques and broader methodologies used by HMIC in their future police inspections, also referred to as PEEL (Police Effectiveness Efficiency and Legitimacy) inspections. This included directly shaping their questions and points of observation on police use of force, which should help improve the quality of their independent assessments going forward. Further information about the PEEL inspections can be found at the link detailed below.
 
Description Influence on Practice - detention monitoring in Uzbekistan
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact A workshop, delivered with the OSCE Office in Uzbekistan, the UN Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Regional Office for Central Asia and the University of Bristol Human Rights Implementation Centre, directly impacted the practice of newly established torture prevention and detention monitors in Uzbekistan. A recent Presidential Decree in Uzbekistan has given the National Human Rights Centre the right to freely visit prisons and other places of detention for the first time and the workshop gave them practical assistance on how to fulfill their new mandate, thus helping to enhance torture prevention, monitoring and the regulatory environment around prisons in Uzbekistan. The workshop gave participants practical skills by familiarising them with international practice in monitoring places of detention and developing their skills in monitoring and preparing an inspection report, including but not limited to skills around monitoring and reporting use of force in such environments. Following the workshop, participants reported higher levels of understanding around the importance of independent monitoring of places of detention, including monitoring and reporting the use of weapons, restraints, electric-shock devices, such as Taser, and other force in prisons and other places of detention. Further details may be available on request, pending clarification of confidentiality.
 
Description Input into UN Special Rapporteur on Torture's Report to the UN General Assembly
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The UN Special Rapporteur presented this report to the UN General Assembly in July 2017. According to the UN Special Rapporteur himself, this report is important as 'ill-treatment in extra-custodial contexts ...(has) increased. The tighter the custody net...(becomes) the more likely abuse would move outside of that context, and extensive cases of abuse were occurring in the "wilderness" of extra-custodial settings, including at border crossings, which was also relevant in the migration context' .(https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/gashc4204.doc.htm). This report is intended to address this issue. Of the recommendations that I made on the first draft of the report, several were adopted in the final document that was presented to the General Assembly, including a recommendation that certain weapons (specifically body worn electric-shock belts and spiked shields) be classed as inherently cruel, inhuman or degrading (see the report listed in the url below at paragraph 51), and that States report and collect statistics on their use of force (paragraph 70). They also included one of my recommendations that, when deciding and reviewing which weapons are suitable for use by police officers and other officials, States should take into account 'the nature and severity of the... pain and suffering...inflicted' (see the report listed below, paragraph 60). As such it is hoped that this report will contribute towards an improved regulatory environment to assist with the implementation of the prohibition on torture and ill-treatment internationally.
URL http://undocs.org/A/72/178
 
Description Invited to input into Draft United Nations OHCHR Manual on Human Rights Training for Law Enforcement
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Model Use of Force Policy in the Caribbean
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact IN 2017 I was invited by the UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime as an 'international expert' for the Caribbean Use of Force in Law Enforcement Conference, organised jointly with INDECOM (the Jamaican police oversight body). I was responsible for developing and delivering a three day session on international standards and police use of force to policing, government and oversight bodies in the region, and for helping to draft a model Use of Force Policy. The impact of this work has been described by the UN Resident Co-ordinator's Office in Jamaica as follows: 'The Conference was an important experience and your contribution was critical for the good outcome beyond any doubt. I would even say it would not have been possible without your dedicated work in the caucuses. I know you made an exceptional effort outside your normal busy agenda. It contributed a great deal to the overall outcome of the Conference. I am confident that the process started will lead to a result that will set a sign in the police reform agenda in the Caribbean. The exposure to such a discussion was a unique experience to date and may not change the practice overnight, but a reflection process is indeed underway. To myself, it was very enriching to have you known and to learn from your experience and expertise'. Please note that I was asked to attend on behalf of a colleague, Neil Corney, at the Omega Research Foundation, where I work part-time. Neil was originally invited but was unable to attend so I was asked to go in his place, with expenses paid by the UN. Therefore this activity was not directly funded by the ESRC. However I have included it here as I was able to draw on and present both my PhD work on Taser, and my ESRC Future Research Leaders funded work on police use of force and Guideline Development.
URL http://www.coha.org/jamaica-moves-to-regulate-the-use-of-force-in-law-enforcement/
 
Description Participation on College of Policing's Guideline Committee, producing national Guidance and pilot training materials
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact As detailed in the engagement section, in 2016 I was invited to participate in the newly established College of Policing's guideline committee (GC) on Safer Resolution (i.e. additional guidance on how police officers can resolve potentially violent confrontations without the use of force, where this is appropriate). This independent advisory group was tasked with considering the evidence and developing guideline recommendations on Safer Resolution, taking into account the views of stakeholders, and will also help to pilot a new evidence based approach to the development of policing guidance more generally, thus contributing to an improved regulatory environment. The group has produced a draft policy document, which was released to public consultation and is shortly to be published. Furthermore, I was one of a selected group of Guideline Committee members invited to participate in the development of police training based on this guidance. Via participation in a Curriculum Development Day, I helped to develop training curriculum and materials that are due to be piloted with two police forces in England and Wales and aim to help officers further develop their communication, de-escalation and conflict resolution skills, minimising--where possible--the use of force. I am including this award in both my PhD and Future Research Leaders Award as, although the first meeting of this group happened before my Future Research Leaders Grant started, this funding has facilitated my continued involvement in the group and participation in subsequent meetings to develop the Guidance and to develop the pilot training.
URL https://www.app.college.police.uk/about-app/guideline-committee/
 
