GCRF Inclusive Societies - Migration for Inclusive African Growth

Lead Research Organisation: Open University
Department Name: Faculty of Arts and Social Sci (FASS)

Abstract

After decades of pessimism some African economies have recently experienced the fastest growth rates in the world, though this growth has not yet trickled down to the poorest. The proposed research aims to address one aspect of the challenge of transforming national economic growth into more inclusive growth; namely migration. An outcome of the optimism around Africa is new and more diverse flows of migrants within and to the faster growing African economies. Yet we know very little about these migration flows and whether they offer discernable benefits for African development and redistributive potential. The overarching aim of the project is to understand whether and to what extent recent migration within and to Africa is contributing to more sustainable and inclusive growth on the continent and to enable policy-makers and practitioners to harness this knowledge for more inclusive growth.

The theoretical and policy agenda to which this research speaks is the recognition that migration is a key channel for promoting (inter)national trade, investment and other kinds of financial resources, and transferring technology, skills and knowledge. Our hypothesis is that these contemporary migrant communities have the potential to make important contributions to sustainable and inclusive growth, not only in their countries of origin but also in the African countries where they settle. To assess whether and how such benefits may be occurring we will undertake research in 4 African countries - Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, and Mozambique - that are on the OECD DAC list. This will examine a range of contemporary migrant groups (including European, emerging power, African diaspora, intra-African, and internal) and examine those channels through which they may contribute to inclusive growth in Africa. The sectoral focus will be manufacturing, IT and services since these are sectors where African participation has a higher potential for more inclusive growth. The outcomes will be a more robust sense of the value of inclusive growth as an analytical concept alongside the first multi-country comparative study of contemporary migrant communities on the continent.

The project is also fundamentally concerned with re-shaping policy and practice to support more inclusive growth. It arises out of an ESRC GCRF Network grant that has cemented a strong network of migration researchers with national, continental and international expertise and policy reach. They are the African Migration and Development Policy Centre (Kenya), Network for Migration Research on Africa (Nigeria), The Centre for Migration Studies, Univ. of Ghana and The Centre for Policy Analysis, Eduardo Mondlane Univ. (Mozambique). The current network has engaged, through national workshops, with policy-makers, researchers and migrant businesses to identify learning needs and knowledge gaps. This co-design process informs the current bid and its impact activities. Policy-makers will benefit from improved information about the nature of these new migrant business communities, as well as through capacity building to help officials understand the issues and data sources better. We will also deliver training to African journalists so they can report on migration issues more effectively. Our African co-Is have delivered similar training to officials and journalists on a small scale but this project offers the opportunity to scale this up. Business people from the four African and the migrants' source countries will benefit through networking events organised by local business associations. The general public will benefit from better-informed debate about the costs and benefits of migration. Academics across a range of disciplines will benefit from new knowledge of the nature of these flows and impacts, as well as a wider venture of rethinking debates on the role of 'Southern' actors in international development.

Planned Impact

This project will have early impacts, derived from the completion of research, and longer-term impacts accrued from the influence of research evidence on policies and corporate strategies in selected African countries, the UK and other emerging economies.

Early impacts will arise from a detailed understanding of the different motivations, roles, and impacts of migrant groups in our case study countries. To date we have some data on Chinese migrants but our understanding of migrants from other emerging powers, Europe, regionally and internally is poor. The completion of this project will provide an insight into the dynamics of these different migration flows and their impacts on inclusive growth. The beneficiaries and benefits are:

1. Policy-makers and NGOs in the African case study countries and internationally. The benefits will be greater awareness of new migration flows into Africa and a better understanding of the potential impacts on inclusive growth. This will be achieved through the advisory group that has direct input into policy channels, and targeted workshops and policy briefs during the life of the project.
2. The migrant communities in the 4 case study countries. Experience from ESRC-funded research with Chinese migrants in Africa suggests that knowledge is a barrier to investment. The research will provide networking opportunities for the different migrant groups through local events organised by business associations.
3. The general public. There is much misinformation about African development and the potential of migration. The research will contribute to informed debate around how new migration flows affect African development. The researchers, and the OU more generally, have unrivalled experience in engaging publics through diverse media. We will engage publics through blogs, newspaper articles, and a communication strategy developed with the OU's media team.
4. Academics working in the fields of international development, human geography, migration studies, African studies, and international relations. To date most migration and development work has focused on 'South' to 'North' migration flows and very little has examined 'South-South' or 'North-South' flows even though these constitute the majority of the flows. We will test the conceptual linkages between migration and inclusive growth, and contribute new empirical evidence about these flows through presentations, existing networks, books, and journal papers.

