DfE: Early identification of young people at risk of poor educational and labour market outcomes: the role of educational institutions

Lead Research Organisation: University of Westminster
Department Name: Westminster Business School

Abstract

This study attempts to answer the following questions:
1. How do things like truancy, coming from a less affluent background, family breakdown and a range of other factors that pupils experience at school; lead to poor educational and labour market (employment and earnings) outcomes?
2. Do we see different impacts (for instance on the likelihood of securing good wages) when similar students attend different post-16 educational institutions, such as Further Education, Sixth Form College or School Sixth Form? Does it make any difference to a young person's prospects if they achieve the same level of qualification in these different institutions; and do we see children from rich and poor backgrounds making very different decisions from age 16 and above?
3. How accurately are we able to predict the employment and earnings outcomes for different students, using all the information on their background, learning and achievement in schools and colleges?

At its heart the project seeks to analyse and assess the educational and labour market pathways followed by the half of young people who do not pursue university level education, and therefore contributes to the government's social mobility agenda; emphasised by David Cameron as a key priority for government in his Oct 2015 conference speech. The research proposed here will be of key interest to government and the Social Mobility Commission charged by the government to address Britain's poor record on social mobility.

When we talk of social mobility, we are interested in the extent to which children born to poorer families can make the journey to high paid jobs and professional careers. More generally, a lack of social mobility is a situation where being born to poverty, riches or somewhere in between, means that you are likely to find yourself in the same position as your parents, no matter how hard you try and whatever your talents. Unfortunately, the evidence over recent decades has been that there is less social mobility in the UK than in other similar countries.

The administrative data we will use to carry out this study is routinely collected by the parts of government that collect taxes (HMRC), deal with unemployment support (DWP), are responsible for Further Education (BIS) and learning in schools (DfE). This is a very important and useful resource, as it has the potential to overcome some of the limitations we face when using surveys (not least that we observe all people in the relevant populations, not just a relatively small sample). However, it is a complicated process to link these datasets and a large part of this project will be taken up with this process of linking.

As well as finding out what impact truancy has on a young person's performance at school, up to the age of 15 when they get their GCSE results (and results from other equivalent qualifications); we will try to find out if this truancy continues to have an impact even when they leave school. Consider another example: we will shed new light on the extent to which disadvantaged young people, with a good set of educational choices facing them at age 15, are seen to make 'bad' choices; when compared to their more advantaged peers, facing the same choice sets. Similarly, the study will shed light on the choices made by young people from age 16+ who are from more advantaged backgrounds, who we see facing a more limited set of educational choices at 15; and how these differ to young people from disadvantaged backgrounds facing the same limited choices.

Planned Impact

Pathways to Policy Impact: As the current study develops, Prof. Urwin and Prof. Gregg will use their continuous engagement with policy colleagues across BIS, DWP and DfE to ensure the work described in this submission remains policy relevant; and that the findings are disseminated widely across policy communities. More specifically, over the lifetime of the project, the accompanying letters of support suggest access to relevant policy colleagues, who we would engage with, to feed into the research questions being tackled. We would expect to begin production of outputs around five months into the project, following initial matching of NPD-ILR-HESA data. We will receive support in the form of organisation and hosting of cross-departmental events, as outputs are developed. During the initial 5 months of the project we will discuss the work with Resolution Foundation colleagues; and then design events and outputs that would be supported by the foundation over the remaining months and beyond.

Pathways to Practice Impact: The work described in this submission will benefit from Prof. Urwin's continual engagement with practitioner bodies, such as the 157 Group, Federation of Awarding Bodies, CIPD and Holex. In addition to these bodies, we would additionally attempt to engage with colleagues from the Association of Colleges, the Association of Employment and Learning Providers, the Learning and Work Institute, the Education and Training Foundation, the Headteachers' Roundtable, the Career Development Institute, OFSTED and the main teaching unions - possibly in the first instance, via invitations to an event hosted by the Resolution Foundation.

Prof Urwin is currently advising Skills Development Scotland on how Scottish educational datasets might be used to carry out the sort of analysis we have carried out for England; and Dave Thomson has worked on production of post-16 value added indicators for schools and FE in Wales. We will use these links to ensure that our research findings have impact beyond the geographical focus of data analysis, which will be NPD cohorts of young people in England. In addition, Prof. Urwin and Prof. Gregg have presented at OECD Global Forums in recent years; colleagues at Westminster are currently working on parts of the European Qualifications Framework; and Prof Gregg has written on issues of unemployment for the OECD and EU. As the work develops we will engage with our various contacts in these international bodies to ensure that the work has impact beyond the UK.