Description Training and dissemination of resource to national, regional and international torture prevention bodies
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The activity is the circulation and dissemination of the The Practical Guide to monitoring weapons and restraints in places of detention, produced in collaboration with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture and the Omega Research Foundation (please see publications for further details). This was circulated to over 80 national torture prevention bodies, and designed to enhance their capacity to monitor weapons and restraints that could be used for torture and ill-treatment. Training sessions were also conducted in Poland, Slovenia and Uzbekistan with the following impacts. AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL: At the national level: In Poland, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'. Other participants in the Polish and Slovenian workshops noted that • 'It was an incredibly interesting training, fascinating. From my perspective, our baseline was not very developed especially with regards to Tasers. Some technical stuff we never talked about before so I think it will give us food for thought and further development in our team'. • 'I have learned a lot. The training outlined many crucial aspects...and I leave with a better understanding'. • 'I'm very happy I could participate in the training. I appreciate your preparation very much. You ladies are great experts and(it was) very well prepared both in terms of substance and process, as well as visually, and with the use of video clips. It was top notch, perfect, it is really unique and very valuable for us'. As a result, the workshops not only benefitted the 46 direct participants (11 from the Polish workshop, 21 from the Uzbek workshop and 14 from the Slovenian workshop) but, in turn, resulted in national bodies in Poland, Slovenia and Uzbekistan being better equipped to monitor the use of weapons and restraints, including electric-shock weapons, by police and prison officials in their respective countries, thus helping to enhance oversight, monitoring and accountability and contributing towards the prevention of torture and ill-treatment. Further workshops, drawing on the Practical Guide, were also held by collaboration the Omega Research Foundation in their focus countries, Brazil and Indonesia. The resources have also had additional impact on national bodies, outside of the training workshops offered. The national torture prevention body (the Norwegian Parliamentary Ombudsman and National Preventive Mechanism) which has a mandate to monitor places of detention in Norway, and places abroad where the Norwegian government exercises jurisdiction, 'found (the research and resources) really valuableespecially given the scant research available out there about practices that are really at the core of torture prevention'. Reports from the NPM had found concerns about the 'questionable' use of pepper spray in Norwegian prisons, including concerns around it's 'necessity and proportionality' 8,.as well as concerns over the use of restraint chairs and police use of force on children in child welfare institutions. They used the Practical Guide-in particular the information around irritant spray-to help inform their engagement with the Directorate of the Police over proposals to use pepper spray in police custody suites. This included using the information in the 'excellent report' to inform their written response to draft police guidelines for the use of pepper spray inside cells. The research helped the NPM to express their 'misgivings' about the proposal, drawing on international and regional norms and standards, and to highlight the lack of 'proper safeguards' in the proposed guidance. As a direct result of their input, 'the authorities introduced stricter safeguards and safety requirements when using (the spray) in confined spaces'.9 In Jamaica, the oversight body The Independent Commission of Investigations (INDECOM) used the research as a 'benchmark' against which to assess the policies and practices of the Jamaican police and prison service around batons and pepper spray. This is a significant area of concern, with INDECOM receiving 208 complaints on the use of these weapons between January 2016 - October 2018. Using the Practical Guide, alongside other resources, INDECOM assessed the training, guidance and accountability around the use of these weapons, as well as their technical features. This resulted in INDECOM issuing nine recommendations to the police and prisons to improve the use and accountability for use of less lethal force- the first time that INDECOM had publicly made specific recommendations for the Jamaican police and prison service in this area 10. As a result, INDECOM is better equipped to monitor and hold the Jamaican police and prison service to account for their use of force, and to advocate for changes to policies and practices where necessary. At the regional level, the ODIHR Torture Prevention Lead noted that the workshops 'directly helped me in my role as Advisor on Torture Prevention for the OSCE/ODIHR. This was an area that I hadn't previously been working on, and Dr. Dymond's extensive knowledge and expertise as well as this particular research helped me to develop my understanding and to develop my own practice monitoring and documenting of the use and misuse of less lethal weapons and restraints, related international and regional human rights standards and OSCE commitments. As a direct result, I am now better equipped to monitor the situation of torture and other ill-treatment and provide advice, assistance and capacity-building workshops to States, national human rights institutions (NHRIs), national torture prevention mechanisms and civil society organisations in the 57 OSCE participating states. These include countries in Europe, South Caucasus, Central Asia and North America. At the international level, the Chair of the SPT noted the importance of the 'practical tools underpinned by high quality academic work' that stated that they have 'really brought to light something so important and really got us all to think about it in ways in which we never had before. If this is not impact, what is!'. The resources are now a part of the SPT visit package and, as a direct consequence, SPT members have: • been 'encouraged to ask additional questions concerning the use of torture equipment, weapons and restraints on in-country visits' • become 'better placed to follow up on and record their concerns in their confidential reports' • become 'Better able to establish whether international standards in this area are being respected' • 'developed a systematic, standardised approach to documentation in this critical and neglected area'.
URL http://www.varuh-rs.si/media-centre/work-and-news/news/detajl/training-on-the-monitoring-of-the-use-...
 
Description Use of Force Data Analysis Findings
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The analysis conducted of the first year's data gathered under the new police use of force reporting scheme (conducted together with the College of Policing, please see the collaboration section for further details) has the potential to inform the policies and practices of a key public service (the police) in a highly sensitive and important area (use of force), where there has been very little research and evidence based practice to date. At the national level, Amy Baxter, the Interim Head of Profession for Statistics at the Home Office, noted that this 'valuable' work 'has provided evidence for the first time on some high profile issues, including tactic use and officer safety, and use of force by ethnicity. Their work has paved the way for further analysis on the 2018/19 data and can be used to support improvements to officer safety training and to inform future policies in this area'. At the National Police Chief's Council, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Matt Twist noted his commitment to 'examining the implications that this research has for national policy and practice around use of force, in my role as NPCC Self-Defence, Arrest and Restraint Lead, as well as any implications for the Metropolitan Police, in my role as Deputy Assistant Commissioner' (Sec 5, ref 5). Furthermore, the Evidence and Evaluation Advisor at the College of Policing noted that the research was 'cited extensively' in his briefing for the National Review of Office Safety and 'helped inform my analysis and recommendations to Chief Constables and senior police chiefs'.
URL https://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.as...
 