Longer-term impacts build on our empirical endeavour of understanding new migrant groups and their impacts on inclusive growth in Africa:

5. Policy-makers in the African case study countries. Building on the shorter-term impacts we intend to provide longer-term capacity building of African officials engaged in migration-related areas. Through a suite of core teaching resources delivered in face-to-face training events by our African partners we will strengthen the ability of officials to understand and make decisions around migration.
6. Policy-makers and NGOs outside Africa. A report analysing innovative strategies for harnessing migration for inclusive growth will be distributed to policy makers working in UN organisations (UNCTAD, IOM), multilateral agencies (World Bank), national organisations (e.g. DFID), and NGOs (e.g. AFFORD, ADEPT).
7. African publics and the media. Train African journalists in how to understand and report migration stories so as to generate more informed and balanced public debate.
8. Academics working in multiple disciplines. While our early findings will be theoretically driven, they will not explicitly seek to push forward the wider framings of international development. Through a monograph published within two years of the project's end we will shape emerging debates around migration and development. A submission to the UK Data Service and creation of an African-based data repository will also ensure that the data is available for future researchers.
 
Title MIAG website 
Description Project website launched February 2020 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact Not known 
URL https://www.open.ac.uk/researchprojects/migration-inclusive-african-growth/
 
Title Online course 
Description The MIAG team received £20,000 of GCRF QR money to produce a short course aimed at researchers and policy makers working on migration. It will be hosted on the Open University's OpenLearnCreate platform. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Not known. 
URL https://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/
 
Description Development of national migration policy of Kenya
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Ghana National Migration Policy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Centre for Migration Studies, led by Joseph Teye, conducted a situational analysis of labour migration in Ghana. Based on the findings, the Centre drafted a national labour migration policy for governing labour migration from and into Ghana.
 
Description National Labour Migration Policy for Malawi
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description National Migration Policy for Zambia
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description National Migration Policy for Zimbabwe
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Developed new policy
 
Title Framework for Inclusive Growth 
Description Development of a comprehensive new framework for understanding and analysing inclusive growth. Inclusive Growth (IG) has become a framing concept in development policy (e.g. OECD, ADB) but existing frameworks often take a national level perspective and perpetuate the tendency to focus on measures of growth in terms of economic outcomes. There is little systematic or concerted effort to unpack the nature of inclusion, development outcomes as social, political or environmental benefits or to consider inclusive growth as a process. MIAG has developed a comprehensive framework that aims to address these deficits and can be applied as an analytical lens to the data the project is collecting. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Framework has been developed and is now being applied across the mix data to support the analysis. 
 
Title Nvivo training for African co-Is 
Description The MIAG project has generated a great deal of qualitative data which we will analyse using the Nvivo software. The majority of our African co-Is had not used this software so we organised 4 training sessions for them with a follow up series of clinics with an experience Nvivo analyst. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data set analysed 
 
Title Secondary data audit 
Description In each of the four African countries that are part of our network we are conducting a thorough audit of existing data sources on migration and inclusive growth. As set out in the application, some of these sources exists but are not currently utilised in migration research (e.g. some immigration data). The audit will allow us to identify the quality and usability of this data, and clarify the gaps in knowledge that our primary research can fill. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact As yet the audit is for the research team only. During the project we hope to create an online data archive of these existing data sources. 
 
Title Business Firm Survey of SMEs 
Description This dataset comprises 1200 survey questionnaires (300 for each of the following countries: Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria). Respondents are SME migrant business owners and entrepreneurs capturing their experiences of migration, business set up and operations in these countries. The sample for each country includes migrants from six nationality groups: 2 (global north, (British or Portuguese and diaspora returnees), 2 (global south - Indian and Chinese), 2 African (regional to each country). 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data is currently being analysed to inform project findings and outcomes 
 
Title Inclusive Growth Indicator Dataset 
Description Compiled a dataset using a range of secondary quants sources which includes data that can be used to map growth across of set of inclusive growth indicators for (Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria). 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The dataset has allowed the project team to plot, analyse and describe growth within these four African countries over the past 20 years across of set of 37 individual indicators that, in combination, can be used to understand the inclusiveness of growth patterns and trajectories, and the relationship of this group to migration. 
 
Description Institute of Developing Economies Japan External Trade Organization (IDE-JETRO) 
Organisation Institute of Developing Economies in Japan
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This was largely down to our Mozambican partners
Collaborator Contribution Qualitative research on Informal Cross Border Traders in Mozambique: The challenges of ICBT association Associação Mukhero under COVID-19
Impact None to date
Start Year 2020
 
Description NDPC toolkit 
Organisation Government of Ghana
Department National Development Planning Commission (NDPC)
Country Ghana 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Through CMS, Ghana
Collaborator Contribution Centre for Migration Studies, led by Joseph Teye, developed a toolkit to be used by planners at Ministries and District Assemblies to incorporate migration into development planning in Ghana. Based on this toolkit, training workshops were organised for Planning officials and Ministries and District Assemblies on mainstreaming migration into development planning.
Impact The main output is the Toolkit which was printed and distributed to ministries and district assemblies to be used in developing their annual plans.
Start Year 2019
 
