T-SUM: Transitions to sustainable urban mobility

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Civil Environmental and Geomatic Eng

Abstract

There is evidence internationally that there is a positive association between an increase in GDP per capita and growing car use in cities. However, car-oriented urban development results in strong negative externalities, such as high C02 emissions, air pollution, congestion, road accidents, urban sprawl, social exclusion, spatial segregation and sedentary lifestyles. These lead to poor accessibility and inequity and affects socio-economic development. Most Global North cities with high levels of motorization are now attempting to constrain and reduce traffic levels and move towards sustainable mobility and more liveable cities. Cities in developing countries are faced with a stark choice of repeating the evolutionary mistakes of many of the cities in more developed countries, or 'leapfrogging' car-oriented mobility to directly develop cities around the principles of sustainable mobility and liveability. Growing urban economies have an opportunity to establish innovative solutions for achieving sustainable and inclusive mobility and land use patterns; thus, avoiding being 'locked-in' to a car-oriented development trajectory - which can prove very difficult and expensive to rectify at later stages of development.
T-SUM is an interdisciplinary and cross-sector collaborative project that aims to identify the conditions under which sustainable and inclusive transport and land use development can be accelerated in growing cities in the Global South. It is grounded in the observation that, in the context of still-low-but-rising levels of motorization, economic growth and increasing social and spatial inequalities, the formulation and implementation of policies, practices and partnerships that can support an accelerated implementation of sustainable mobility structures is an urgent concern for rapidly developing cities. This project will initially focus on Maputo, Mozambique, and Freetown, Sierra Leone, as relevant examples of growing urban economies in Sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the Global South.
Challenging the traditionally assumed links between economic growth and car-based urban transport, alongside documenting the socioeconomic and spatial inequalities stemming from current urban transport systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, requires rethinking some of the knowledge and methodologies produced about cities of the region. This proposal seeks to contribute to this debate through three objectives: firstly, to develop a conceptual framework based on alternative development trajectories for (un)sustainable urban transport, drawing on data from cities across the Global North and the Global South; secondly, to assemble and co-produce evidence by interrogating urban transport and land use data in two rapidly developing cities in the region, Maputo and Freetown; and thirdly, to initiate participative governance processes to foster new models of development based on a sustainable mobility trajectory, through evidence-based engagement with public and professional stakeholders across levels of governance and sectors. The process will rely on collaborations across disciplines, with government and with local communities; and ultimately will produce evidence-based knowledge for informing policy and accelerating sustainable and socially inclusive transport development in Sub-Saharan African cities, and beyond.
Expected impacts include: Improved urban governance processes and institutional capacity-building in the cities of Maputo and Freetown;The introduction of a tradition of citizen engagement and co-production; Accelerated urban transport development pathways based on sustainability and inclusivity principles, resulting in improved physical and mental well-being, increased prosperity, reduced C02 emissions, air pollution and energy consumption, improved accessibility and social inclusion in cities; A legacy of data and analytical tools that will assist both cities in their future sustainable mobility planning and implementation.

Planned Impact

T-SUM brings into the research process academic and practice-based partners in the United Kingdom, and Freetown and Maputo, with a broad range of stakeholders in the government, private and third sector, to help shape questions, provide and collect data, shape future thinking, offer interpretations of findings and act as champions for impact going forward. This anticipated close collaboration is possible because of preceding experience and working relationships, and the diverse and complementary teams put together in the partner organisations, building on previous research with the same or similar groups and associated research issues in Sub-Saharan Africa and overseas, demonstrating a proven interest and willingness to collaborate. Four groups of beneficiaries can be distinguished: (1) local populations in Maputo and Freetown; (2) local government, planners and others responsible for transport and infrastructure planning and delivery; (3) the international community, including private sector, civil society actors and the United Nations' development support structure; and (4) bilateral and multilateral development donors such as the World Bank and African Development Bank.

Local populations will benefit from the voice that this academic research will give them; this is particularly so for local residents that are not often involved in transport planning processes. For those involved in interviews and focus groups, and other local workshop activities, access to new information and critical thinking on development is hoped to improve awareness raising and empowerment, and scope for local collective and individual inclusion. Local populations will also benefit indirectly from the impacts of this research on other actors, when their actions contribute to improved sustainable urban development, accessibility and inclusion. Local agencies responsible for municipal and regional planning, critical infrastructure planning, and economic and social policy are likely to be the clearest potential beneficiaries. Research provides data and analysis of direct relevance to this group of actors, to help inform their planning decisions and decision-making practice.