A key aim of the research is identification of impacts from pupil background characteristics on performance, but also choices made through the post-compulsory education system. As well as alerting policy and practice communities to the results of this research, we will communicate messages to young people and their families, via a range of media.

Administrative data communities: DfE, in partnership with DWP and BIS, are currently undertaking a process of data matching across the datasets that form the focus of this study; and our programme of work takes this into account. Datalab currently host the NPD User Group and Dave Thomson is the UK's recognised NPD expert; Thomson developed the ILR-WPLS matched database currently used by BIS [developing the majority of underpinning scripts]; and also the ILR-WPLS-NPD-LMS data held by DWP. As the work on data matching progresses, we will engage with a variety of data users and the team would aim to create an ILR User Group, that would consider issues across these various datasets (also feeding into DWP's WPLS user group).
 
Description We have created versions of the LEO [Longitudinal Educational Outcomes] administrative data to investigate Young People at Risk of Poor Educational and Labour Market Outcomes; across cohorts who turn 16 in the academic years from 2001/2002 to 2008/2009. The LEO data link information on these cohorts from the National Pupil Database (NPD); the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA); the Individualised Learner Record (ILR); HMRC employment data (P45 and P14) and DWP Benefits information. The analyses focus on the half of young people who are unlikely to pursue university education and considers issues of social mobility:

1. Creation of datasets for analysis is a key achievement, as young people who do not take a standard 'academic' (GCSE - A-level - Degree) pathway, choose between a greater variety of institutions (General FE, School Sixth Form, College Sixth Form) and qualification routes (including Apprenticeships and, during the period under study, NVQs). The datasets created provide structure for analysis, retaining salient aspects of the post-16 learning environment, whilst allowing systematic analysis. We are engaging with DfE (the data owners) to share lessons from data development and analysis.
2. One version of this LEO data allow investigation of disadvantaged young people with poor Key Stage 4 [KS4] performance - for instance, amongst the cohort who turn 16 in 2008/2009, 72% of pupils on Free School Meals [FSM] achieve a grade D or below in English and/or Maths GCSE. Analysis of subsequent pathways uncovers strong social segregation, with young people from poorer backgrounds predominantly following vocational/technical education pathways (where funding per pupil tends to be lower). The creation of institutional choice sets [from destinations of previous cohorts] and distance indicators that act as instrumental variables, allow us to estimate causal impacts on later life outcomes, arising from the post-16 educational choices of disadvantaged young people.
3. Working with the Low Pay Commission (LPC), we have carried out an initial evaluation of the impact of local labour market conditions on the employment and education decisions of young people; and the introduction in April 2016 of the National Living Wage (NLW) for those aged 25 and over, and the 21 to 24-year-old rate. Initial findings do not suggest local earnings and/or unemployment rates are economically significant in influencing young people's decisions, even when focusing on those particularly 'at risk' of being on minimum wages. There is some indication that the NLW may have boosted the employment prospects of young people well below the age 25 cut-off, but this is based on incomplete LEO data, that we are attempting to supplement via an ongoing data request to DfE.

As of March 2021 the process for accessing LEO data has undergone further development and we expect to make a submission to be involved in one of the pilot LEO data access projects via ONS SRS. If we are not accepted onto the pilot, we will hopefully make a submission for access in the summer of 2021. This initial submission will take forward the analysis of disadvantaged young people and the pathways they take in post-16 education. Following this, we will make a submission [hopefully with the support of the Low Pay Commission] to secure the data needed to complete that work.

4. A number of blogs have focused on specific aspects of the education system. For instance, Long-term outcomes: How did life turn out for pupils who took GNVQs? and a similar analysis considering those, who took Level 3 BTEC qualifications. We have presented findings on the link between exclusions, alternative provision and off-rolling and initial investigation of the educational impacts arising from a Raising of the Participation Age point to insignificant results.

