The Maritime Dimension of Transnational Organized Crime: Engaging Indonesian Law Enforcement Agencies and Coastal Communities in the Land-Sea Nexus

Lead Research Organisation: Coventry University
Department Name: Centre for Trust Peace & Social Relation

Abstract

Indonesia's maritime layout results in a close relation between transnational organized crimes and maritime security. Indonesia's immense maritime area not only enables the illegal smuggling and trafficking of goods and people by sea, but also allows for voracious crimes such as sea robbery and piracy and illegal fishing to go unpunished. These crimes come at great economic costs (recently estimated at $20 billion annually) but also threaten the already vulnerable livelihoods of many coastal communities. The capacity of Indonesia's law enforcement agencies is limited and their overlapping authorities hamper effective action. Next to law enforcement agencies, the project assumes an important role for Indonesia's numerous coastal communities. Until now these communities are seriously neglected in academic and policy debates on combatting transnational organized crimes at sea. Bringing coastal communities 'in' is truly new. The active participation of governmental agencies that are responsible for the enforcement of law at sea as well as coastal communities will result in a better mutual understanding and actual cooperation.

The prosed research builds on the collaboration between the Centre for Trust Peace and Social Relations (CTPSR) of Coventry University (UK) and the International Organization for Migration Indonesia (IOM). This collaboration started in 2014 with a specific focus on the interrelation between maritime and human security issues in Indonesia. In 2015, the partners established a consortium focused on Indonesian maritime security. This consortium brings together key stakeholders from government, academia and the private sector and acts as an interface to conduct joint research. With the active involvement of IOM/Indonesia, support from the consortium, and with the interdisciplinary expertise of the investigators (experts in law, anthropology and political sciences), the proposed research is perfectly positioned to investigate the many challenges related to transnational maritime organized crimes. The research will investigate such issues as: who are considered to be the main actors in the maritime domain; which particular 'crimes' are being experienced and with what effect; what law enforcement tools and recourses are being used and with what success; what specific threats are articulated by coastal communities; how do the communities and law enforcers appreciate each other; and what do these stakeholders see as ways forward.

The research will provide insights into these matters on the basis of focus group discussions with staff members of law enforcement agencies (such as the Maritime Security Agency, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, the National Search and Rescue Agency, the Coordinating Ministry for Political, Legal and Security Affairs, the Directorate General of Immigration and the Indonesian National Police) as well as with coastal community leaders and members. The selected coastal communities, of which a number are participants in IOM/Indonesia activities, include maritime crime prone locations in North Sumatra, South Java, Flores, Sulawesi, Maluku, and East Nusa Tenggara. The focus group sessions all include the making of collages, a visual tool through which the research participants are invited to express their experiences by using photos, newspaper headings, magazine clippings and other printed materials. These collages are intended to represent the participants' unique understanding of the maritime problems and the position of the various actors involved. These images will be used first of all to establish the direction of the research as well as to elicit discussions beyond standard interview sessions and support the interpretation of the legal and policy documents. This research design is considered best suited to understand the background of transnational organized crime, maritime security and law enforcement through the eyes of the key stakeholders involved.

Planned Impact

There are three groups that will benefit from the proposed project in terms of impact: (1) the participants of the focus groups, (2) the communities and governmental agencies that they are part of, and (3) the wider community of maritime security and law enforcement stakeholders. The research project is intentionally participatory and inclusive. It aims at creating a culture of ownership among the participants, who must perceive themselves as subjects of the research, not as its objects. The participants are structurally involved in the research design, the production of new knowledge, the formulation of operational findings, and the specific dissemination of these findings; it makes the research participants co-producers of the knowledge so created and co-promoters of the results.

The participants will benefit directly from this research project through their participation in the focus groups. Through the creation of collages and the explaining of those collages, the participants are actively engaged in contextualizing the problem, perceiving the impact of maritime criminal activities on their own security and livelihoods, and contemplating their role in combatting crime and in increasing maritime security. Through the visual participatory method that we have chosen the participants will be stimulated in creative engagement, to think outside the box of existing 'language' and enabling them to express and show their opinion in an illustrative manner. The six coastal communities and the six government agencies mentioned in the case for support will benefit through the participation of their community and staff members, who will be stimulated and empowered to share their experiences and ideas with fellow community and staff members. The communities and agencies will formally benefit through dissemination of different materials such as articles, reports and the resulting collages and posters.

