Spatial Inequalities in African Political Economy

Lead Research Organisation: London School of Economics & Pol Sci
Department Name: Government

Abstract

How do inequalities across subnational regions within African countries shape patterns of conflict, competition, and political mobilization? Is ethnic identity the only driver of political competition and division in African societies, as much journalistic work, and even much work in political science, would suggests? So far, these questions have been difficult to answer because scholars have lacked the kind of subnational, micro-level, and local institutional data that is needed to test hypotheses about the connection between regional and local socio-economic inequalities, on the one hand, and local, regional, and national patterns of political competition, on the other hand. The main objective of this project is to develop the theory and data needed to solve this analytic and policy problem. Based on our earlier research and the results of our LSE-funded pilot study, our objective is to show that there are economic, socio-economic and institutional drivers of regionalized competition that have been systematically overlooked in policy and social-scientific understandings of political competition and conflict in Africa. Our results should shift scholars' and policy-makers' attention away from simplistic analyses that overemphasize political identity (ethnicity) as a driver of politics, and toward factors amendable to policy and administrative reforms -- institutions and regional inequalities -- as drivers of competition and conflict.

Lack of data and theory about the political effects of regional inequalities in sub-Saharan African countries persists in spite of the fact that many scholars recognize that African countries are characterized by extreme disparities across subnational regions (Brown and Langer 2009). This gap is costly for scholars, policy makers, and citizens alike: social scientists know that very high levels of spatial or "horizontal" inequality are correlated with socio-political ills that hit African countries hard. These include the underprovision of public goods, deep social cleavages, the prominence of political grievances around inequality and exclusion, and civil conflict (Stewart 2000).

The PI and interdisciplinary research team are uniquely positioned to combine new data and analytic techniques with deep substantive expertise in the political economy of regional and territorial dynamics in African countries. We break new ground in the study of African politics by using spatial data to reveal the dynamics regionalism, uneven economic development, and territorial inequalities that drive political coalition-building, group mobilization, and partisan and factional rivalries over fundamental policy choices. There is no equivalent or precedent for this kind of work in the fields of social science that we represent: political science, geography, economic history, and development studies. We believe that our research will chart-out new research agendas for the study of African spatial inequalities across all these fields.

Our research outputs -- approximately 6-8 open-access journal length articles in high-impact venues, publicly-available replication data sets for all our published work, open-access policy reports and LSE working papers, blog posts and podcasts, Year 3 conferences hosted by the LSE Africa Centre in London and the British Institute in Eastern Africa in Nairobi with presenters and discussants from the academic and policy communities, and a university press book by Boone (2 years after the end of the project) -- will open new scholarly frontiers in understanding of territorial dynamics underlying political coalitions and political competition in African countries.

Planned Impact

This project is impactful in two ways. First, there is academic impact which is described above. Academic impact will be realized in a stream of academic and general-audience publications, working papers, and conference presentations. Each research stream will generate 1 article manuscript during the 3-year project period for submission to high-impact disciplinary and interdisciplinary social science journals, in addition to 1 policy-oriented report, 1 LSE International Inequalities Institute Working paper or LSE International Development Working Paper, at least one LSE Africa center blog post or podcast, and one or two presentations at international conferences. The planned journal output is as follows. Stream 1 on regional coalitions: co-authors Boone, Wahman, and Linke will submit to Comparative Politics Studies and Political Geography; Stream 2 on internal borders: papers by Boone, Gardner, and Linke, for World Politics and J. of African Economic History); Stream 3 on preferences for titling: Boone and Linke will co-author for Political Geography and African Affairs; and Stream 4 on settlement schemes: co-authors Boone and Lukalo will aim at World Politics and Journal of Modern African Studies. After the end of the 3-year project period, we anticipate approximately 3 additional journal article manuscripts. In addition, Boone will author a book manuscript on the geopolitics of regional inequality in Africa that will be submitted to one of the leading university presses (Cambridge, Princeton, or Oxford).