Description Use of Force Reporting Review and Programme Board
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact My membership of the Programme Board and the Project Team, bodies set up to provide strategic oversight and practical input on the National Review of Police Use of Force Reporting, has enabled me to advise on the creation and implementation of a national use of force reporting dataset, which was introduced for the first time in April 2017. At the time of writing many of my recommendations and inputs have been considered, including: 1) Advice on the objectives of the Review (i.e. the need to ensure that the data captured is used to identify changes to policy and practice that need to be made). 2) Advice on the scope of the review (i.e. what kinds of use of force should be reported, specifically handcuffing, the drawing of weapons and improvised use of force techniques). 3) Advice on the scope of the review (i.e. that a form be filled out not only by police officers, but by any police employee who has used force, regardless of their position. This will help capture occasions where force is used by PCSOs and Specials). 4) Advice on the specific variables recorded (i.e. that severity of injury to officer and subject be captured; that the order in which force is used be captured; that subject resistance and presence of a weapon be captured; that the number of times Taser is fired be captured; whether Taser is available at the scene be captured, and whether Taser is used by an Authorised FIrearms Officer or Specially Trained Officer). 5) Advice on how the data should be recorded (i.e. a) through using a system of officer based reporting, with incident numbers so that records can be linked and b) that the system of officer based reporting requires a new form to be filled out every time an officer uses force on a particular subject - so if an officer uses force against two individuals in the same incident, two forms are filled out). 6) Advice on process (i.e. that a new reporting system should be introduced for all types of use of force simultaneously, instead of adopting a phased approach) 7) Advice on process (i.e. that the existing Taser forms should not be withdrawn until the system is up and running to replace them). 8) Advice on transparency of process (i.e. that documents relating to the review - e.g. minutes, terms of reference - should be proactively published. This has been agreed in principle, but at the time of writing the documents have not been made publicly available). 9) Advice on transparency of data (i.e. that original, raw data should be made publicly available by forces, as well as summarised by the Home Office Annual Data Requirement). 10) Advice on analysis of the data (i.e. that who will be responsible for analysing the data generated needs to be considered at the earliest stages, and when data collection is being designed). 11) Advice on analysis of the data (i.e. given that the longer term medical and psychological implications of force are understudied, the police and external agencies / researchers should be able to use this data as a starting point to conduct further research on this topic). Although some recommendations made have not been adopted either in full, or in part, the advice that has been adopted has has helped not only to ensure the creation of a national system for use of force reporting, but to ensure many variables of interest are captured within this system, and will be made publicly available for further analysis. Several of the key stakeholders involved in the Review have provided testimonies on the contribution that I have made to the process, which include the following: Detective Chief Inspector Paul Moxley (June 2015 to January 2016): Abi has been an instrumental part of a small project team undertaking initial work regarding the National recording of use of force across all 43 Police Forces. Her initial research worked focused on a baseline assessment to enable the team to determine the current 'as is' picture. From this initial work, Abi was able to identify trends and areas of concern, as well as some best practice which enabled the team to focus in on certain Forces who were already undertaking some ground breaking initiatives. Abi's contribution has been consistent and continuous throughout, and she continues to be an integral part of the multi partnership team. Her academic rigour and challenge has been both insightful and constructive during the development of detailed National metrics criteria which will undoubtedly change for the better the way that the UK police service records, analyses and publishes use of force data going forward. I would certainly consider taking on another placement student for such work should the opportunity arise in the future. Inspector James Ashton (January 2016 to June 2016): Abi provided great support to both the Project and Programme Team. Her academic background and experience gave a degree of independent credibility to the work of both groups and an added dimension and quality to the research phase of the project. Her approach was both supportive and constructively challenging and helped the team to better understand some of the information identified. Her assistance in the data review stage of the programme will be invaluable and I would thoroughly recommend academic support in any similar programme or project. Chief Constable David Shaw: The addition of Abigail Dymond as a PhD student to the Use of Force Programme brought a level of academic scrutiny and independence that would otherwise have been absent. Her experience, academic rigor and unbiased approach ensured that the "products" created by the Programme Board were academically and philosophically relevant and that any proposals from the board were held to account against independent standards. I am delighted to hear that further funding has been identified so that she can continue to support this piece of work as it progresses into the data collection and review phase. Neil Pattinson, Home Office: As the sole academic representative to the National Use of Force Data Review, Abi has made an invaluable contribution, both at the Programme Board level setting the direction and evaluating progress of the work, and as a key member of the Project Team tasked with delivery of the review. As well as providing drafting and editing solutions, Abi's research into the current status of police use of force recording provided a vital evidence base for the review, and an essential platform on which meaningful recommendations could be made on recording of data in the future. Utilising her extensive knowledge of police use of force and Taser, Abi provided real insight throughout this work, and her dedication and effort have been greatly appreciated. The Use of Force Data Review will make a real difference in increasing transparency on how the police use force in the future, and Abi has made a significant contribution in its successful delivery. Inspector Nick Sutcliffe (staff officer to the review from June 2016 to present day): 'Abi's unstinting enthusiasm and academic insight have been central to the development of this ambitious, unprecedented, and often very challenging, programme of work. Her on-going contribution has recently attracted the support of leading researchers from the College of Policing and University College London, who have combined their knowledge and resources to help ensure the future success of this programme.' Moreover, the creation of a unified use of force reporting system for all police forces in England and Wales has been described by The Minister of State for Fire and Policing, Brandon Lewis, as 'a significant factor in improving public trust and confidence in the police use of force. Improved transparency will contribute to delivering a real commitment on behalf of the police to respond to the genuine concerns raised by the public. For the first time, this data will allow meaningful comparison across the range of techniques and tactics used by the police, and this should in time directly influence and strengthen police training, and operational decisions around the most appropriate tactics and equipment available where needed. It will allow scrutiny of why force is being used, which will provide invaluable insight, particularly in respect of minority and vulnerable groups, and in locations of concern, such as hospitals, mental health institutions and custody cells'.
URL http://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.asp...
 
Description ESRC Celebrating Impact Award
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
 
Title National Use of Force Reporting 
Description From April 2017 onwards, following the national Use of Force Reporting Review which I have been advising on (see Engagement and Impact sections), police forces in England and Wales have started to collect and publish, on a quarterly basis, standardised data-including the ethnicity and other characteristics of those subjected to force, injury data, and the outcome of incidents-when force is used by the police. A subset of these statistics have also been published by the Home Office, providing a rich source of evidence to develop policing policy and practice.The National Police Chief Council Lead for Self-Defence, Arrest and Restraint describes this development as follows: 'Police officers have always held information about how and why they used force in a particular situation but this was contained in evidence notes rather than a consistent, formal procedure across all forces.We have now provided forces with a template form, which has been designed to collect the right information without being unduly bureaucratic for officers. The form consolidates other additional forms of monitoring, such as Taser recording... police forces will be regularly publishing data on their officers' use of force - whether that is a form of restraint, handcuffing, use of a Taser or irritant spray'. Many forces are publishing data on their websites quarterly as well as providing it to the Home Office annual data requirement. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The collection and analysis of Use of Force data has had impact on police practice. Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary notes that at least 30 forces have been using the dataset to inform their own policies and practices, including; Cumbria, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, Durham, Greater Manchester, Humberside, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Merseyside, Northumbria, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, and my research indicates that this is also happening in South Wales too. This list is not exhaustive, as other forces, may well be using the data collection to inform policy and practice,but these forces have been considered to have elements that others may learn from. The use of force data-set has also encouraged newspaper reporting on use of force incidents, with over 20 news stories featuring statistics gathered from the new Use of Force Reporting Requirement. These have highlighted important issues about police use of force locally, the use of force on children, and concerns about disproportionate use on ethnic minorities. A selection of these are shown below (accessed 12th March 2018): Local newspapers: 1. https://www.northamptonchron.co.uk/news/northamptonshire-police-officers-used-force-4-452-in-one-year-1-8393985 2. https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/police-use-force-against-suspects-138-times-a-day-in-london-figures-show-a3601176.html 3. https://www.getwestlondon.co.uk/news/west-london-news/new-figures-reveal-use-force-13413348 4. https://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/crime/yorkshire-police-forces-reveal-how-often-officers-use-force-and-the-number-of-police-dog-bites-1-8690846 5. https://www.plymouthherald.co.uk/news/plymouth-news/city-police-use-force-50-514222 6. https://www.cambridge-news.co.uk/news/cambridgeshire-polcie-use-force-children-13392460 7. http://www.dorsetecho.co.uk/news/15550808._Our_officers_face_dangerous_situations_every_day___Shock_figures_show_extent_of_assaults_faced_by_police/ 8. https://www.hemeltoday.co.uk/news/use-of-force-statistics-revealed-for-hertfordshire-police-1-8078649 9. https://www.devonlive.com/news/devon-news/how-often-police-use-pepper-515200 Specialty Press: 10. http://www.policeprofessional.com/news.aspx?id=29807 11. http://www.polfed.org/blogs?item=123 12. http://www.fsmatters.com/page_869254.asp National and international Press: 13. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/metropolitan-police-force-statistics-brutality-guns-tasers-black-people-disproportionate-ethnic-a7871811.html 14. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/jul/08/police-criticise-staggering-bureaucracy-for-recording-use-of-force 15. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/aug/01/met-police-using-force-against-disproportionately-large-number-of-black-people 16. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/metropolitan-police-officers-use-force-every-ten-minutes-zvhq2sq0m 17. https://news.sky.com/story/met-police-officers-aimed-guns-at-suspects-three-times-a-day-figures-reveal-10969720 18. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/metropolitan-police-use-of-force_uk_598067f3e4b0d6e28a1065e2 19. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-40535694 20. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4735360/Force-admits-handcuffed-runaway-child-aged-just-TEN.html 
URL http://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.asp...
 