The partnership between CTPSR and IOM/Indonesia facilitates broader dissemination through the Consortium on Indonesian Maritime Security, which includes a broader range of stakeholders from government, academia and the private sector. The Consortium acts as a hub and manifesto for (research) cooperation and the fostering of more effective and sustainable responses to transnational organized crimes and maritime insecurities. The Consortium is well established, and secures impact through easy access to various government agencies and communities, quick and effective dissemination of outputs and the implementation and maximization of findings.

The publication of shorter policy papers and briefs (both in English and Indonesian) will be part and parcel of the project's aim to reach a wider national and international audience in the interconnected fields of maritime security and transnational organized crime, such as UNODC, INTERPOL or the Security Association for the Maritime Industry. Next, the proposed project will also launch a dedicated website through which research results and highlights will be disseminated. The website will include a portal for comments (in both English and Indonesian) from end user about the value of the results for their own practices. Finally, the most important impact tools will be the focus group's production of collages, which will be converted into actual posters and digitalized versions for web use and easy sharing (on social media) and the final materials that emerge from the research (reports and practice oriented publications). Hard copies of the posters will be produced to reach those without internet connection and/or computer skills. The posters are likely to have an informative and educational character highlighting the risks of transnational organized maritime crimes and suggestions for enhancing maritime security.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Posters 
Description Awareness raising posters in the Indonesian language are in the process of being produced and will be distributed among the participants in the project. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact awareness raising 
 
Description What were the most significant achievements from the award?

The most significant achievements include:
1) The fact that the project created an interaction between Indonesian law enforcement agencies (such as marine police, ministry of fishing affairs, maritime .navy) and various leaders of fishing communities from different parts of the archipelago on tackling maritime crime in Indonesia. This level of interaction and communication has so far never taken place between these parties and was acknowledged by participants as eye-opening and in need for further practice. We are extremely pleased that the project was able to facilitate this and to take away several of the assumptions these parties hold over each other (including concerning their roles in participating and/or solving maritime crimes).
2) The research project also enabled us to bring together representatives from different fishing communities as such and have them interact with each other which created insights into how similar many of the maritime problems are but also that there are important differences related to 'location'. We consider this one of the more significant achievements of our project due to the fact that it fostered solidarity between the different fishing communities. The representatives of these communities are still in communication through such social media as Facebook and WhatsApp.
3) Finally, the production of a bi-lingual report - in Indonesian and English (as well as awareness raising posters in Indonesian) with core outcomes and policy advise is a significant achievement as it reached a large number of people through our participants in many different parts of Indonesia. We are extremely proud with this result as many projects finish with English outputs that never reach the people with whom the research is conducted.


To what extent were the award objectives met? If you can, briefly explain why any key objectives were not met.

The project articulated the following objectives in the case for support:
1.To investigate how coastal communities perceive, experience and contextualize the legal an societal aspects of the maritime dimension of transnational organized crime over time.
* This objective has been achieved through the various collage making focus groups that were conducted with leaders from fishing communities and representatives from law enforcement organisations.

2. To critically assess the effectiveness of law enforcement by governmental stakeholders, and their appreciation and contextualization of the maritime dimension of transnational organized crime.
* This objective has been achieved through collage-making focus groups in each of the participating communities and follow-up interviews with law enforcers in Jakarta and the subsequent policy workshop that took place near the end of the project with representatives of all parties involved. This lead to policy recommendations.

3. To make (evidenced-based) recommendations to local, national and international (law enforcement) policy makers on how local communities can be successfully and sustainably included and supported in initiatives that seek to minimize the effects of maritime crimes.
* This has been achieved via the bi-lingual research report that has been published and distributed in Indonesia and to several international organisations.

4. To advance interdisciplinary academic research and knowledge transfer on the role and position of coastal communities in the governance of maritime security and the enforcement of criminal law.
* This has been achieved via our publication in Marine Policy (2019) with the title: "Involving Local Fishing Communities in Policy Making: Addressing Illegal Fishing in Indonesia". There is still one more academic paper we are preparing.