Second, each research stream has policy implications. The "regional inequality and partisan competition stream" identifies a partisan coalition lock-in effect that favors economically-dominant regions. It suggests that better policy outcomes may require institutional solutions that enhance the effective representation of marginalized regions in national legislatures, rather than rhetorical shifts to downplay ethnicity or amplify national policy appeals. The "internal borders" research stream suggests that boundaries around micro-regions that are inherited from colonial rule also work to lock-in economic and political disadvantage. Policy remedies may lie in measures that enhance inter-jurisdictional mobility and that aggregate existing jurisdictions (as opposed to the existing preference for subnational unit fragmentation). The "regional inequality and competing policy preferences" stream provides evidence that the costs and risks of major policy initiatives are likely to be distributed highly unevenly across subnational regions, as well as plausible evidence that partisan politics around these policies cleaves along regional lines in the predicted ways. The expected results will provide the basis for better understanding the costs and risks of policy, both political and economic. In the land policy area, findings may support policy recommendations in favor of regionally-specific land titling measures (bucking the default preference for national policy uniformity). The fourth research stream, the "Settlement schemes and land allocation" stream, will bring together strands of the foregoing to underscore the variable ways in which land is an economic and political resource that rulers can use to mitigate territorial inequalities, build partisan coalitions, and pursue development policies. There are stark policy implications (warning signals) for current donor-funded government policies in Kenya which aim to speed-up resettlement, link project schedules to the timing of national elections, and choose settlement locations according to ruling party constituency-building needs. Donors that fall into overly technocratic modes of problem-solving may miss these connections, and may thus be unprepared for the political ramifications and fall-out. Dissemination plans are sketched out in the project summary (above) and Pathways to Impact document.
 
Description We find that socio-economic cleavages in African countries have historical roots and remain politically relevant today. Comparing historical administrative boundaries to those of today show a high, though variable, degree of persistence. At the same time, voting data from recent elections highlights the salience of regional variation in economic and social outcomes. Our work on land settlement schemes and land registration shows the ongoing, acute salience of highly regionalised politics around land allocation.
Exploitation Route The findings of this project may be used to reconsider the importance of ethnicity in determining voting patterns and levels of economic development at sub-national level.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Transport

URL http://www.africa-spatial-inequalities.net
 
Description Our findings were presented at a workshop on 'Land Governance and Subnational Political Dynamics in Kenyan Politics', held in Nairobi on 7 June 2019, hosted by the British Institute in Eastern Africa (BIEA) and Institut Francais de Recherche en Afrique (IFRA) and co-sponsored by the Kenya National Land Commission. The workshop included 90 attendees including representatives of a number of NGOs from various countries, agencies of the Kenyan government, and academics from Kenyan universities. At the workshop there was a lively discussion of land rights and subnational political divisions. As of Nov. 2019, our Mapping Settlement Schemes in Kenya research as become publicly available in its first form. We have also engaged in many talks, presentations, conferences, workshops, etc. in which our work has been discussed and disseminated. We have published or are in the process of publishing many research outputs.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Title Boone and Lukalo, Settlement scheme maps 
Description Collection of 1,728 maps of settlement schemes in pdf format 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Maps collected March 2018 from the Survey of Kenya by Fibian Lukalo. The maps cover approximately 550 settlement schemes dating from 1960 to 2017. These maps have been catalogued and georeferenced by the University of Richmond team working in cooperation with the National Land Commission. 
 
Title Boone, C. Land titling Cote d'Ivoire 
Description Data from the Journal Officiel on titles and certificates issued in 2017, and on the number of certificates per county since 2015. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Still in progress. 
 
Title Boone, C. and M. Wahman, Electoral data 
Description This dataset includes electoral data for 6 countries be election (legislative and presidential) and constituency since approximately 2000. Cristin Fergus (Research Assistant, Summer 2018) added nightlight data and population density per constituency, and Admin 1 and Admin 2 identifiers have been added for each constituency to enable us to link these to other subnational dataset. A codebook has been created to organize and track this data. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact See publications and engagement activities. 
 
Title Boundary comparison method 
Description Developed a method in QGIS for comparing historical boundaries with modern ones, allowing for inaccuracies in mapping and digitization. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Remains in development. 
 
Title Boundary persistence database 
Description Generated novel data on the extent to which modern sub-national administrative boundaries in 4 African countries coincide with colonial-era local government boundaries. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data remain preliminary but allow the the opportunity to link with cultural, political, and economic variable to develop hypotheses about boundary persistence and district formation. 
 