Description Academic Working Group drafting new UN standards on Less Lethal Weapons 
Organisation Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights
Country Switzerland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The organisations listed above, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) set up an international Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons to advise and directly input into the drafting of new United Nations guidance on this topic. I was one of only 20 participants invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, and I participated in several additional meetings throughout 2018 - 2019, in Geneva and Cambridge, and inputted directly into the draft text of the document. For further details, please see the influencing policy and practice section.
Collaborator Contribution The Geneva Academy, Cambridge and Pretoria organised a series of meetings in Geneva and London to which I was invited (see detailed description above), with the Geneva Academy covering the cost of flights and hotel.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in the development of new United Nations Guidance on Less Lethal Weapons in Law Enforcement (an advance edited version of which is available here https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CCPR/LLW_Guidance.pdf). The outcomes and impact of this are discussed in more detail in the section on practices and policies below.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Academic Working Group drafting new UN standards on Less Lethal Weapons 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The organisations listed above, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) set up an international Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons to advise and directly input into the drafting of new United Nations guidance on this topic. I was one of only 20 participants invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, and I participated in several additional meetings throughout 2018 - 2019, in Geneva and Cambridge, and inputted directly into the draft text of the document. For further details, please see the influencing policy and practice section.
Collaborator Contribution The Geneva Academy, Cambridge and Pretoria organised a series of meetings in Geneva and London to which I was invited (see detailed description above), with the Geneva Academy covering the cost of flights and hotel.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in the development of new United Nations Guidance on Less Lethal Weapons in Law Enforcement (an advance edited version of which is available here https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CCPR/LLW_Guidance.pdf). The outcomes and impact of this are discussed in more detail in the section on practices and policies below.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Academic Working Group drafting new UN standards on Less Lethal Weapons 
Organisation University of Pretoria
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The organisations listed above, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) set up an international Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons to advise and directly input into the drafting of new United Nations guidance on this topic. I was one of only 20 participants invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, and I participated in several additional meetings throughout 2018 - 2019, in Geneva and Cambridge, and inputted directly into the draft text of the document. For further details, please see the influencing policy and practice section.
Collaborator Contribution The Geneva Academy, Cambridge and Pretoria organised a series of meetings in Geneva and London to which I was invited (see detailed description above), with the Geneva Academy covering the cost of flights and hotel.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in the development of new United Nations Guidance on Less Lethal Weapons in Law Enforcement (an advance edited version of which is available here https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CCPR/LLW_Guidance.pdf). The outcomes and impact of this are discussed in more detail in the section on practices and policies below.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with the College of Policing, NPCC and Programme Board on Use of Force Reporting 
Organisation College of Policing
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Together with a colleague at the University of Exeter, I analysed a subset of the 1st year's data gathered under the new police use of force reporting requirement, focusing on factors associated with Taser, the use of various types of force, injuries to officers and members of the public, assaults on officers and hospitalisation of members of the public. This data was requested for us by the National Police Chief's Council and was gathered and cleaned by the College of Policing, who also assisted in the analysis, interpretation and drafting of outputs. I have indicated a contribution in kind to reflect the contribution of time that multiple individuals in the College dedicated to the cleaning and processing of the data.
Collaborator Contribution As above, the National Police Chief's Council requested the data and it was then gathered and cleaned by the College of Policing, who also assisted in the analysis, interpretation and drafting of outputs. The data was shared with us on the condition that we do not provide access to it outside of the team, and that all researchers on the team are police vetted. for this reason I have indicated it is covered by an agreement and have ticked the box below.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in: i) A joint presentation to the Programme Board in November 2019 presenting the interim results of the research (the high level strategic advisory board for the Use of Force Reporting Review, which includes the NPCC, Home Office, College of Policing, the Independent Office of Police Conduct and Her Majesty's Inspectorate of the Constabulary, amongst other members) ii) A presentation of interim results to the UK NPM (National Preventive Mechanism under the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture) Police Custody Group. iii) A briefing for the Officer Safety Review iv) A forthcoming publication with the College of Policing presenting an overview of results
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment 
Organisation United Nations (UN)
Department Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Please see detailed description in the 'Awards and Recognition section'.
Collaborator Contribution Please see detailed description in the 'Awards and Recognition section'.
Impact Contribution to the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment and Punishment's Report to the United Nations General Assembly on 'Extra-custodial use of force and the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment' as discussed in more detail in the Awards and Recognition Section.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture and the Omega Research Foundation on a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention. 
Organisation Omega Research Foundation Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution As PI, I drafted a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention for consideration by the UN SPT, drawing together international norms and standards on this issue and providing practical tools and checklists (including a stand-alone pocket guide) to help monitoring bodies implement these norms and standards.
Collaborator Contribution i) The involvement of the UN SPT: The Practical Manual was reviewed by Sir Malcolm Evans, Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture, who commented and helped shape the draft text on three occasions. Sir Evans also enabled me to have a slot on the UN SPT's 2017 and 2018 meeting to discuss a draft version of the documents with the Committee, and then to present the final version. Looking forward, he will help me to have a slot at the June SPT Plenary Session to present the final documents later in 2018, and is assisting me on how to best engage with the Committee and other stakeholders in order to assume maximum take up of the document. He has also contributed a foreword to the document. The costs in kind listed above relate to his time, which he has given for free. I have selected the confidentiality agreement below as, although no formal confidentially agreement is in place, certain Committee meetings are usually kept confidential. ii) The involvement of the Omega Research Foundation: The Omega Research Foundation have commented and helped shape the draft text on at least five occasions, drawing on their extensive technical and human rights knowledge of weapons and restraints, and detailed knowledge of international human rights norms and standards. They also assisted with dissemination of a draft version of the document and consultation with various stakeholders (e.g. torture prevention bodies and the OSCE in summer and autumn 2017). They have also paid for designers to produce the pocket book, and to design the final report.
Impact A draft Practical Manual and Pocket Book to assist torture prevention bodies and bodies visiting prisons and other places of detention to monitor the use of weapons and restraints, including for torture and ill-treatment. This has had impacts at the global, regional and national levels. At the global level the final research was presented to the SPT in their 2018 session. This session also acted as a 'training of the trainers' allowing the SPT to apply it during their country visits and in their engagement with NPMs. Members noted the 'invaluable practical tools underpinned by high quality academic work' and the Chair noted that, 'as a direct consequence SPT members are now encouraged to ask additional questions concerning the use of torture equipment, weapons and restraints on in-country visits are better placed to follow up on and record their concerns in their confidential reportsto establish whether international standards in this area are being respected and to develop a systematic, standardised approach to documentation in this critical and neglected area'. The documents were also shared with the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, who noted that the 'excellent' research provided his team with a 'handy checklist of questions to focus on during monitoring visits. At the regional level the document was also cited extensively in the OSCE and PRI's Guidance Document on the Nelson Mandela Rules, a publication designed to assist prison staff and management to implement human rights norms and standards. At the national level the SPT, Omega, PRI, APT and the OSCE circulated the documents to the 65 NPMs and other detention monitors. In Jamaica, the oversight body INDECOM used the 'greatly helpful' research to assist in engagement with police and prison authorities and cited it in a forthcoming publication on the topic focusing on the use of baton and pepper spray. In Norway the NPM found it really valuableespecially given the scant research available out there about practices that are really at the core of torture prevention' and used them to strengthen their engagement with the Directorate of the Police over proposals to use pepper spray in police cells. In the UK the NPM noted the 'relevance for inspectors and monitors working in the UK' (NPM Co-ordinator), its utility in 'helping IMBs monitor force' (IMB Chair) and used it as an opportunity to reflect on current practice, reviewing it against their existing training on use of force for our volunteer monitors of police custody' (Independent Custody Visitors Association). In Poland, a workshop with the Polish NPM, organised jointly with the OSCE and Omega, was held at their request. Following the training, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture and the Omega Research Foundation on a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention. 
Organisation United Nations (UN)
Department Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution As PI, I drafted a Practical Manual for documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention for consideration by the UN SPT, drawing together international norms and standards on this issue and providing practical tools and checklists (including a stand-alone pocket guide) to help monitoring bodies implement these norms and standards.
Collaborator Contribution i) The involvement of the UN SPT: The Practical Manual was reviewed by Sir Malcolm Evans, Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture, who commented and helped shape the draft text on three occasions. Sir Evans also enabled me to have a slot on the UN SPT's 2017 and 2018 meeting to discuss a draft version of the documents with the Committee, and then to present the final version. Looking forward, he will help me to have a slot at the June SPT Plenary Session to present the final documents later in 2018, and is assisting me on how to best engage with the Committee and other stakeholders in order to assume maximum take up of the document. He has also contributed a foreword to the document. The costs in kind listed above relate to his time, which he has given for free. I have selected the confidentiality agreement below as, although no formal confidentially agreement is in place, certain Committee meetings are usually kept confidential. ii) The involvement of the Omega Research Foundation: The Omega Research Foundation have commented and helped shape the draft text on at least five occasions, drawing on their extensive technical and human rights knowledge of weapons and restraints, and detailed knowledge of international human rights norms and standards. They also assisted with dissemination of a draft version of the document and consultation with various stakeholders (e.g. torture prevention bodies and the OSCE in summer and autumn 2017). They have also paid for designers to produce the pocket book, and to design the final report.
Impact A draft Practical Manual and Pocket Book to assist torture prevention bodies and bodies visiting prisons and other places of detention to monitor the use of weapons and restraints, including for torture and ill-treatment. This has had impacts at the global, regional and national levels. At the global level the final research was presented to the SPT in their 2018 session. This session also acted as a 'training of the trainers' allowing the SPT to apply it during their country visits and in their engagement with NPMs. Members noted the 'invaluable practical tools underpinned by high quality academic work' and the Chair noted that, 'as a direct consequence SPT members are now encouraged to ask additional questions concerning the use of torture equipment, weapons and restraints on in-country visits are better placed to follow up on and record their concerns in their confidential reportsto establish whether international standards in this area are being respected and to develop a systematic, standardised approach to documentation in this critical and neglected area'. The documents were also shared with the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, who noted that the 'excellent' research provided his team with a 'handy checklist of questions to focus on during monitoring visits. At the regional level the document was also cited extensively in the OSCE and PRI's Guidance Document on the Nelson Mandela Rules, a publication designed to assist prison staff and management to implement human rights norms and standards. At the national level the SPT, Omega, PRI, APT and the OSCE circulated the documents to the 65 NPMs and other detention monitors. In Jamaica, the oversight body INDECOM used the 'greatly helpful' research to assist in engagement with police and prison authorities and cited it in a forthcoming publication on the topic focusing on the use of baton and pepper spray. In Norway the NPM found it really valuableespecially given the scant research available out there about practices that are really at the core of torture prevention' and used them to strengthen their engagement with the Directorate of the Police over proposals to use pepper spray in police cells. In the UK the NPM noted the 'relevance for inspectors and monitors working in the UK' (NPM Co-ordinator), its utility in 'helping IMBs monitor force' (IMB Chair) and used it as an opportunity to reflect on current practice, reviewing it against their existing training on use of force for our volunteer monitors of police custody' (Independent Custody Visitors Association). In Poland, a workshop with the Polish NPM, organised jointly with the OSCE and Omega, was held at their request. Following the training, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'.
Start Year 2017
 