International NGOs are eager to contribute to accelerating the uptake of sustainable transport development policies in African cities. By partnering with two Non-Governmental Organisations and securing support from government and international agencies, and through the activities of the External Advisory Board, this global community will be able to shape research to inform policy development, and in turn provide a number of potential vehicles for post-programme legacy. Both the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) will work closely with the academic team in documenting various practices surrounding urban mobility. The involvement of key actors, such as United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) and the World Bank, in the project similarly allows access and influence through champions in the global infrastructure sector.

Bilateral and multilateral development actors, and others who set the broad international policy discourse will benefit from the strategic insights to be derived from T-SUM, coupled with practical local application. Consortium members are well connected with this community and are regularly active in drafting policy reports, for example through the European Union Horizon 2020 CREATE project. Through these networks, outputs from T-SUM will spread widely, well beyond the case study cities and partner institutions.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Country specific repositories of quantitative and secondary data 
Description A shared drive was established in a secure online server to compile existing data, policy documents and grey literature in each of the case study countries related to spatial, statistical and qualitative evidence. This online database is available to all project partners. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database will inform future analysis funded by the project. 
 
Description Consortium meeting with T-SUM External Advisory Board Members 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This event involved all project partners and T-SUM external advisory board (EAB) members. The event included presentation of progress and plans and comments from the advisory board members. The following EAB members participated:
External Advisory Board
Prof Nick Tyler, CBE, Director of the Centre for Transport Studies, Chadwick Professor of Civil Engineering, UCL
Prof Julio D. Davila, Professor of Urban Policy and International Development. Head of Department. Development Planning Unit. Faculty of the Built Environment.
Prof Gina Porter, Senior Research Fellow, Department of Anthropology, Durham University
Holger Dalkmann, Urban Theme Lead for the UK-funded High Volume Transport (HVT) programme
David Bull, Previously head of transport and urban planning, Birmingham City Council, UK
Roger Manser, Director Kestrelman Trust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seminar focusing on 'Identify enabling factors for sustainable urban development transitions' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In October 2018 a seminar focusing on 'Identify enabling factors for sustainable urban development transitions' was held at UCL. The event involved UCL's project partners and UCL's USAR Mres students. Professor Peter Jones, T-SUM's PI, presented key findings from his research on the topic. Following Professor Jones' presentation, a discussion session was facilitated by T-SUM's Co-I, Dr. Clemence Cavoli to examine the extent to which sustainable urban transitions can occur in rapidly growing cities in the Global South, drawing on the project partners and the students' experience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description Seminar to discuss Perspectives on Sustainability: Theory & Practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In October 2018 a seminar was organised by UCL to discuss sustainability issues linked with T-SUM. The seminar involved UCL's USAR Mres students, UCL's project partners and a representative from UN-Habitat Mozambique, Chiara Tomaselli.
Ms Tomaselli presented sustainable development concepts in the context of the SDGs and the New Urban Agenda and highlighted practical implementation issues in cities such as Maputo. Following this, participants discussed urban sustainability and sustainable urban mobility in the context of T-SUM.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description Systems Thinking Mapping exercise 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In November 2018 a Systems Thinking mapping exercise was organised in the context of T-SUM involving UCL's USAR Mres students and UCL's partners. The session was introduced by Professor Brian Collins, Professor of Engineering Policy at UCL and Director of the International Centre for Infrastructure Futures (ICIF). Prof Collins introduced the concepts of Systems Engineering and Systems thinking and their relevance to sustainable urban mobility. Following this, the team undertook a system thinking mapping exercise to identify Sustainable Goals Indicators relevant to urban mobility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description T-SUM Twitter Account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A T-SUM twitter account was established to give visibility to the project and disseminate project findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://twitter.com/tsum_africa?lang=en
 
Description T-SUM Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A T-SUM website was established with a view to give visibility to the project and to disseminate open data and findings from the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/
 
Description T-SUM consortium meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact T-SUM project partners were invited to spend three days in London as part of the project to review progress and share initial results and detailed planning for the coming months. Three key policy stakeholders from each case study city (Maputo and Freetown) were also involved.