Title Daisy Sibun, Repertoire of University of Nairobi dissertations on Kenyan settlement schemes 1968-2015 
Description This database includes titles and abstracts for all University of Nairobi dissertations on Kenyan settlement schemes written from 1968-2015. This was compiled while Daisy Sibun, research assistant on the project, was visiting the British Institute in Eastern Africa in January 2019. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Provides detailed local research on settlement schemes to inform analysis of settlement scheme boundary data. 
 
Title Kenya Settlement Scheme Data Project 
Description This research project is conducted in partnership between Dr. Fibian Lukalo of Kenya's National Land Commission, Prof. Catherine Boone of the London School of Economics (funded by UK Economic and Social Research Council Grant # ES/R005753/1 'Spatial... 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We will make this public when our first publications are accepted 
 
Title Kyburz and Richer, Masterdatabase, DHS files for Kenya, Malawi, Zambia 
Description • Building up of a master panel data set for Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia, jointly with Eva Richter. The master dataset is based on a constituency-year panel structure and includes electoral results for presidential and parliamentary elections. The process involves creating the panel structure based on shapefiles and cleaning/checking the electoral data. Further countries and variables will be added to the master data set. The master data set will serve as baseline database for the various subprojects. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact we will use this in our larger analyses 
 
Title Lukalo, Fibian. Draft Project Manual on Kenya Settlement Schemes project, 15 Feb. 2019 (15 pages). 
Description This 15-page document describes the data collection and georeferencing connected to the NLC-LSE settlement scheme project. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This document will be circulated with the NLC and Min. of Lands in Kenya to archive the history of this large project and and disseminate the method and early results. 
 
Title Map database 
Description Archival database of historical maps of subnational boundaries in African countries. Still in progress. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Still in progress but allows for further testing of dynamics of boundary changes at subnational level. 
 
Title Replication data for "Regional Cleavages in African Politics," version 4 Feb. 2021 
Description Boone, Catherine, 2021, "Replication data for "Regional Cleavages in African Politics," version 4 Feb. 2021", https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/MQHE2T, Harvard Dataverse, DRAFT VERSION 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This will become available when the paper is accepted for publication . 
 
Description Boone and Lukalo, National Land Commission of Kenya and University of Richmond Spatial Analysis Lab 
Organisation Government of Kenya
Department National Land Commission, Kenya
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution History of settlement schemes and mentoring of interns.
Collaborator Contribution National Land Commission: Located and provided copies of settlement scheme maps; interns contributed to research on the schemes University of Richmond: Georeferenced settlement scheme maps for use in analysis
Impact Blog posts, press coverage and several engagement events in Nairobi.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Boone and Lukalo, National Land Commission of Kenya and University of Richmond Spatial Analysis Lab 
Organisation University of Richmond
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution History of settlement schemes and mentoring of interns.
Collaborator Contribution National Land Commission: Located and provided copies of settlement scheme maps; interns contributed to research on the schemes University of Richmond: Georeferenced settlement scheme maps for use in analysis
Impact Blog posts, press coverage and several engagement events in Nairobi.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LSE - University of Richmond (Richmond, VA, USA) 
Organisation University of Richmond
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL) at UR, under the leadership of Prof. Sandra Joireman, is doing most of the digitisation of the Kenya Settlement Scheme maps.
Collaborator Contribution The Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL) at UR, under the leadership of Prof. Sandra Joireman, is doing most of the digitisation of the Kenya Settlement Scheme maps.
Impact So far this collaboration has resulted in versions 1, 2, and 3 of the Kenya Settlement Scheme dataset.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LSE and Paris School of Economics 
Organisation Paris School of Economics
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Juliette Crespin-Boucaud, PhD student at the PSE, will be a co-author and will use our data as the basis of one of the articles she will submit as part of her PhD dissertation in Economics.
Collaborator Contribution See above. The paper will use Kenya data to examine/ assess the long-term effects of Kenya's land reform of the 1960s.
Impact So far this collaboration has resulted in two presentations, one at the BIEA in Nairobi, Kenya in June 2019 and one at the LSE in Feb. 2020.
Start Year 2018
 