How might the findings be taken forward and by whom?
Our findings have been taken forward by the leadership in the fishing communities. This has been lesser the case with the representatives of the law enforcement agencies. Our findings have also been shared with the United Nations Organisation on Drugs and Crime.
The findings are also taken forward by the researchers in developing follow-up research projects in Indonesia.
1) The project was not intensive enough to further unpack the highly silo-ed position of many of the law enforcement organisations (which prohibit a more effective approach in tackling maritime crimes. This is being considered as a follow-up research project that might focus solely on law enforcement organisations.
2) The collages as outcomes (findings) of this research are also currently being considered as data for funding applications on research methods (ESRC).
Exploitation Route The participants from the finishing communities have taken the findings and their experience forward into their localities. They have used the outcome materials and method in local events.

We have successfully introduced collective collage making as a research method at conferences and guest-lectures ( Albuquerque, USA; University of Amsterdam ) and among PhD students and early career researchers at Coventry University and Oxford Brookes University and noted that this method is also taken forward in other academic circles. This research method can easily be taken forward and adopted for a range of other research projects, including but not limited to academic, policy and applied research. We have taken this method forward in other research projects which has led to a wider distribution of this particular type of research method.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other

URL https://ahrc.ukri.org/research/case-study-archives/the-maritime-dimension-of-transnational-organised-crime/.
 
Description PaCCS Impact Narrative Our PaCCS research project on the "Maritime Dimension of Transnational Organized Crime: Engaging Indonesian Law Enforcement Agencies and Coastal Communities in the Land-Sea Nexus" has created impact in the following ways. First of all, the project has created its most profound impact on the participating fishing communities. The project created a network of participating communities and initiated conversations and dialogue among fishing communities across the enormous archipelago to discuss and share their maritime security concerns. This is a unique outcome given the diverse socio-economic problems they encounter and the sheer geographical distance between the communities. The fishing community leaders stay in touch among themselves and with the researchers through social media and are still discussing solutions and action. Second, our engagement activities, such as individual discussions, focus group and collage-making sessions, and inviting them to different meetings in Jakarta has created an awareness among the fishing community representatives about the problems that they all face with respect to transnational maritime crime and illegal activities relating to fishing. The fact that several of the community leaders have repeated collage-making on maritime crimes in their communities with fishers indicates that the awareness has had spin off effects. Also, the representatives of the fishing communities are keen to keep the project going and the research team has been repeatedly requested to re-visit the communities to discuss what can be done concretely on the basis of the research results. Profs Noortmann and Koning are looking into the possibilities for developing and financing specific transnational maritime crime and fishing crimes oriented smaller activities. Third, the bringing together of various law enforcement organizations that are all tasked with maritime security in Indonesia has proven valuable for these participating organizations (from the Sea Police and Navy to the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries) in that they acknowledged in the various meetings that cooperation among them is needed to address such complex problems as Organized Crime. The impact of the project has been the sharing of knowledge and insights among these government organizations. Although there is a willingness to collaborate more, the (acknowledged) fact that they all work within given (restricted) mandates makes this ambition too far-fetched for our project. Fourth, an impact related result is the dialogue that has been started between the law enforcement agencies and the fishing communities through our project. However, establishing a more structural and sustainable dialogue and cooperation between the two different stakeholders poses a more intrinsically wicked problem, which would require more in-depth research in order to understand what precisely prevents the cooperation between fishing communities and the law enforcement agencies. A first preliminary conclusion would point in the direction of distrust at the local level and socio-political distance between local fishing communities and the central government in Jakarta. Fifth, another potential impact (to be established further) is an increased awareness of international organizations both at the national and international level (IOM Jakarta, UNODC Vienna and Jakarta, FAO Jakarta) of the relevance of local fishing communities in countering transnational maritime crimes and fishing crimes, and that their isolation as an impediment towards a solution. This message is the core argument made in an academic paper written by the project leaders and submitted to Marine Policy that is awaiting its review outcome. Finally, the researchers have participated in overall PaCCS-project meetings as partner and/or as participants such as the September 2018 Expert meeting in Cambridge which led to a Policy Briefing in December 2018 that includes a number of 'Insights' and 'Recommendations' based on our project in which the relevance of the 'local' was stressed.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description MBA alumni-day Oxford Brookes University
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Newton Fund, Institutional Links
Amount £65,863 (GBP)
Funding ID 261872695 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Title Collage-Making 
Description The project is oriented around dialogue with key local groups but involved using collage-making in place of interviews, as a means to open up new and different conversations. In a culture where oral communication dominates, the approach aimed to push participants out of their comfort zone, and allow them to think and express themselves in new ways. Participants were provided with the means to make their own collages and then invited to explain these to their group and the research team. Although they were initially nervous about the approach, it allowed them to articulate ideas that had not emerged previously, resulting in the creation of knowledge that was shared and co-owned by participants and the researchers. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This method allowed participants to more freely express their opinions through visual engagements and thus become co-producer of research direction as well as knowledge. This is an inclusive and impactful research methodology. The method was subsequently used in other successful externally funded research projects (Newton institutional links and CREST). In all cases the research participants informed us they wil use the method in their work-environment. 
URL https://ahrc.ukri.org/research/case-study-archives/the-maritime-dimension-of-transnational-organised...
 