Description National Taser Reference Group 
Organisation Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have worked with the NPCC (previously ACPO) and Amnesty International throughout 2017 - 2019 to set up the National Taser Reference Group, which brings together senior officials and decision makers from the NPCC, College of Policing, the Home Office, CAST, the IPCC and the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Medical Impact of Less Lethal Weapons as well as academics, civil society groups, medical experts and other stakeholders, in order to provide a forum for engagement, evidence-based discussion and critical scrutiny of Taser policy and practice. My ESRC Future Research Leader's funding has allowed me to play an active role in the establishment of this group, by suggesting members for the group (with all my suggestions taken up), drafting the Constitution, setting agendas and acting as group Co-ordinator between meetings up until the establishment of the Chairperson at the end of 2019. I have also included this collaboration under my PhD Award, as it was this piece of research which laid the foundations for this year.
Collaborator Contribution The NPCC and College of Policing have helped set up the Group by ensuring the attendance of key representatives at meetings, and by providing administrative support to set dates of meetings and organised facilities.
Impact A Constitution / Terms of Reference for the group has been agreed and a website is in the process of being developed. The NPCC have shared confidential working documents amongst the Group for our thoughts on policy decisions. Issues discussed by the group include; disproportionality in Taser use; proposals to roll out Taser to probationary officers and the special constabulary and the content of training and guidance. I was also invited to attend the Less Lethal Weapons Working Group (the high level policy and co-ordination forum comprised of representatives from the NPCC, Home Office, Ministry of Defence, DSTL, SACMILL, police forces and other stakeholders) on behalf of the Group, the only academic present.
Start Year 2017
 