Further blogs have been added to the outputs in 2019, with the pandemic hitting activities [because of issues of data access] during 2020.
Exploitation Route We have met with members of DfE Skills Analysis team (and DWP colleagues) and have been invited to present our report to DfE on pathways and impacts for young people who form the focus of analysis under [2.]. This is the first stage in a process of engagement, which will also consider data issues [under 1.]. There is currently no LEO User Group and such groups have been important in developing standardised approaches to development of admin data analysis.

As suggested under 3. we are in the process of requesting additional data from DfE to (i) take forward the work on disadvantaged young people in the post-16 environment and (ii) will then request a supplement to the data used in analysis already presented as part of the Low Pay Commission Research, which previously informed the LPC Review of Youth Rates and taking

The pandemic has significantly impacted our work, as the LEO data we accessed were physically housed in our office and could not be accessed for much of 2020. We are now requesting SRS access to enhanced versions of the data to take forward our development of policy-focused outputs - this will allow us to continue writing-up for submission to peer reviewed journals and academic conferences - for instance, the analysis estimating causal impacts on later-life outcomes arising from post-16 institutional choice. In addition to this engagement with policymakers and academics, we will continue the wider programme of public dissemination already begun with blogs and podcasts (detailed elsewhere); with a dissemination event planned for summer 2020 now envisaged to take place in 2022 [building on our submission to the DfE Level 2 and Below consultation.
Sectors Education

URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk
 
Description There are a number of impact strands emerging from this project: - Blogposts arising from the project [hosted at Education Datalab] have focused on specific aspects of the education system. These have been well received and helped spark debate in policy and practice communities - for instance, the request from DfE Skills Analysis team (and DWP colleagues) to discuss findings from this ESRC project arose from DfE colleagues' awareness of the work set out in these blogposts. Members of the team have also met with the Director General for Higher Education and Further Education at DfE, where part of the discussion focused on findings from analysis of impacts arising from a Raising of the Participation age using LEO. - A key focus of our work to date has been the challenge of analysing educational pathways for the half of young people who do not follow a 'standard' academic route. Our creation of datasets for analysis of these pathways is a key achievement of our study to date. Initial findings from this work have been presented at the Work, Pensions and Labour Economics Study Group (WPEG) Conference which is aimed at policymakers as well as academics. We will soon be publishing this aspect of the study as a working paper aimed at policymakers tasked with consideration of education policy. This will form the starting point for further engagement and impact activities, including an event for practitioners, policymakers and academics that has been delayed due to issues with data transfer. - Our work with the Low Pay Commission has focused on the possible disincentive effects that a higher minimum wage might have on the decisions of young people who do not perform well at KS4, as they consider whether to continue in education; and the identification of any employment impacts for young people, arising from the introduction in April 2016 of the National Living Wage (NLW). Our work has informed the decisions of Commissioners, as part of their review into youth rates, carried out in Spring 2019. Furthermore, Prof Urwin was invited to present at the National Institute of Economic and Social Research [NIESR] in November 2019, at an event organised to inform LPC insight regarding 'How Employers Set Pay for Young People' - delayed due to purdah. The above impacts are now being secured as part of the research being funded by Nuffield, which builds on this ESRC pathways project; the team have successfully secured access to the LEO data [now provided by ONS via the SRS] and the analysis that this will allow, will provide exciting opportunities to further inform the deliberations of policymakers. We were not able to access LEO data during 2020 or during 2021 until September. We can now continue our programme of engagement to secure impact.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Education
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description An assessment of what factors affect young people's decisions to enter the labour market
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Funding ID CR18059 
Organisation Low Pay Commission 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 05/2019
 
Description Analysis of post-16 education pathways that entrench social segregation
Amount £208,028 (GBP)
Funding ID EDO /FR-000000366 
Organisation Nuffield Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2021 
End 03/2023
 
Title Code base used for NPD-LEO developed for ESRC pathways project 
Description The code base developed during the ESRC-funded project, allowed creation of pathways and outcomes using the newly created NPD-LEO data. Much of this code is now being used in the Nuffield-funded project, which is a continuation of this work. 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Impact not secured yet 
 
Description Nuffield Foundation, Funding in Principle 
Organisation Nuffield Foundation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have been awarded Funding in Principle for a further study of LEO data, that will further extend and build upon the findings from the ESRC project. We are currently in discussions with the DfE to secure an update to the LEO data, to carry out the project. Nuffield funding is predicated on our securing of the data and therefore I have not yet aded this to the follow-on funding section of ResearchFish.
Collaborator Contribution Nuffield have agreed to funding in principle, on our securing of the LEO data from ONS. This has now been updated in ResearchFish as the funding has been secured following our securing of access to the LEO data.
Impact These are to come when we secure the LEO data and funding is agreed
Start Year 2020
 