Description LSE and University of Groningen 
Organisation University of Groningen
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working with Jutta Bolt on the digitisation of historical maps for use in analysis and coding of qualitative records into quantitative dataset on colonial-era local government.
Collaborator Contribution Recruitment and supervision of research assistant to digitise the maps, analysis of dataset.
Impact Jutta Bolt and Leigh Gardner, 'African institutions under colonial rule', CEPR Discussion Paper DP14198 (December 2019) Jutta Bolt and Leigh Gardner, 'Tax compliance under indirect rule' African Economic History Network Working Paper #40
Start Year 2018
 
Description "NLC launches settlement scheme project," 6 June 2018. Article in The Star (a Nairobi daily newspaper) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in Kenyan newspaper The Star (Nairobi), 'Research for sound land policy', 24 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Research for sound land policy," 24 June 2018. Article in The Star (Nairobi) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in Kenyan newspaper The Star (Nairobi), entitled "NLC launches settlement scheme project", 6 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Andrew Linke and Michael Wahman, 'Patterns of electoral regionalism: evidence from Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia', British Institute for East African Studies, Nairobi, June 7 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at a workshop at the British Institute for Eastern African Studies in Nairobi. Audience included academics, postgraduate and undergraduate students, development and NGO professionals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Blog post on 'Regional dynamics and complexities of land certification in Cote d'Ivoire, by Catherine Boone, Brice Bado, Aristide Mah Dion and Zibo Irigo, LSE Africa Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog post on 'Regional dynamics and complexities of land certification in Cote d'Ivoire, by Catherine Boone, Brice Bado, Aristide Mah Dion and Zibo Irigo, LSE Africa Blog, 27 Sept 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2019/09/27/regional-dynamics-and-complexities-of-land-certificat...
 
Description Boone and Joireman, "Multimethod Research Across Three Continents: Land in Kenya," Blog for LSE International Development Department 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post entitled 'Multimethods research across continents: land in Kenya', published 5 October 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/internationaldevelopment/2018/10/02/multi-methods-research-across-continents...
 
Description Boone and Wahman. University of California San Diego, Comparative Politics Research Group, "Regional Cleavages in African Politics: Persistent Electoral Blocs and Territorial Opposition.", July 22, 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact knowledge exchange
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Boone, Lukalo, Joireman, Browne. Talk on 'Kenya Settlement Schemes: Past and present', British Institute in Eastern Africa, 18 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Catherine Boone, Fibian Lukalo and Sandra Joireman presented initial results of the settlement scheme project at the British Institute in Eastern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, 18 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Boone, Lukalo, and Joireman, Refocusing Scholarly Attention on Kenya's Smallholder Settlement Schemes, LSE Africa blog post 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post on LSE Africa Blog, by Catherine Boone and Sandra Joireman, entitled "Refocusing scholarly attention on Kenya's settlement schemes is long overdue", 27 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2018/06/27/refocusing-scholarly-attention-on-kenyas-smallholder-...
 