Description OSCE ODIHR NPM Training in Poland 
Organisation Omega Research Foundation Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Together with the OSCE, the Omega Research Foundation and the Polish National Preventive Mechanisms set up under the UN Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture to monitor places of detention and assist in torture prevention, I organised a specialist workshop on monitoring weapons and restraints in places of detention, with a particular focus on use of projectile electric-shock weapons (such as the trade-marked 'Taser' weapon). I contributed training sessions on the Practical Guide on Monitoring Weapons and Restraints in Places of Detention, which was developed and published under this award. I also contributed expertise around the use of Taser, drawing on my ESRC funded research.
Collaborator Contribution The OSCE part- funded travel and accommodation costs for my participation, co-ordinated the logistics, helped draft the agenda and planned and delivered training sessions. The Omega Research Foundation helped draft the agenda and planned and delivered training sessions. The national partners (respectively the Polish NPM and the Slovenian NPM) helped draft the agenda and planned and delivered training sessions, co-ordinated local logistics, provided the room hire and refreshments - all considerable in kind contributions as reflected above.
Impact The main output was 2 workshops which have enhanced the capacity of attendees to monitor the use of weapons and restraints by the police and in places of detention. In particular it had the following outcomes. At the national level: In Poland, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'. Other participants in the Polish and Slovenian workshops noted that • 'It was an incredibly interesting training, fascinating. From my perspective, our baseline was not very developed especially with regards to Tasers. Some technical stuff we never talked about before so I think it will give us food for thought and further development in our team'. • 'I have learned a lot. The training outlined many crucial aspects...and I leave with a better understanding'. • 'I'm very happy I could participate in the training. I appreciate your preparation very much. You ladies are great experts and(it was) very well prepared both in terms of substance and process, as well as visually, and with the use of video clips. It was top notch, perfect, it is really unique and very valuable for us'. As a result, national bodies in Poland and Slovenia are better equipped to monitor the use of weapons and restraints, including electric-shock weapons, by police and prison officials in their respective countries, thus helping to enhance oversight, monitoring and accountability and contributing towards the prevention of torture and ill-treatment. At the regional and international levels, the ODIHR Torture Prevention Lead noted that the workshops 'directly helped me in my role as Advisor on Torture Prevention for the OSCE/ODIHR. This was an area that I hadn't previously been working on, and Dr. Dymond's extensive knowledge and expertise as well as this particular research helped me to develop my understanding and to develop my own practice monitoring and documenting of the use and misuse of less lethal weapons and restraints, related international and regional human rights standards and OSCE commitments. As a direct result, I am now better equipped to monitor the situation of torture and other ill-treatment andprovide advice, assistance and capacity-building workshops to States, national human rights institutions (NHRIs), national torture prevention mechanisms and civil society organisations in the 57 OSCE participating states. These include countries in Europe, South Caucasus, Central Asia and North America.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Invited Comments on College of Policing Student Officers and CED: Application for Conducted Energy Device Training and post use monitoring. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In light of on-going discussions around the roll out of the so called 'less lethal' electric-shock weapon the Taser to probationary officers, the National Police Chief's Council Lead on Less Lethal Weapons (which includes Taser) sent me a draft paper written by the College of Policing, and asked for my thoughts on the initiative. She praised my input, and in particular one of the recommendations I had made in the Less Lethal Weapons Working Group meeting, whilst the College of Policing Lead on Taser noted that I provided; 'Some very useful and thoughtful comments. Some of which we could no doubt spend a day debating!'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Appointed by the UN OHCHR and UNODC as an 'international expert' at the Caribbean Use of Force in Law Enforcement Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IN 2017 I was invited by the UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime as an 'international expert' for the Caribbean Use of Force in Law Enforcement Conference, organised jointly with INDECOM (the Jamaican police oversight body). I was responsible for developing and delivering a three day session on international standards and police use of force to policing, government and oversight bodies in the region, and for helping to draft a model Use of Force Policy.
Please note that I was asked to attend on behalf of a colleague, Neil Corney, at the Omega Research Foundation, where I work part-time. Neil was originally invited but was unable to attend so I was asked to go in his place, with expenses paid by the UN. Therefore this activity was not directly funded by the ESRC. However I have included it here as I was able to draw on and present both my PhD work on Taser, and my ESRC Future Research Leaders funded work on police use of force and Guideline Development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://opm.gov.jm/speech/caribbean-use-of-force-conference-hosted-by-indecom/
 
Description Attendance at the International Law Enforcement Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In August 2017 I attended the International Law Enforcement Forum, a forum attended by police officials, government representatives, policy makers and industry representatives world wide and dedicated to the statement that the ' pursuit of minimal force and less-lethal options, the policy and legal aspects of developing and employing such technology, and the surrounding debates, should be conducted openly and on the basis of informed scientific and medical assessment set against clearly articulated operational requirements by professionals who have experience in policy, command, operational theaters of use and tactical deployment. This thus represented a unique chance to engage with law enforcement, and there were an estimated 50 - 60 individuals in attendance, from countries including England and Wales, Northern Ireland, the USA, Canada, with the bulk of attendees coming from American law enforcement agencies. I gave a presentation entitled 'The Need for International Standards on Less Lethal Weapons and the role of ILEF', which provoked a long discussion and questions afterwards, and wrote a short paper for inclusion in conference proceedings. This helped to raise awareness of the issues and concerns with less lethal weapons, and of statements by UN Torture Prevention bodies, and the conference organisers gave their 'thanks, Abi. We appreciate you being a presenter and an active participant in our workshop. Your perspective on the issues discussed is always welcome and very insightful'. I have listed the most significant outcome as being a change in views, opinions or behaviour only to the extent to which attendees are now more aware of the concerns and issues around less lethal weapons.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description College of Policing Conflict Resolution Guidance and Pilot Training Package 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In 2017 I was invited to participate in the newly established College of Policing's guideline committee (GC) on Safer Resolution (i.e.the management of violence and aggression by the police). This independent advisory group was tasked with considering the evidence base and developing guideline recommendations on Safer Resolution, taking into account the views of stakeholders, and will also help to pilot a new approach to the development of policing guidance more generally, and is an excellent opportunity to have an impact nationally. The group has produced a draft national policy on Conflict Resolution, which is discussed in the next section, and is due to be published shortly. .
My involvement in the Group has been described by the College of Policing's Evidence and Evaluation Advisor as follows: 'Abi has been a highly valued member of the Committee. She has made thoughtful contributions during Committee meetings, drawing on her own research and challenging assertions that are not supported by evidence, and provided detailed feedback on working documentsandon the processes of guidance development.Her academic insights have helped shape the draft national guidance, and will help the College to refine its approach to developing evidence-based guidance after the initial pilot'.

As a result of my participation in the Group I was invited to help the College of Policing design a training package, based on the Guidance, which is designed to enhance officer's communication and negotiation skills, and their ability to handle potentially violent situations without using force. This package is due to be piloted in a small number of forces nationwide, and then evaluated.