Description Wales Centre for Public Policy 
Organisation Wales Centre for Public Policy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution This study quantitatively evaluates the likely impacts on participation and attainment of raising the participation age (RPA) in education and considers the implications for Wales
Collaborator Contribution Using linked school and further education data for cohorts completing year 11 in 2014 to 2017, the impact of RPA to 18 on participation in year 12 and year 13 is estimated for future cohorts.
Impact Dickson, M (2022) Modelling the Impact of Raising the Age of Participation to 18
Start Year 2021
 
Description "Does the Minimum Wage Impact Labour Market Choices of Young People aged 16 to 24? Emerging Findings", Low Pay Commission Research Symposium, 6th September 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation of emerging findings from analysis of LEO to inform deliberations of LPC Commissioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Blog Datalab website: "Long-term outcomes: How did life turn out for pupils who took Level 3 BTEC qualifications?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The blog on Datalab website uses LEO data: Over the last ten to fifteen years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of young people achieving level 3 (A-level and equivalent) qualifications. Much of this growth, particularly so for disadvantaged students, has been due to level 3 BTEC qualifications. Yet despite their increased prevalence, their value as currency for higher education admission has been called into doubt. Strictly speaking, BTECs are considered to be "applied general" qualifications. Perhaps their status as a middle ground between academic qualifications and vocational qualifications is part of the problem. So if you are a young person who has just completed Key Stage 4, and you are considering higher education, would you be better off taking A-levels or BTECs? No impacts yet known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2018/11/long-term-outcomes-how-did-life-turn-out-for-those-who-to...
 
Description Blog: Should the age of participation in education or training be raised to 18 in Wales? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Every young person in the UK is required to stay in school until the end of the academic year that they turn 16. Since 2015, legislation has been in place in England which stipulates that young people should remain in some form of education or training until they reach their 18th birthday. To date, this policy direction has not been pursued in Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland.

The IPR has recently collaborated with the Wales Centre for Public Policy (WCPP) in looking at the impacts of raising the participation age (RPA) in England and other countries around the world where similar policies have been introduced. This project then assessed the likely impact of implementing a similar policy in Wales on post-16 education or training participation, retention and attainment rates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.wcpp.org.uk/commentary/should-the-age-of-participation-in-education-or-training-be-raise...
 
Description Datalab Blog: "Long-term outcomes: How did life turn out for pupils who took GNVQs?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact GNVQs were introduced in the early 1990s to provide experiences and education relevant to working life, but stopped short of providing training for a specific job. They could be studied at foundation level (equivalent to GCSE grades D-G), intermediate level (equivalent to GCSE grades A*-C) and advanced level (equivalent to A-Level), and were available in 15 broad vocational areas. The full GNVQ consisted of six modules, each of which had a recommended guided learning time of 60 hours, or else a qualification consisting of half this number of modules (a 'part one GNVQ') could be done. Two-thirds of the modules were internally assessed based on coursework. The full GNVQ was considered equivalent to four GCSEs and the part one GNVQ equivalent to two GCSEs. By 2003, pupils at the end of Key Stage 4 were entering some 135,000 foundation and intermediate GNVQs. Over 60% were in applied information and communication technology. This blog uses LEO data to describe the relative long term outcomes for this group of learners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2018/10/how-did-life-turn-out-for-pupils-who-took-gnvqs/
 
Description FFT Datalab Blog Post: "Long term outcomes: Does school quality matter?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Now that data from the National Pupil Database has been linked to earnings, employment and benefits records [as part of LEO] we can begin to examine some really big questions about the long-term effects of education policy, structures and qualification choices. In this post, we look at whether school quality makes a difference to pupils' long-term outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2018/12/long-term-outcomes-does-school-quality-matter/
 
Description FFT Datalab Blog Post: "Long-term outcomes: Does it make a difference if your school has a sixth form?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In this post, we look at whether pupils who attend a school with a sixth form achieved better long-term outcomes than pupils who went to schools without a sixth form.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2018/12/long-term-outcomes-does-it-make-a-difference-if-your-scho...
 