Description C. Boone and F. Lukalo, "Kenya's Smallholder Settlement Schemes Past and Present: A Retrospective and Prospective Analysis of New Data to Understand Inequality," with Fibian Lukalo, National Land Commission of Kenya, A paper presented a the Annual meetings of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, GA, 28 November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Kenya's Smallholder Settlement Schemes Past and Present: A Retrospective and Prospective Analysis of New Data to Understand Inequality," with Fibian Lukalo, National Land Commission of Kenya, A paper presented a the Annual meetings of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, GA, 28 November 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description C. Boone and M. Wahman, "Regional Inequalities and the Shaping of African Electoral Competition: The Political Geography of Electoral Coalitions in Africa, " Michigan State University. A paper presented a the Annual meetings of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, GA, 30 November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Regional Inequalities and the Shaping of African Electoral Competition: The Political Geography of Electoral Coalitions in Africa, " with Michael Wahman, Michigan State University. A paper presented a the Annual meetings of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, GA, 30 November 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description C. Boone, "Internal Borders and the Building-Blocs of Territorialized Representation in African Countries," a paper presented at the 2018 Annual meeting of the American Political Science Asso. (APSA), Boston, 1 Sept. 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Internal Borders and the Building-Blocs of Territorialized Representation in African Countries," a paper presented at the 2018 Annual meeting of the American Political Science Asso. (APSA), Boston, 1 Sept. 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Catherine Boone, Fibian Lukalo and Sandra Joireman organised a conference and presented their research on Kenya Settlement Schemes at Taita Taveta Unviersity, 4 June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Catherine Boone, Fibian Lukalo and Sandra Joireman presented at an event at Taita Taveta University in Kenya, entitled "National Land Commission Seminar Day: Researching Land Matters in Kenya", on 4 June 2019. The event was attended by the Deputy Vice Chancellor of Taita Taveta University along with about 70 students and faculty.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Catherine Boone, Fibian Lukalo, Sandra Joireman and Kenyan scholars presented their research on Settlement Schemes in a conference at the University of Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Catherine Boone, Fibian Lukalo, Sandra Joireman and Kenyan scholars participated in a conference at the University of Nairobi entitled 'Land sizes, uses, and sustainable food and livelihood security. Settlement scheme program: Land and Territoriality', School of the Built Environment, Department of Urban and regional Planning, 6 June 2019. This workshop included 7 presenters: Prof Catherine Boone, Dr Fibian Lukalo, Prof Sandra Joireman, Dr Fridah Mugo, Prof Elijah Ndegwa, Prof Karanja Mwangi, and Dr Rose Musyoka. There were approximately 60 attendees, primarily MSc and PhD students in the department. There were also around 10 members of faculty and a few members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Catherine Boone, blog post on 'Do socio-economic cleavages matter for development in African countries? University of Manchester Effective States and Inclusive Development Program Blog, 12 Nov 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Catherine Boone, blog post on 'Do socio-economic cleavages matter for development in African countries? University of Manchester Effective States and Inclusive Development Program Blog, 12 Nov 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.effective-states.org/a-taster-of-tomorrows-lecture-do-socio-economic-cleavages-matter-for...
 