I am including this award in both my PhD and Future Research Leaders Award as, although the first meeting of this group happened before my Future Research Leaders Grant started, this funding has facilitated my continued involvement in the group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL https://www.app.college.police.uk/about-app/guideline-committee/
 
Description Engagement and workshop with national torture prevention bodies, including in Poland and Slovenia, on the Practical Manual 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity is the circulation and dissemination of the The Practical Guide to monitoring weapons and restraints in places of detention, produced in collaboration with the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture and the Omega Research Foundation (please see publications for further details). This was circulated to over 80 national torture prevention bodies, and designed to enhance their capacity to monitor weapons and restraints that could be used for torture and ill-treatment. Training sessions were also conducted in Poland and Slovenia with the OSCE ODIHR and the Omega Research Foundation, with the following impacts.

AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL:

At the national level: In Poland, the Head of the NPM noted that 'monitoring weaponsis a crucial part of our mandate. Until very recently there was little guidance for monitors, and this training enhanced our monitoring skills in this area'. Other participants in the Polish and Slovenian workshops noted that
• 'It was an incredibly interesting training, fascinating. From my perspective, our baseline was not very developed especially with regards to Tasers. Some technical stuff we never talked about before so I think it will give us food for thought and further development in our team'.
• 'I have learned a lot. The training outlined many crucial aspects...and I leave with a better understanding'.
• 'I'm very happy I could participate in the training. I appreciate your preparation very much. You ladies are great experts and(it was) very well prepared both in terms of substance and process, as well as visually, and with the use of video clips. It was top notch, perfect, it is really unique and very valuable for us'.

As a result, national bodies in Poland and Slovenia are better equipped to monitor the use of weapons and restraints, including electric-shock weapons, by police and prison officials in their respective countries, thus helping to enhance oversight, monitoring and accountability and contributing towards the prevention of torture and ill-treatment. At the regional and international levels, the ODIHR Torture Prevention Lead noted that the workshops 'directly helped me in my role as Advisor on Torture Prevention for the OSCE/ODIHR. This was an area that I hadn't previously been working on, and Dr. Dymond's extensive knowledge and expertise as well as this particular research helped me to develop my understanding and to develop my own practice monitoring and documenting of the use and misuse of less lethal weapons and restraints, related international and regional human rights standards and OSCE commitments. As a direct result, I am now better equipped to monitor the situation of torture and other ill-treatment and provide advice, assistance and capacity-building workshops to States, national human rights institutions (NHRIs), national torture prevention mechanisms and civil society organisations in the 57 OSCE participating states. These include countries in Europe, South Caucasus, Central Asia and North America.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
URL http://socialsciences.exeter.ac.uk/sociology/newsandevents/news/articles/universityofexeteracademic....
 
Description Meeting with Home Office and CAST, with Amnesty International UK and the Omega Research Foundation, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I convened a meeting between the Home Office and the Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST), myself, AMnesty International UK and the OMega Research Foundation to discuss emerging policy issues around less lethal weapons and to provide them with an update on my ESRC Future Research Leaders' research. This resulted in additional information about a review of the Home Office Code of Conduct on Firearms and Less Lethal Weapons, and a better understanding of the technical aspects of new weapons. It also gave us the chance to express some concerns about the current regulation and use of Taser and other less lethal weapons in England and Wales. Meeting notes are available on request, on the condition they are not circulated further at this stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Membership of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of the Constabulary Legitimacy External Reference Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Her Majesty's Inspectorate of the Constabulary and Fire and Rescue Services, or HMICFRS, has a mandate to independently assess and inspect police forces in England and Wales. In designing and evaluating its inspection methodology, HMICFRS holds external reference groups with subject matter experts, in order to gather the views of external partners and stakeholders and draw on knowledge and expertise nationally. I was personally appointed to membership of the External Reference Group that focuses on assessing police legitimacy, including police use of force and stop and search. In this capacity I attended 2 meetings in 2019 to shape the questions, techniques and broader methodologies used by HMIC in their future police inspections, also referred to as PEEL (Police Effectiveness Efficiency and Legitimacy) inspections. This included directly shaping their questions and points of observation on police use of force, which should help improve the quality of their independent assessments going forward. Further information about the PEEL inspections can be found at the link detailed below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmicfrs/peel-assessments/how-we-inspect/
 
Description National Use of Force Reporting Review 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact As discussed in the collaborations section, the ESRC, via the SWDTC, funded a 12 month part-time placement between 2015 - 2016 to enable me to provide research and advice to the National Review on Use of Force Reporting, as announced by the Home Secretary, and conducted by the Home Office and National Police Chiefs' Council. My contribution (carried out between June 2015 to June 2016, on a 2.5 basis) includes:

i) Conducting a survey of, and writing a report on, current use of force practices and good practice, in UK forces, which was presented to the Home Secretary herself.

ii) Providing advice on the creation of a national use of force reporting dataset, the first ever in the UK, via two distinct routes of engagement. The first is membership of the Programme Board to the review, set up to provide strategic oversight to the review, and the second is membership of the Project Team of the review, set up to take the review forward between Programme Board meetings. ESRC funding, via my Future Research Leaders Award, has allowed me to continue to serve on the Programme Board and the Project Team from 2017 onwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.asp...
 
Description Participation in 'Academic Working Group' to draft new United Nations Guidance on Less Lethal Weapons 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Geneva Academy on Humanitarian and International Human Rights Law, Cambridge and Pretoria Universities, in collaboration with Professor Christoph Heyns (the former UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions and currently a member of the UN Human Rights Committee) are established an Academic Working Group on Less Lethal Weapons and Security Devices that might cause harm, to help develop United Nations guidance on this issue. I was one of only 20 participants, drawn from academics, the UN, donors, and civil society organisations invited to attend the founding meeting of this group, at which the future role of the group and the development of additional documents, and the process was discussed. As detailed elsewhere, I contributed to multiple consultation meetings and commented on multiple drafts of the evolving guidance, an advance edited version of which is available here: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CCPR/LLW_Guidance.pdf
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.geneva-academy.ch/news/detail/269-new-human-rights-guidance-on-the-use-of-less-lethal-we...
 
Description Participation in National Taser Stakeholder Holder Reference Group meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I have worked with the NPCC (previously ACPO) and Amnesty International throughout 2017 - to the present day to set up the National Taser Reference Group, which brings together senior officials and decision makers from the NPCC, College of Policing, the Home Office, CAST, the IPCC and the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Medical Impact of Less Lethal Weapons as well as academics, civil society groups, medical experts and other stakeholders, in order to provide a forum for engagement, evidence-based discussion and critical scrutiny of Taser policy and practice. My ESRC Future Research Leader's funding has allowed me to play an active role in the establishment of this group, by suggesting members for the group (with all my suggestions taken up), drafting the Constitution, setting agendas and acting as group Co-ordinator between meetings up until the establishment of the Chairperson at the end of 2019. I have also included this collaboration under my PhD Award, as it was this piece of research which laid the foundations for this year.