The following partners participated in the event:

UCL
Prof Peter Jones, OBE, PI (Centre for Transport Studies, UCL)
Prof Caren Levy, Co-I, WP4 leader (Development Planning Unit, Bartlett, UCL)
Dr Clemence Cavoli, Co-I, Project Manager, WP3 leader (Centre for Transport Studies, UCL)
Dr Daniel Oviedo, Co-I, WP2 leader (Development Planning Unit, Bartlett, UCL)
Adriana Ortegon, Research Associate, Centre for Transport Studies, UCL

Freetown Partners
Dr Joseph M Macarthy, Co-I, City Partner (Executive director SLURC & Institute of Geography and Development Studies, Njala University, Sierra Leone)
Braima Koroma, Project Manager Freetown, City Partner (Director of Research & Training, SLURC, Sierra Leone)
Mayor Yvonne Aki-Sawyerr, OBE, Mayor of Freetown
Hindolo Shiaka, Director, Transport Infrastructure Development and Project Unit, Ministry of Transport & Aviation
Patrick James Lavalie, Engineer, Sierra Leone Road Authority

Maputo Partners
Professor Antonio Matos, Co-I, director of Maputo Metropolitan Agency for Transport, Director Fundacion Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
Joaquin Romero, Partner, Project manager Maputo, Mozambique (WAZA, Maputo)
Luís Nhaca, Transport Councillor, Maputo City Council, Mozambique
Ana Maria Alves, Finance Councillor, Matola City Council, Mozambique

World Bank
Fatima Arroyo, Project Partner (Transport Unit, World Bank)

AFD
William Le Bec, Transport Specialist (Agence Française de Développement)

UCL Grand Challenges
Dr. James Paskins, Deputy Director
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description T-SUM inception meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact In September 2018 an inception meeting was organised by UCL to officially launch the T-SUM project. The meeting involved UCL's project partners and T-SUM partners from Freetown and Maputo. A World Bank representative traveled to London to attend the meeting as well as several External Advisory Board Members. The rest of the project partners joined the meeting remotely via Webminar. The project objectives, concepts and methods were summarised and participants provided useful feedback and recommendations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/blog/manage-your-blog-from-your-live-site
 
Description T-SUM introductory seminar in Maputo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In February 2019 a T-SUM seminar was organized in Maputo by T-SUM's project partners based in Maputo.
The seminar involved key stakeholders representing relevant public authorities, transport operators, NGOs and international donor organisations in Maputo.
T-SUM's Co-I Professor Matos and Joaquin Romero presented T-SUM, highlighting the project's objectives and initial findings. The event was an opportunity for stakeholders to discuss the relevance of the project to Maputo and to identify gaps in mobility and land-use data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description T-SUM public event: Transitions to sustainable urban development 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This public event and panel discussion was organised by UCL in the context T-SUM. It was chaired by Professor Caren Levy from the Development Planning Unit, Bartlett, one of the project's co-investigators.

The event discussed the principles underpinning sustainable urban transitions and the extent to which rapidly growing cities in the Global South can benefit from it.

The keynote speakers were:

Prof Nick Tyler, CBE, Director of the UCL Centre for Transport Studies and Chadwick Professor of Civil Engineering

The panel discussion involved:

Mayor Yvonne Aki-Sawyerr, OBE, Mayor of Freetown, Sierra Leone
Professor Peter Jones, OBE, Professor of Transport and Sustainable Development, UCL
Holger Dalkmann, Urban Theme Lead for the DFID-funded High Volume Transport (HVT) programme
Dr. Debbie Hopkins, Lecturer, University of Oxford

The event was followed by a cocktail reception including a speech from UCL's Vice-Provost Research Professor David Price.


Following the event several participants, including Freetown's mayor and Sierra Leone transport minister mentioned the fact that their participation in this event had an impact on the way they think about sustainability in their city.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eventbrite.com/e/t-sum-transitions-to-sustainable-urban-mobility-in-sub-saharan-africa-t...
 
Description T-SUM public workshop - Public-private relationships in urban transport, sustainability and development: considerations & experiences from the Global North and South 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The T-SUM UCL team hosted a workshop at UCL to discuss the role of private actors in cities across the world in transitioning to sustainable urban mobility pathways. This is a pressing challenge in contexts where new mobility services and disruptions are entering markets currently served by collective transport operators.

