Who experiences or witnesses ASB and in what context?

Lead Research Organisation: Nottingham Trent University
Department Name: Sch of Social Sciences

Abstract

In a climate of diminishing budgets, falling police officer numbers and a growing number of calls related to "public safety and welfare" (College of Policing, 2015) senior police officers have highlighted the need to manage crime and anti-social behaviour (ASB) differently (Thornton, 2015; Habgood, 2015). Research conducted by HouseMark suggests that the cost of tackling ASB to UK social landlords alone was approximately £295 million in 2012/13 (Wickenden, 2014). With this in mind, the primary research focus is to establish:

Who experiences or witnesses ASB and in what context?

A number of police forces have received criticism for their lack of understanding in relation to the intensity of harm to communities and vulnerable individuals caused by ASB (HMIC, 2010). The proposed study will address this gap in knowledge by providing a more comprehensive understanding of ASB victims, harm and vulnerability. It will draw on data from four sources: Understanding Society (2009/10-2014/15), the Crime Survey for England and Wales (2009/10-2014/15), the 2011 UK Census and the English Indices of Deprivation. Collectively, this will build a comprehensive picture of the individuals, households and areas most likely to experience: high prevalence of ASB; a strong link between ASB and crime victimisation; severe impact of ASB victimisation on quality of life and daily routine; and high levels of dissatisfaction with police response to ASB. The proposed research will constitute the most comprehensive study of the relationship between victim and neighbourhood characteristics to date, including deprivation, community cohesion and trust. The research has real potential to inform policy and practice, including resource allocation (e.g. patrolling strategies), planning policy, victim assistance, the design of the built environment and wider interventions to address ASB.

The research will involve working collaboratively with a stakeholders including: the Office for National Statistics Nottingham Crime and Drugs Partnership and two major regional partnerships: the East Midlands Policing Academic Collaboration and East Midlands Collaborative HR Services. The five East Midlands police forces employ over 14,000 police officers and staff, covering a population of over 4.5 million. These relationships will ensure the findings are directly implemented into regional learning and practice. Findings will be publicised via: four peer-reviewed journal articles; a policy paper co-authored with a practitioner; online content (blog, Twitter); press releases; three Advisory Committee meetings; a policy roundtable; an end of project conference; and three conference presentations. Collectively, this activity will ensure the research is accessible and disseminated widely.

Criminology is currently undersupplied with trained secondary data analysts despite the availability of a wealth of existing large and complex datasets which, if examined, would offer invaluable theoretical insights and assist policymakers. An important outcome from the research will be to increase that capacity within criminology via training the Research Staff to undertake advanced secondary data analyses as well as enhancing the experience of the Early Career Researcher (PI) in managing large research projects.

The ability to provide a more effective response to ASB is particularly important at a time when budgets are being drastically reduced. The research team comprising of senior, middle and early career researchers, are collectively experts in data linking, have published extensively using secondary data and have a track record of delivering impactful research. The proposed research will enable the team to conduct internationally-leading research, develop the capacity of an early career researcher (PI), work collaboratively with non-academic stakeholders to extract maximum value from existing data resources and produce research with high societal and economic impact.

Planned Impact

Anti-Social Behaviour (ASB) can have wide ranging socio-economic costs for individuals, local communities and society. This research has the potential to directly inform policy in terms of defining ASB and its effective management. It has been designed to inform future policy that could lead to considerable financial savings and directly benefit the following groups:

- Victims of ASB and their communities: first and foremost by informing them of how best to reduce future risks of ASB and related crime victimisation as well as improving post-victimisation services;
- All adults, by informing them of effective community mobilisation and informal social control measures for avoiding and/or tackling ASB;
- The police by improving their evidence base, specifically, by informing patrolling strategies, risk identification and management, victim assistance and interventions to address ASB, all of which should lead to a reduction in the number of incidents, demand and associated costs;
- Nottingham Crime and Drugs Partnership (NCDP) in particular and Crime Reduction Partnerships in general, working more effectively and efficiently to discharge their responsibilities;
- Private landlords, social housing providers (including local authorities) and town planners by informing them how to ASB-proof housing location, design and management decisions;
- Third sector organisations such as Neighbourhood and Home Watch Network (NHWN) and Crimestoppers and those dealing with communities' wellbeing and/or mental health;
- Businesses affected by ASB, by informing them how best to reduce ASB risks and thus improve perceived staff/customer safety resulting in increased business and revenue; and
- The insurance industry, by enabling them to offer incentives for individuals and their households to reduce their risk of ASB and the associated costs.

More broadly, the research will also benefit:
- Society at large by reducing ASB and its impact, such as fear of crime, improve community relations and cohesion, neighbourhood satisfaction levels, quality of life and the nation's health more broadly;
- The NHS and wider economy by increasing service effectiveness, reducing the costs associated with responding to ASB-related health problems, and reducing the number of GP visits and days off work occurring as a result of ASB victimisation;
- Public information by suggesting improvements to the social capital/community cohesion questions of Understanding Society and the ASB questions of the Crime Survey for England and Wales, as well as by introducing innovative area-level linking between surveys for subsequent impactful research; and
- Public policy in relation to ASB classification and the link to crime.

To maximise impact, findings will be disseminated using a variety of methods (see Pathways to Impact). Specifically, four peer-reviewed publications, Twitter, online videos, press releases, posters, conference presentations, a policy roundtable, three Advisory Committee meetings, a policy paper and an end of project conference.