A Constitution / Terms of Reference for the group has been agreed and a website is in the process of being developed. The NPCC have shared confidential working documents amongst the Group for our thoughts on policy decisions. Policy issues discussed by the group include; disproportionality in Taser use; proposals to roll out Taser to probationary officers and the special constabulary and the content of training and guidance. I was also invited to attend the Less Lethal Weapons Working Group (the high level policy and co-ordination forum comprised of representatives from the NPCC, Home Office, Ministry of Defence, DSTL, SACMILL, police forces and other stakeholders) on behalf of the Group, the only academic present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019,2020
 
Description Personal safety training national development curriculum working group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited, as one of only 2 non-police representatives, to participate in a working group set up by the College of Policing in order to develop new refresher training on use of force and personal safety (including the use of handcuffs, empty hand techniques and weapons such as irritant spray and batons). I participated in the first meeting of the Personal safety training national development curriculum working group in March 2020, which was tasked with designing the new curriculum for all police forces nationally. This is a unique opportunity to standardise practice, ensure it is evidence based and improvement quality. This is particularly important as the content, length and quality of training has varied greatly from force to force, and insufficient time has often been given to this crucial training - problems this initiative tackles head on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation of use of force analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In 2017, police forces in England and Wales started, for the first time, to systematically collect data on their use of force via a standardised reporting template. Working with the College of Policing (as detailed in the collaboration section), we analysed the first year's worth of data gathered under this requirement. We presented our interim results to the Programme Board (the high level strategic board which advises on the use of force reporting form, and which includes the Home Office, the National Police Chief's Council, the Independent Office of Police Complaints, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of the Constabulary and other stakeholders) and to the UK NPM (National Preventive Mechanism under the UN Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture) Police Custody Working Group. A briefing was also produced, which fed into them national Officer Safety Review being conducted by the College of Policing and National Police Chief's Council.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://www.npcc.police.uk/ThePoliceChiefsBlog/Publishinguseofforcedataisagreatstepforwardforforp.as...
 
Description Presentation to the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture's 32rd meeting in the June Plenary Session 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I presented an initial draft of the Practical Manual on documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention to the SPT in June 2017, in order to try to secure their future / ongoing support for this work, and their co-operation. The Chair of the SPT has described the outcome of this presentation as follows: 'Dr. Dymond was invited to present a working draft of this research to the full plenary session of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture on the occasion of its 32rd Session in June 2017-a unique invitation--and her research was warmly welcomed. Committee members recognised the value of the research, draft report and checklist, and welcomed its contribution to our work. It is particularly important that the practical tools are underpinned by high quality academic work. This makes it easier for the Committee to establish whether and to what extent international norms and standards in this area are being respected in places of detention and allows it to develop a systematic, standardised approach to documentation in this critical and neglected area. As a direct consequence of this work, SPT members are now encouraged to ask additional questions concerning the use of torture equipment, weapons and restraints on their in-country visits and members are better placed to follow up on their concerns and to record them in their confidential visit reports'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/OPCAT/Pages/OPCATIndex.aspx
 
Description Presentations and Briefings for the Independent Monitoring Board of HMP Exeter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was personally invited to develop and present a series of bespoke, tailored briefings and resources for the Independent Monitoring Board at Exeter Prison, based on the Practical Manual on documenting weapons and restraints developed through ESRC funding. This has directly impacted their practice and strengthened their capacity to monitor force in the institution. This is particularly important as Independent Monitoring Boards are part of the UK National Preventive Mechanism under the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and have a remit to monitor day to day life in their local prison and ensure that proper standards of care and decency are maintained. Previous reports of conditions in Exeter Prison by the IMB and Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons have indicated concern around the use of force, and the way in which it is reported and analysed, in the establishment.

The Chair of IMB Exeter noted that 'I personally requested Dr. Dymond's input and advice on our current practice around use of force monitoring, as this is an issue of some importance for theIMB in Exeter and elsewhere. Abi's briefings and presentations have assisted us to improve our monitoring of the use of force in Exeter Prison, both by encouraging us to bring greater focus to this issue and helping us to do so in an effective and systematic manner. As a result of her briefings, the Board is better equipped to comment on the use of force incidents we observe on our monitoring visits; to review use of force paperwork, statistics and other records; and to assess the use of force governance in the Institution. Consequently, we are better able to recognise good practice around the use of force, to identify and advocate for change where necessary, and thereby help to monitor and protect the rights of prisoners in situations where force may be used. This is a crucial issue, given the relatively high levels of use of force in Exeter Prison, recent concerns expressed by the HMIP, the vulnerability of many in the prison population and the possible introduction of PAVA and Taser in the future'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Speaker at Less Lethal Weapons Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a paper on my work on police use of force and the new police use of force reporting system in England and Wales at the Less Lethal Weapons Symposium in Brussels, to an audience of senior law enforcement officials, civil servants and other decision makers. This resulted in requests for further information, and interest in our use of force reporting system from policing colleagues in Belgium, Sweden and Italy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Submission on the Draft UN Human Rights Committee's General Comment No. 36 on article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, on the right to life. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In July 2017, during its 120th session, the Human Rights Committee finalised its first reading of draft General Comment on article 6 of the Covenant and invited all interested stakeholders to comment on the Committee's Draft (see below). My submission was a response to this request, and has been published on their website. The Human Rights Committee is due to produce a final draft during its meeting in 2018 and I look forward to seeing the final text and how my points have been incorporated, if at all.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CCPR/Pages/GC36-Article6Righttolife.aspx
 
Description Support for the Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture's speech to a Side Event at the United Nations meeting, October 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In 2017 I provided advice and input to the Chair of the UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture's speech to a Side Event at the United Nations meeting, October 2017. This included requesting that the Chair use the occasion to highlight the Draft Practical Manual on documenting weapons and restraints in places of detention, as detailed in the 'Collaborations' section. The Chair gave me this feedback on the side event: ' In September 2017 the EU, supported by Chile and Mongolia, launched a major global initiative on the trade in torture goods. A 'side event' was organised by the Danish Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York in October at which I was invited to speak. I was delighted to be able to point to the work which the SPT had already undertaken on this topic with Dr Dymond and this was very well received and there was considerable interest at the meeting in draft manual and checklist'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop in Uzbekistan with the UN OHCHR and OSCE Regional Offices 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working with the OSCE Office in Uzbekistan, the UN Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Regional Office for Central Asia and the University of Bristol Human Rights Implementation Centre, a 5 day workshop was convened for 21 participants from the National Human Rights Centre and other relevant torture prevention stakeholders in Uzbekistan in September 2019. This workshop was particularly timely as a recent Presidential Decree in Uzbekistan has given the National Human Rights Centre the right to freely visit prisons and other places of detention for the first time. The workshop was designed to help participants do this in practice, by familiarising them with international practice in monitoring places of detention and developing their skills in monitoring and preparing an inspection report, including but not limited to skills around monitoring and reporting use of force in such environments. Following the workshop, participants reported higher levels of understanding around the importance of independent monitoring of places of detention, including monitoring and reporting the use of weapons, restraints, electric-shock devices, such as Taser, and other force in prisons and other places of detention.

Further details may be available on request, pending clarification of confidentiality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://nhrc.uz/en/news/zakrytye-uchrezhdenija-i-mesta-soderzhanija-pod-strazhej-pervyj-den-obuchenij...