Description Conference paper presentation, Sandra Joireman and Catherine Boone, "Promised Land? Land Struggles and Kenya's Settlement Schemes, 1960-2016," ASA, Boston, 21 November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was a presentation at the annual meetings of the African Studies Association, held in Boston, MA. 21-23 November 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cote d'Ivoire television coverage of conference on Implementing the 1998 Land Law 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Television coverage of conference in which Catherine Boone and co-authors presented research from the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Day-long conference on 'Land Governance and Subnational Political Dynamics in Kenyan Politics', 7 June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In collaboration with the British Institute in Eastern Africa (BIEA) and the Institute Francais de Recherche en Afrique (IFRA), the project hosted a conference on 'Land Governance and Subnational Political Dynamics in Kenyan Politics' which was co-sponsored by the Kenya National Land Commission. At the conference, there were 10 papers by 16 authors, along with 6 discussants from local universities. There were approximately 90 attendees representing NGOs from a range of different countries, several Kenyan government departments and 8 Kenyan universities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Fibian Lukalo gave a talk entitled 'Land adjudication and re-settlement agenda in Kenya' at the Technical University of Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Fibian Lukalo gave a talk entitled 'Land adjudication and re-settlement agenda in Kenya' at the Technical University of Kenya. This was part of training offered collaboratively by the Kenyan National Land Commission and the Swedish Development agency. The substantive focus this year is land registration. Fibian spoke to about 60 students and 15 members of staff, from 2-5 pm, on land registration. They questioned the whole model of settement schemes and the role thereof in promoting the idea of individual ownership of land. The students were very interested in maps -- some had done a stint at Survey of Kenya. Fibian discussed the difficulty of obtaining maps and how we obtained them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Fibian Lukalo presentation to Bertha Fellows on 'Settlement schemes in Kenya: land reform or redistricution of land?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Fibian Lukalo gave a talk entitled 'Settlement schemes in Kenya: land reform or redistribution of land?' to the Bertha Fellows [a group of 25 journalists from different African countries focusing on social justice in Africa. Nairobi, 5 November 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Fostering Food Systems Transformation: Integrating Political Insights: Political Topographies and Political Settlements 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Fostering Food Systems Transformation: Integrating Political Insights: Political Topographies and Political Settlements," Invited keynote, UN FAO Webinar (with Mustaq Khan), 25 Feb. 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description From Identity to Economy: Social Cleavages in African Politics, Catherine Boone and Michael Wahman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "From Identity to Economy: Social Cleavages in African Politics," LSE CP/ CPE Seminar Series, 3 March 2021 (with Michael Wahman)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Juliette Crespin Boucaud. "Land reform 50 years on: Evidence from Kenya's settlement schemes," LSE, 12 Feb. 2020, Land Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact knowledge exchange
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Juliette Crespin-Boucaud, Catherine Boone, Alexander Moradi, "Understanding the long term impact of land reform," LSE Dept of ID and International Inequalities Institute, Workshop presentation 9 Feb. 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a workshop presentation of work-in-progress on the Kenya Settlement Scheme research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Juliette Crespin-Boucaud. "Land reform and public good provision in the long-run: Evidence from Kenya's settlement schemes" with Catherine Boone (LSE) and Alexander Moradi (U. Bozen-Bolzano) PSE (May 2020, Economic History group) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact knowledge exchange
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Juliette Crespin-Boucaud. Land reform 50 years on: Evidence from Kenya's settlement schemes presented at the New England Universities Development Conference (NEUDC), Dartmouth College (November 6 and 7, 2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact knowledge exchange
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Keynote: Adrian Leftwich Memorial Lecture, Spatial Inequalities in African Political Economy, University Manchester Institute of Global Development. Catherine Boone 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote: Adrian Leftwich Memorial Lecture, Spatial Inequalities in African Political Economy, University Manchester Institute of Global Development, 13 Nov. 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description La terre rurale aussi a son papier: Le certificat foncier en Côte d'Ivoire. Catherine Boone 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "La terre rurale aussi a son papier: Le certificat foncier en Côte d'Ivoire," presented at the IHA-CREPOS [University Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar], Dakar, Senegal, 30 Janvier 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Leigh Gardner and Catherine Boone hosted workshop at the LSE entitled 'Spatial Dynamics and Inequalities in African Political Economy', 11 January 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Leigh Gardner and Catherine Boone hosted workshop at the LSE entitled 'Spatial Dynamics and Inequalities in African Political Economy', in which we presented early findings from the project alongside other papers on related topics by LSE graduate students. Speakers and audience came from a range of academic disciplines, including political science, economics, geography, and history.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Leigh Gardner presented paper on 'African institutions under indirect rule in British Africa' at World Economic History Congress, Boston, 2 August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Leigh Gardner presented paper on 'African institutions under indirect rule in British Africa' to panel on fiscal systems at World Economic History Congress, 2 August 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Leigh Gardner presented paper on 'African institutions under indirect rule' on a panel at the African Studies Association conference in Atlanta in November 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Leigh Gardner presented paper on 'African institutions under indirect rule' on a panel at the African Studies Association conference in Atlanta in November 2018. Audience included academics, students, and professionals, including a number from Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Leigh Gardner presented paper to Economic History Society conference, entitled: 'Legacies of indirect rule? African states, colonial rule and economic change in British Africa', March 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Leigh Gardner presented paper to Economic History Society annual conference, entitled: 'Legacies of indirect rule? African states, colonial rule and economic change in British Africa', March 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Linke, A. "Survey based analysis of agricultural productivity, landownership, and conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa," a talk presented at the Peace Research Institute Oslo, 21 March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an academic presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Linke, A. "Environmental change, land ownership, and political instability in agrarian societies." American Association of Geographers (AAG) conference, Washington, DC. 3 April 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an academic conference presentation by Linke
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lukalo, F. Presentation, U. of Richmond, Nov. 12, 2018, GIS Spatial Lab, "Foundations of Geospatial Technology: Mapping TransNzoia SS in Kenya [Kenya Settlement Schemes Project]," (20+ students) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact This was a presentation made in connection with Lukalo's visit to the Spatial Analysis Lab at the U. Richmond, the unit that is doing the georeferencing for the spatial analysis for the Kenya Settlement Scheme project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Lukalo, Joireman, Makene. Press conference to announce LSE/NLC/University of Richmond Settlement Scheme project, 4 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact 40 people attended a press conference to announce the launch of the settlement scheme project on 4 June 2018, which resulted in newspaper coverage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description NLC presentation, Boone, Joireman, Browne, 14 June 2018 - 'Smallholder Settlements Schemes in Kenya' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to National Land Commission of Kenya Quarterly Speakers Series, ACK Garden Annex, Upper Hill, Nairobi, 14 June 2018. Joint presentation with S. Joireman and K. Browne.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Newspaper article, The Nation (Nairobi daily), 5 June 2018."NLC commenced a study on all settlement schemes" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article published in Kenyan Newspaper The Nation, on National Land Commission Press Conference,
"NLC commenced a study on all settlement schemes"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Paddy Makene, NLC Kenya Intern, "Map Making and the Georeferencing of Kenya Settlement Schemes," University of Richmond's GIS Day on 25th October 2018 (part of working visit to the University of Richmond took place from the 13th October to 3rd November 2018). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Paddy Makene, NLC Kenya Intern, "Map Making and the Georeferencing of Kenya Settlement Schemes," University of Richmond's GIS Day on 25th October 2018 (part of working visit to the University of Richmond took place from the 13th October to 3rd November 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation: Folke Bernadotte Academy Research-Policy Dialogue 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of strategies for measuring subnational variations in quality of elections, delivered to a group of election professionals and academics at the Folke Bernadotte Academy, Stockholm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public Event with Media Coverage. "Entraves et espoirs de la mise en application de la Loi sur le foncier rural: Vie sociale du certificat foncier," Catherine Boone avec Aristide Dion et Irigo Zibo, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact "Entraves et espoirs de la mise en application de la Loi sur le foncier rural: Vie sociale du certificat foncier," avec Aristide Dion et Irigo Zibo, CERAP (Centre de recherche et d'action pour la paix, 15 mai 2019, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

