Security on the Move: Everyday security of IDPs in rapidly growing Somali Cities

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Government and International Affairs

Abstract

This research project addresses the nexus of poverty, environmental sustainability and conflict in Somalia from the perspective of the most vulnerable in-migrants to cities, people who were internally displaced (IDPs). The interplay between violent conflict and droughts is described as one of the main drivers of internal displacement in Somalia, but rapid in-migration to cities further increases pressures on the urban and rural environment. The research focus is on the capacities of IDPs to cope with the effects of violence and displacement and to mitigate vulnerability. The study is conducted in four cities in Southern Somalia (Mogadishu, Baidoa), Puntland (Bosasso) and Somaliland (Hargeisa), which have quite different histories pertaining to in-migration and violence. While IDPs in Hargeysa and Mogadishu have started to gain attention from international organisations, very little is known about IDPs living in secondary or smaller cities such as Bosasso or Baidoa. This project will conduct interviews and compare IDPs perceptions and practices of security on the move and when settling into the city. The concern with IDPs and cities links the project to the emerging global urban agenda and the need to develop new approaches to urban sustainability, democratic governance and livelihood in cities. With the choice to study this from the viewpoints and experiences of IDPs, people who are most vulnerable are placed at the core of the knowledge production. This informs the choice of research methods, which, in addition to narrative interviews, also includes a photo-voice methodology. Photo-voice is a highly innovative research tool that gives 'voice' to people who are usually not heard or silenced. It does not merely rely on verbal capacities, but uses images to communicate peoples' perceptions of securities and insecurities in Somali cities. Selected IDPs will receive cameras and produce photographs illustrating (in-)security and (in-)secure places and experiences

Planned Impact

Main impact beneficiaries of the research project "Security on the Move" are identified within three broad areas: First, beneficiaries that need updated and differentiated insights on the vulnerabilities of urban populations in Somalia, with a particular emphasis on forcefully displaced populations. These include governance institutions in Somalia and their international partners. In this project UN-Habitat is a partner and main beneficiary who will ensure the communication of results through its networks. Second, 'representatives' of urban IDPs in the four cities will benefit directly from the research, as they will be enabled to communicate their concerns and these will be made visible in the planned exhibition. The third, more indirect beneficiaries, are organisations, researchers, and interest groups focusing on the promotion of urban sustainability and city development in fragile contexts and on wider questions of forced mobility.

The organisation of the photo-voice exhibition is a cornerstone in the impact strategy. The exhibition is a tool to communicate research findings to a broader public, to empower vulnerable populations to express their views and to provide a platform for these populations to interact with city authorities and international organisations. The innovative research design ensures that the project is grounded in the local context in an unusual way. Since this approach transforms informants into researchers, local participants have a strong voice and become co-producers of knowledge. To achieve this result, the research process is organised in close collaboration with a local network organisation that has access and already established trust with mobile and vulnerable populations.

The stakeholder workshop in the initiation phase of the project will bring the main researchers, research partners and key international stakeholders in sustainable city development, state-building and conflict prevention in dialogue with each other.
 
Title Travelling Exhibition 
Description Internally displaced people in four Somalia city (10 in each city) were provided with cameras and have used them to document their everyday lives. Selected photos and testimonies pertaining to the photos were used to produce an exhibition which was travelling through the cities in Somalia, to Oslo and will continue to travel to London and Nairobi. This is an impact related activity as it is accompanied by presentations of research findings and panel discussion (see engagement with non-academic audiences section). 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact no impact yet achieved 
URL https://securityonthemove.co.uk/photo-exhibition/
 
Description 1) We generated in-depth knowledge on the experiences of war-induced displacement and patterns of in-migration to Somali cities, and have fulfilled the three research-related objectives of the grant. We outlined differentiated experiences of displacement in Somali regions. We further identified how informal, and informal property markets emerged in the settlements for displaced in the four cities, and have shown how layered relations of property develop, how they shape the lives and opportunities of the displaced and the way they contribute to city growth (labelled as camp urbanisation by us). This finding also pertains to global-local links as investors are often from outside Somalia. Another string of findings is pertaining to precarity in camps and newly evolving urban settlements, the forms of casual labour and petty entrepreneurship developed to mitigate the challenges and the support networks internally displaced people rely upon (or not) when they move to and settle in the city. And fourth we have assessed the social and physical infrastructures and services that shape the experiences of displaced people. The government and management of camps and settlements for displaced and effects of re-settlement initiatives (durable solutions) was a further finding.
2) The Somali research partner in the project has developed significant research capacity as evidenced by his 'employment' as a consultant in a Worldbank study on Urbanisation in Somalia, then PRIO Norway in a research project on Education of Marginalised Population Groups. He recently won a PhD scholarship.
Exploitation Route We have fulfilled the research related three objectives, but are still in the process to develop impact (fourth objective of the grant).
The exhibitions have brought policy makers (municipality level) in communication with internally displaced people, and a number of Practitioners from governmental and nongovernmental organisaitons have expressed interest in our findings. We had discussions with majors in Bosaaso, Mogadishu and Baidoa on durable solutions and the need of urban planning. We have also shown the project at the Hargeisa bookfair (in cooperation with other ESRC grant holders)
The PI was invited by IOM to conduct training on Durable Solutions for Displacement for the Ethiopian Ministry of Peace. Ethiopia is globally leading displacement statistics, and the Ministry is developing a displacement policy to which the training is supposed to contribute. The Ministry of Planning in Hargeisa (Somaliland) has shown interest in our findings for the development of policies that tackle urban displacement. The Co-I Kirsti Stuvoy has adapted the research design to cities in Russia and won a grant to study urbanisaiton there. The post-doctoral researcher is building on photo-voice mehodology and the exhibition to train researchers in the Horn of Africa in visual methods.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://securityonthemove.co.uk/
 