The research team enjoys close relationships with bodies responsible for crime prevention (see CVs). They are thus accustomed to communicating findings to non-specialists in ways that draw out their policy and practical significance (see Final Reports). Tseloni, Tilley and Thompson's previous ESRC-funded work on burglary and security (reference ES/K003771/1 & ES/K003771/2) informs burglary target hardening interventions in Nottingham and national NHWN guidance. Hunter and Tseloni's Knowledge Transfer Partnership on shop-theft (reference KTP009423) involves co-production of knowledge with the NCDP. Finally, Thompson plays a key role in the East Midlands Policing Academic Collaboration which provides an additional platform for the co-production of research and influencing of policy.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description March 2018 marks the half way point of the project. This section will very briefly summarise broadly how the initial findings of the award are beginning to have an impact beyond academia as well as potential pathways to future impact. A fuller impact narrative will be written upon completion of the project. Thus far, the project has involved working with a range of different organisations. This has included working with partners who are part of the project Advisory Committee. This Committee is an invaluable source of expertise in relation to the practical response to ASB as well as how our findings might influence practice. The project team has also presented findings at a number of practitioner forums. In terms of specific impact, the team would anticipate some of the findings from the project could be used in relation to enhancing existing anti-social behaviour (ASB) risk assessment tools, in particular in the housing and policing sectors. We would hope that by helping to develop those tools, we could increase the effectiveness of the response to ASB and, in turn, hopefully reduce the number of victims of ASB, thus enhance quality of life.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description American Society of Criminology Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation was given to the American Society of Criminology conference. The purpose of the presentation was to publicise the project, receive feedback and make connections. There were around 30 people in the audience from around the world. There were questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description American Society of Criminology conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact We convened a panel on anti-social behaviour (including Dr James Hunter, Dr Vicky Heap and Dr Rebecca Thompson). This was an opportunity to publicise the project on an international stage. We had a number of practitioners in the audience as well as academics. The presentations led to further discussions and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Article in Police Professional 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Andromachi Tseloni wrote an article for Police Professional. This is a national publication which is sent to all police officers and staff in England and Wales. The article mentioned the project and thus publicised it amongst a wider practitioner audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Article in the Nottingham Post newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article about the project featured in the Nottingham Post newspaper. This meant the project has been publicised amongst the general public and led to a radio interview.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Blog for the British Society of Criminology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Andromachi Tseloni and Rich Pickford wrote a blog for the British Society of Criminology in January 2018 which included discussion of the ASB project. This was promoted via a number of platforms including Twitter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://thebscblog.wordpress.com/2018/01/
 
Description Capital FM and Smooth Radio interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview was pre-recorded about the project for Capital FM news. This was broadcast on a number of radio stations (including Smooth Radio and Capital FM).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description College of Policing Police Knowledge Fund showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an opportunity to showcase the work of the Sociology Department at NTU, including the ASB project. Participants at this event included practitioners and academics. This led to discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussions with ASB Help charity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact After hearing about the research via the media coverage of the project, Jenny Herrera from the charity ASB Help got in touch. We discussed the project and the ways in which we may be able to work together. Jenny was invited to sit on the project Advisory Committee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussions with RESOLVE ASB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact As a result of the media coverage, Janine Green from RESOLVE ASB got in touch to hear more about the project. The RESOLVE ASB charity is an approx. 300 member organisation (comprised mostly of housing associations and local authorities). Janine sits on a number of national ASB forums. The outcome of our discussions was to continue working together. Janine also routinely publicises the project with other partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Event with Pat MacLeod 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A meeting was convened with Pat MacLeod from the Office for Statistics Regulation. During this meeting, Pat was made aware of the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Home Office discussions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussions were had about the project with the Safeguarding/Vulnerability team at the Home Office. These discussions were to raise awareness of the project and to see if there were any future opportunities for collaboration. Additional project information was sent via email.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description NTU press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was published on the NTU website marking the start of the project. It was an opportunity to publicise the project. To this end, it included details of the project and its potential impact. In terms of outcomes, this led to the Nottingham Post writing a story and radio interviews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ntu.ac.uk/about-us/news/news-articles/2017/02/study-to-help-victims-of-anti-social-behav...
 
Description Nottinghamshire Police engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We met with the ASB Manager for Nottingham City Council and Nottinghamshire Police representatives. Discussed the possibility of making changes to their risk assessment tools and asked them to sit on the project Advisory Committee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to Sociology Department at Nottingham Trent University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented to colleagues in one of NTU's departmental seminars. This involved showcasing the research to other colleagues in the department and led to questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to the Crime Surveys User Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation was given to the Crime Surveys User Conference in London about the project. The purpose of this activity was to promote the use of the CSEW in the research as well as obtain feedback. In terms of outcomes, we received some really useful feedback from the audience and made some additional contacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to the European Society of Criminology conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation was given by Dr James Hunter to the European Society of Criminology conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to the European Society of Criminology conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation regarding the research to the European Society of Criminology conference in Cardiff. This led to further discussions and debate. There were a number of academics and practitioners in the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Project Advisory Committee meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The first of our project Advisory Committee meetings was held in October 2017. This included representatives from De Montfort University, Nottinghamshire Police, Nottinghamshire Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner, ASB Help, RESOLVE ASB, the Metropolitan Police and the Office for National Statistics. This was an opportunity to outline the project and the proposed activity. We also elicited feedback from partners re: what they wanted to gain from the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description RESOLVE ASB conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Andromachi Tseloni attended the RESOLVE ASB conference. This is a conference organised largely for the social housing sector. This involved presenting a poster and other leaflets about the project. It was an opportunity to publicise the work amongst potential research users.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Resolution magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Professor Andromachi Tseloni wrote an article for the Resolution Magazine. This is a magazine created by RESOLVE ASB. This will have gone out to RESOLVE ASB members (predominantly housing associations). The article was an opportunity to publicise the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Undergraduate students at the University of Leicester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Sally Chivers from the University of Leicester (at that time) promoted the research to 68 BA (Hons) Policing students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017