Description FFT Datalab Blogpost:Long-term outcomes: Do grammar schools make a difference? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact With the Conservative leadership contest about to kick into full swing, undoubtedly grammar schools will filter to the top of the education news agenda before too long. There is evidence pointing to the negative effects of selection on equity, such as this. However, the challenge for researchers is how to make causal claims about the effects of grammar schools.
What we do not have is a ready-made counterfactual that tells us what might have happened to the pupils who went to grammar schools had they gone to a comprehensive. And similarly, what might have happened to pupils in highly-selective areas who didn't get into grammar schools. Unless we were to introduce some sort of lottery system, the evaluation of grammar schools through randomisation would be impossible to achieve. We therefore have to try our best with observational data, controlling as much as possible for systematic social, demographic and economic characteristics between those who go to grammar schools and those who do not.

The blogpost then goes on to describe findings from such an analysis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2019/06/long-term-outcomes-do-grammar-schools-make-a-difference/
 
Description FFT Datalab Blogpost:Long-term outcomes: How do independent school pupils' outcomes differ from those of state school pupils? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact There's no doubt that pupils who complete secondary education in independent schools go on to have better long-term outcomes. But is there anything to suggest that they would have achieved worse outcomes if they had gone to a state school?
The blogpost then goes on to analyse the data to see if we are 'Comparing apples and Doritos'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2019/03/long-term-outcomes-how-do-independent-school-pupils-outco...
 
Description FFT Datalab Blogpost:Long-term outcomes: How do they differ for pupils who go to grammar schools and pupils who go to independent schools? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In this series on pupils' long-term outcomes we've looked at those who went to grammar schools and those who went to independent secondary schools. We found that pupils who went to independent schools at 11 had better long-term outcomes than those who stayed in the state sector. The blogpost then goes on to compare outcomes associated with the two pathways.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2019/07/long-term-outcomes-how-do-they-differ-for-pupils-who-go-t...
 
Description FFT Datalab blog post: "The link between exclusions, alternative provision and off-rolling" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Over the years FFT Datalab have looked at exclusions, alternative provision and, in particular, pupils disappearing off school rolls. In this blogpost, the team use LEO data to examine the intersection between these three things.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2018/11/the-links-between-exclusions-alternative-provision-and-of...
 
Description How can we get more young people to achieve Level 3 qualifications? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This is a blogpost associated with the new Nuffield funded project, which continues our ESRC funded work looking into the experiences of disadvantaged young people in post-16 learning using LEO data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2021/10/how-can-we-get-more-young-people-to-achieve-level-3-quali...
 
Description Long-term outcomes: What happened to those pupils who missed out on a grade C in English or maths at age 16? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact FFT Blogpost using LEO data: How do the long-term outcomes for pupils who achieved grade D in one of English or maths, but grade C in the other, compare to those of pupils who achieved grade C in both?
For this analysis, we look at the 11% of pupils who achieved (exactly) grade C in both English and maths. This group are used as the comparator against which the results of the following two groups are measured:
the 5% of pupils who achieved grade D in English and grade C in maths, and
the 6% of pupils who achieved grade C in English and grade D in maths.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ffteducationdatalab.org.uk/2019/07/long-term-outcomes-what-happens-to-those-pupils-who-misse...
 
Description SHARE Radio podcast: Policy Matters meets Economist Questions, Social Mobility and Further Education 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This episode of Policy Matters is a cross-over show in which hosts Franz Buscha and Matt Dickson are joined by the host of Economist Questions, Peter Urwin. As Peter is currently leading a large research project looking at young people's pathways through education, Franz and Matt ask him about his own journey and how that affected his social mobility. They go on to discuss the problems that the Further Education system faces in providing both second chances for those who don't achieve well at age 16 as well as higher-level training for those more suited to the vocational route. All this in the context of dwindling education budgets in general, and a lack of policy focus on the Further Education system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.shareradio.co.uk/podcasts/?pr=Policy+Matters
 
Description Submission to DfE - Post-16 Level 2 and below study and qualifications in England: Call for Evidence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The government is currently consulting on Level 2 and Below qualifications in the post-16 environment. Our submission discussed some of evidence arising from our work to date in this area, including the ESRC-funded work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/post-16-study-at-level-2-and-below-call-for-evidence