Description Based on the research, IOM invited the PI to conduct a workshop on Peacebuilding and Durable Solutions for the Ministry of Peace in Ethiopia in July 2019. It is too early to outline the impact of the training, but research participants from the national and federal level increased their knowledge on practical and conflict sensitive approaches in dealing with displacement. The participants were in from the government (one from an NGO), engaged in peacebuilding and directly responsible for the development of solutions for the large scale internal displacement in Ethiopia.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Designed and Provided Training in 'Peacebuilding and Durable Solutions for Displacement' for 25 members of Ministry of Peace in Ethiopia from the National and Federal States
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Mobile Methods Training for Researchers
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://sway.office.com/eAQwfKLdiknQlmPg?ref=Link
 
Description Urban margins, global transitions: Everyday security and mobility in four Russian cities (won by Kirsti Stuvoy, who built on and adapted the research design of Secuirty on the move to Russian case studies)
Amount kr 5,000,000 (NOK)
Organisation Research Council of Norway 
Sector Public
Country Norway
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2022
 
Description Hargeysa Bookfair 
Organisation School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Funded by the ESRC Impact Initiative, three grant holders got the funds for organising a joint exhibition showcasing their research findings at the Hargeysa Book Fair. They participated at a plenary discussion togehter with the Director General of Ministry of Planning and National Development (respjonsible for urban planning) and discussed their findings in a plenary and later with the mayor of Hargeysa.
Collaborator Contribution Joint development of an exhibition, development of flyers showcasing research findings with support of the Impact Initiative
Impact Flyer
Start Year 2018
 
Description Hargeysa Bookfair 
Organisation University of Essex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Funded by the ESRC Impact Initiative, three grant holders got the funds for organising a joint exhibition showcasing their research findings at the Hargeysa Book Fair. They participated at a plenary discussion togehter with the Director General of Ministry of Planning and National Development (respjonsible for urban planning) and discussed their findings in a plenary and later with the mayor of Hargeysa.
Collaborator Contribution Joint development of an exhibition, development of flyers showcasing research findings with support of the Impact Initiative
Impact Flyer
Start Year 2018
 
Description Hargeysa Bookfair 
Organisation University of Sussex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Funded by the ESRC Impact Initiative, three grant holders got the funds for organising a joint exhibition showcasing their research findings at the Hargeysa Book Fair. They participated at a plenary discussion togehter with the Director General of Ministry of Planning and National Development (respjonsible for urban planning) and discussed their findings in a plenary and later with the mayor of Hargeysa.
Collaborator Contribution Joint development of an exhibition, development of flyers showcasing research findings with support of the Impact Initiative
Impact Flyer
Start Year 2018
 
Description Engagement Africa Council Norway 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kirsti Stuvoy (Co-I) invited to present the research project and finding to the Norwegian Africa Council's Working Group on Migration. The presentation and findings were discussed also with respect to further research questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Exhibition at KCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Exhibition Security on the Move was displayed in Great Hall of King's College London Africa Week (November 2019). Bakonyi and Chonka presented the findings of the research in a public panel (November 15th 2019)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Hargeisa Bookfair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We displayed the exhibition and presented the findings of the research during a panel on Urban Marginat the Hargeisa Bookfair in Somaliland. The Bookfair gets good media attention in Somaliland and the wider region. On the panel was General Director of the Ministry of National Planning, who is currently engaged in developing an urban development plan for Somaliland. We engaged hin in discussion on our findings and further cooperations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation/Talk to Somali Student Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Peter Chonka presented at the King' College London for the Somali Students Society 'Security on the Move: 'Picturing and presenting displacement and urbanisation in Somali cities.' It informed Somali students and students interested in African Studies on the situation of displacement and urbanisation in Somalia and discussed ways to improve security of displaced people in urban settlements
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Travelling Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In January 2019 we organised a travelling exhibition. The exhibitions displayed photos and testimonies of displaced people in settlements in four Somali cities (Hargeysa, Mogadishu, Baidoa and Bosasso). The exhibition travelled through the four cities and was also shown in Oslo in February 2019. Two exhibitions in London and Nairobi will follow in March and April respectively.
The exhibitions were used to present the approach and findings of the research to policymakers, among them members of the municipalities in the four cities, and to international organisations working on urbanisation and urban planning in the four cities. The photographers (displaced people) from each city participated and got the opportunity to talk about their challenges to the public. Together with the researchers, the photographers also guided the public through the exhibition.
The guided tour was followed by a panel discussion in which experts commented on the photos and research findings and provided recommendations for policy.

The exhibitions received significant media attention from Somali TV in radio:
In Hargeysa
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lWP28nYiNWg&feature=share
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=me8bj97V15I
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KW0FolSsihs&feature=share

In Bosaaso
• https://horseedmedia.net/2019/01/23/cilmi-baaris-ka-hadlaysa-nolosha-dadka-barakacayaasha-ah-oo-lagu-soo-bandhigay-boosaso-sawiro/
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQmg8D37k1g
 

In Mogadishu
• https://www.facebook.com/133856583339708/posts/2161963270529019/
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9x1THl1BIc
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nUxPvoT0E4o
• https://radiokulmiye.net/2019/01/27/dhageyso-warka-habeen-ee-radio-kulmiye-800pm-27012019/

In Baidoa
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OuPkAEa8W6c
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://securityonthemove.co.uk/events/