Description IOM Jakarta 
Organisation International Organization for Migration Mission in Indonesia
Country Indonesia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research team met to discuss and analyse the interviews of the field visits and first focus groups. On the basis of the first, preliminary findings, the IOM was able to write its report on "Transnational Organized Crime at Sea in Indonesia".
Collaborator Contribution IOM Indonesia's COMMSAT2 project collaborated with Coventry University (UK) and Oxford Brookes University (UK) in research focused on the 'The Maritime Dimension of Transnational Organized Crime: Engaging Indonesian Law Enforcement Agencies and Coastal Communities in the Land-Sea Nexus'. The research is part of the United Kingdom's Economic and Social Research Council's Partnership for Conflict, Crime and Security Research (PaCCS). IOM conducted field visits to six communities between January and February 2017 and established links with the community leaders. Coventry University and Oxford Brookes University convened two Focus Group Discussions (FGD) in Jakarta in March 2017 with coastal community leaders from the field sites and with representatives from the six law enforcement agencies.
Impact Transnational Organized Crime at Sea in Indonesia. Report IOM Indonesia 2017
Start Year 2016
 
Description Working Group in IUU fishing and associated crimes 
Organisation Royal United Services Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution In the framework of this established collaboration with RUSI's research team, I participated in an experts' working group on IUU fishing and associated crimes. Following the completion of RUSI's team fieldwork in SE Asia (Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia) and the Western Indian Ocean (Tanzania and South Africa), the aim of the working group was to discuss findings, reflect upon policy recommendations, exchange experiences and findings from the participants' relevant research and further build on research collaboration. Given that my research, conducted as part of the awarded projects, is directly linked to RUSI's focus both geographicaly and thematically, I provided a brief overview of my research and feedback on RUSI's findings and recommendations. In addition, I have been invited to review RUSI's forthcoming occassional paper focused on responses to Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing in the five case- study countries.
Collaborator Contribution RUSI has a dedicated team working on organised crime in general and over the last several years they focus on illegal fishing as a threat to national security. Building on their occassional paper titled 'Below the Surface: How Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing Threatens our Security', published in July 2017, RUSI conducted a follow-up, in depth research in 5 countries examining the extent to which implemented measures work and whether existing responses in these countries are effectively contributing towards eradicating the phenomenon. Their paper is expected to be published within 2019.
Impact The collaboration examines all aspects of IUU fishing and associated crimes and no outputs are available yet.
Start Year 2019
 
Company Name Academic Council on the United Nations System 
Description The Academic Council of the United Nations System (ACUNS) aims at facilitating the dialogue between the United Nations and Higher Education. in 2018 ACUNS moved from the Wilfried laurier University in Canada too Coventry University. The research portfolio of CTPSR (including two PaCCS) projects played a role in the awarding of the proposal. 
Impact Through ACUNS, it has become possible to enlarge the network of stakeholders and include such important actors as the UNODC.
Website http://acuns.org
 
Description Talk on Landward and Maritime Governance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Math Noortmann: The African Union, Between Practice and Principle, panel presentation at the Fifth International Conference on Strategic Theory: Africa's security Triad: From Leadership to Landward and Maritime Governance, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 26 September 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Endseminar discussing findings and ways forward with law enforcers and fishermen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion of main findings:
·Transnational labour exploitation and human trafficking activities (for economic reasons)
·Difficult communication, dialogue and cooperation between fishing communities and law enforcement agencies (trust, information sharing, support)
·Blurring lines between unlawful and criminal activities (IUU fishing, or illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, fisheries crimes)
·Willingness to address illegal activities but lack of resources and coordination among law enforcement agencies.