This public event, attended by approximately 100, was covered in the Ivoirian print and TV media. The Director of the National Land Agency (Direction du Foncier Rural, of the Ministere de l'Agriculture) joined the panel to comment on our work and update the audience on the progress of the land certification pilots.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Public lecture by Andrew Linke at Technical University of Kenya, entitled 'Environment and population change on Kenya's smallholder settlement schemes' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Public lecture by Andrew Linke on 'Environment and population chnage on Kenya's smallholder settlement schemes', at the School of Surveying and Geospatial Sciences at Technical University of Kenya, 6 June 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Regional Cleavages and Territorial Oppositions in African Politics, Catherine Boone and Michael Wahman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ""Regional Cleavages and Territorial Oppositions in African Politics," with Michael Wahman. Political Parties in Africa 2021 Conference (virtual, 21-22 January and 18-19 February).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Regional Cleavages and Territorial Oppositions in African Politics, by Catherine Boone 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ""Regional Cleavages and Territorial Oppositions in African Politics," Department of Political Science, Dartmouth College, 27 January 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Regional Cleavages and Territorial Oppositions in African Politics," Catherine Boone and Michael Wahman. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Regional Cleavages and Territorial Oppositions in African Politics," with Michael Wahman. American Political Science Association Annual Meetings, San Franciso, CA (on line), 1 Sept. 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Research presentation/ Engagement: "Kenya Settlement Schemes: Past and Present," BIEA, June 2019 (Boone, Lukalo, Joireman) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a presentation at the British Institute in Eastern Africa, June 2019, part of a panel we organized on Kenya Settlement Schemes. Four papers were presented, including the one mentioned here. The authors were Catherine Boone, Fibian Lukalo, and Sandra Joireman.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Wahman, M. "Local Political Dominance and African Election Violence." University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Center for Political Studies, Ann Arbor, October 2. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an academic talk at the U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (2 Oct. 2019)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Wahman, M. University of Cape Town. "Democracy in the Polarized African State." Cape Town, South Africa, April 8, 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a presentation to an academic audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Wahman, Michael. 2020. "Controlling Territory, Controlling Voters: The Electoral Geography of African Campaign Violence" Paper presented at the 2020 North American Meeting of the Peace Science Society, November 12-14, 2020, University of Michigan. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was a talk to a scholarly research community (disciplinary)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020