We heard contrasting experiences from Maputo, South America and London, including presentations from:

Dr Polyvios Polyviou, Transport Innovation Transport for London, Transport for London (TfL)
Dr Daniel Oviedo, Lecturer, Development Planning Unit, UCL
Dr Clemence Cavoli, Research and Teaching Fellow, Centre for Transport Studies, UCL, & Joaquin Romero, Mobility Observatory, Maputo

It will be followed by a panel of experts including:

Ed Parsons, Geospatial Technologist, Google
Dr Matteo Rizzo, senior Lecturer in Development Studies, SOAS
David Bull, former head of transport and urban planning, Birmingham

The workshop involved open discussions and working sessions with attendees, which include government officials from Sierra Leone and Mozambique. These include Freetown's Mayor, Mayor Aki-Sawyerr, Maputo's Metropolitan Agency Director, Professor Antonio Matos, Freetown's Director of Transport Infrastructure Ministry of Transport, Hindolo Shiaka, and World Bank representative, Fatima Arroyo.

The event was chaired by Professor Peter Jones, OBE, Professor of Transport and Sustainable Development, UCL.

Following the event several participants, including Freetown's mayor and Sierra Leone's transport minister mentioned the fact that their participation in this event had an impact on the way they think about transport and mobility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eventbrite.com/e/t-sum-workshop-public-private-relationships-in-urban-transport-sustaina...
 
Description T-SUM seminar at the French Development Agency (AFD) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact In December 2018, the French Development Agency (AFD) joined the T-SUM project as an official partner. The AFD plans to establish a Sustainable Urban Development Plan for Maputo, in collaboration with Maputo's public authorities. It will do so in close collaboration with the T-SUM project. In February, T-SUM's PI Prof Peter Jones and Co-I Dr. Clemence Cavoli travelled to Paris to present T-SUM's key concepts and to share initial findings with AFD representatives. The seminar was organised at the AFD's offices. This event was an opportunity to discuss the extent to which the T-SUM project is relevant to the AFD's policies and projects and plan future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description T-SUM workshop: Identifying relevant mobility indicators 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact In December 2018 a workshop was organised to identify relevant urban mobility indicators to prioritise in the context of the T-SUM project, drawing on the Sustainable Development Goals and other relevant mobility indicators. The workshop also discussed the relevance of these indicators to cities such as Maputo & Freetown and the practical issues linked with the collation/collection of data.
The workshop was held at UCL and via Webminar and involved UCL's project partners, UCL's USAR Mres students, Freetown partners, Maputo partners, representatives from UN-Habitat Mozambique, UN-Habitat and the World Bank and some of T-SUM's external advisory board members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description T-SUM's Introductory Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact T-SUM's Introductory Seminar took place on 27th September 2018 at UCL and via Webminar. The seminar involved UCL and Freetown's project partners, UCL's USAR Mres students, representatives from UCL's Grand Challenges, UN-Habitat, UN-Environment and UCl's STEaPP. The objective of the seminar was to introduce T-SUM to existing and potential project partners to strengthen and set up collaborations and to receive initial feedback and recommendations from participants. The event was an opportunity for UCL USAR Mres' students to discuss issues relevant to their studies. It was also an opportunity to engage potential project partners such as UN-Environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description UCL's USAR Mres Students' group presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In December 2018 three of UCL's USAR Mres students who had been actively involved in T-SUM since the beginning of the project presented the findings of their group work to Maputo's project partners, including representatives from UN-Habitat Mozambique. The students' group work aimed to formulate policy recommendations to the city of Maputo focusing on the links between urban mobility, health, IT innovation and climate resilience. Their presentation included a Systems Thinking map focusing on sustainable urban mobility planning. The students' performance was assessed by T-SUM's project partners from UCL and some of T-SUM's external advisory board members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.t-sum.org/news-pastevents
 
Description Urban mobility transitions: towards sustainable and liveable cities symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rapidly increasing urbanisation rates present significant mobility challenges for cities across the world, given commitments to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. A growing number of high income cities are attempting to constrain and reduce traffic levels and move towards sustainable mobility and liveability, while rapidly growing cities in Global South countries are faced with the stark choice of repeating the mistakes of many of the cities in so-called 'developed' countries, or moving more directly to transport systems which follow principles of sustainable mobility and liveability.

In November 2018 a symposium was organised by T-SUM's PI and Co-I Prof Peter Jones and Dr. Clemence Cavoli in collaboration with colleagues from UCL and from the University of Hong Kong supported by UCL's Grand Challenges. The event brought together leading researchers in Hong Kong and in the UK who shared recent research on the different potential pathways and impacts for sustainable mobility and liveable cities, within this broader socio-demographic and cultural context.

T-SUM's concepts and initial findings were presented by UCL's project partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/bartlett/planning/events/2018/nov/urban-mobility-transitions-towards-sustainab...