And iden tidying ways forward
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description IOM HQ lunchtime seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited by the International Organisation for Migration to deliver a talk in their HQ in Geneva, as part of their staff lunch-time seminar series. In this talk, the strong land-sea nexus was emphasised, and the findings from the research findings in Indonesia demonstrated how the maritime domain facilitates human trafficking and forced labour, which directly fall under the IOM's mandate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Inaugural workshop Jakarta 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact college making with representatives of enforcement agencies and fishing communities in order to identify core maritime transnational crime issues at sea in Indonesia. Resulterd in. prioritising next steps and follow up research, identification of participants in field studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Fisheries Crime Symposium FishCRIME 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited to and participated as a speaker in the annual International Fisheries Crime Symposium 'FishCRIME 2018', which took place on 15-16 October 2018 at the UN City in Copenhagen, Denmark. The focus of FishCRIME 2018 was on advancing efforts towards high level political commitment to cooperatively addressing transnational organised fisheries crime.
FishCRIME 2018 followed on the success of the three previous Symposiums held in Vienna, Austria (2017); Yogyakarta, Indonesia (2016) and Cape Town, South Africa (2015). One of the key outcomes of the symposium was a Ministers' Declaration on Transnational Organised Crime in the Global Fishing Industry, which was adopted by nine Ministers from Large Ocean Nations from four continents on 15 October 2018 at UN City, Copenhagen. The Declaration continues to garner increasing support globally and currently stands at 15 countries, as listed in detail on the 'Blue Justice' website (https://bluejustice.org/)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://bluejustice.org/
 
Description Interview by Oxford Research Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview conducted by the Oxford Research Group, a London-based, high profile global security think tank. In his interview, maritime security as a concept was discussed, with specific emphasis placed on major maritime security challenges, the key drivers and actors involved, the levels of international cooperation and ways in which global maritime security can be strengthened. As part of this interview, the role of living natural resources has been examined and the need for improved security governance and capacity building was emphasised in order to address maritime crimes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/blog/maritime-security-an-interview-with-ioannis-chapsos
 
Description Maritime Challenges & Blue Economy Opportunities Open Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Delivered an open lecture at the London School of Public Relations Jakarts in Indonesia, titled 'Maritime Challenges & Blue Economy Opportunities'. This was an opportunity to present the research findings in an educational environment and raise awarness within Indonesia and among under/post graduate students on the challenges posed by maritime crime in their country.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PaCCS Conference on TNOC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Organised by the Impact Champion for PaCCS to identify overarching issues and solutions coming from the projects and the discussion with stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description RUSI Workshop on IUU fishing and Associated Crimes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact In the framework of the established collaboration with RUSI's research team, working on IUU fishing and associated crimes, I participated in an experts' working group convened in London. Following the completion of RUSI's team fieldwork in SE Asia (Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia) and the Western Indian Ocean (Tanzania and South Africa), the aim of the meeting was to briefly present my relevant research and then discuss RUSI's findings, reflect upon their recommendations and further build on this research collaboration, where significant synergies exist in both geographical and thematical terms.
In addition to the creation of pool of experts in the field, the discussions that took place will inform RUSI's forthcoming occassional paper on the responses to IUU fishing and associated crimes in 5 countries. The paper in turn, is expected to influence future policies and improve responses to the phenomena.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Youtube introduction to maritime dimension of transnational organised crime. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Youtube presentation sparked interest in the particular problematic and Indonesia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUHmkv9JrfI
 
Description organising for security 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presention of resdeasrch methodology (arts-based collage making) at Qualitative Research in Management and Organisation Conference: "Praxis and Performance in Research"
Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.qrmconf.org