Description The Academy for African Migration Research (AAMR) 
Organisation University of the Witwatersrand
Department African Centre for Migration and Society
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This research project is made of African countries with different background. There are Lusophone, Anglophone, Francophone and Ethiopia with migration differences made by their historical background. While Mozambique a Southern African country colonized by Portugal her history was market by labour migration to South Africa and Zimbabwe, this constituted an asset to the project as internally Mozambican scholars and graduate and post-graduate students have collected data on labour migration, internal migration and international migration. So, our contribution was basically to add information about migration research projects; an updated current migration in Mozambique; the stage of Migration Policy and Population Policy and migration networking research groups that the center is involved with.
Collaborator Contribution As partner their role was to discuss among us migration study's needs (where there lack) research methodology that we have used in different research projects on migration. Also, they discussed with us the responses to the following subtopics based on Mozambican reality as sending labour migrants to South Africa, Zimbabwe and Swaziland: i. Exploring governance responses to diverse forms of international migration in Africa; ii. Understanding the contemporary humanitarian context and its implications for responding to migration across the continent; iii. Understanding the blurring of global migration governance and health security agendas; iv. Understanding the impacts of migration on African cities and linkages for a sustainable future; v. Exploring how State and societal responses are undermining or supporting the use of social networks and social capital amongst migrant groups as sites for resilience and growth; and vi. Mapping the current concerns in migration research approaches in Africa and exploration of alternatives.
Impact 1. A Postdoctoral student has commenced her program at ACMS (Academy for African Migration Research at Wits University) and will support AAMR (Africa Academy for Migration Research). 2. A Doctoral researcher at ACMS, who will be supporting activities at the ARUA (The African Research Universities Alliance) Centre of Excellence in Migration & Mobility, including the AAMR.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Training Manual 
Organisation Government of Ghana
Department Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations
Country Ghana 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Through CMS
Collaborator Contribution Centre for Migration Studies, led by Joseph Teye, designed training manual based on labour migration policy and used it to train planning officials of 34 institutions on how to incorporate migration into annual action plans. Based on ongoing project links between migration and inclusive growth was emphasised throughout the training.
Impact Annual plans of 34 Ministries and agencies which incorporated migration issues
Start Year 2020
 
Description DSA conference (2020) presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Mohan gave a paper entitled 'Towards a conceptualisation of migration and inclusive growth in Africa' at the Development Studies Annual conference which was hosted by University of Birmingham but organised online. The panel was entitled Migration and inequality: implications for development, research and practice
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://nomadit.co.uk/conference/73#8919
 
Description Development Studies Association conference session on migration 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The MIAG team are part of a team organising a series of sessions at the Development Studies Association annual conference in June 2019. It is hosted at the Open University and Professor Mohan, this project's PI, is the academic lead for the conference. The sessions are Large-scale migration, remittances and development: historical and contemporary evidence, and MIAg team members will be presenting a paper on 'Alternative migration trajectories and inclusive growth in Africa: A conceptual framework and evidence from 'expatriates' and 'repatriates' in Nigeria'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.devstud.org.uk/conferences/2019/
 
Description Ghana coverage of inception meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Ghana inception meeting was covered by various Ghanaian media houses, one of which was the Ghana News Agency.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ghananewsagency.org/social/migration-consortium-discusses-ways-of-ensuring-inclusive-growth-...
 
Description IAI Webinar on Covid and migration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Migration, mobility and displacement retain their relevance for the Africa-EU partnership agenda, which would make part of the next round of negotiations between the two continents towards a new African Union-EU Summit in 2021.

The EU, in its Comprehensive Strategy with Africa and New Pact on Asylum and Migration, both published in 2020, places emphasis on developing a comprehensive partnership agenda, including on migration, built on a stronger alignment of interests. Yet, consolidating cooperation on migration has so far proved to be challenging due to differences in priorities and approaches between the two sides.

This challenge now needs to be confronted in a policy context profoundly altered by COVID-19. Against this background, the webinar aims to get locally grounded and context-sensitive insights into the impact of the pandemic on migration, mobility and displacement dynamics in Africa and to discuss what, as seen from African perspectives, this implies for the African-European partnership in this policy area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.iai.it/en/eventi/covid-19-and-africa-eu-partnership-migration
 
Description Inception Workshop on Inclusive Growth in Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The one day inception workshop introduced a selected group of stakeholders to the Migration and Inclusive African Growth Project from the perspective of Kenya. The aim was to also understand inclusive growth from various sectors including real estate, development agencies, diaspora returnees, immigrants residents in Kenya and policy makers. Stakeholders provided varied perspectives on their experiences or views on inclusive growth and the role of migration. Their insights helped to strengthen our thinking, approach and identify the sectors and immigrant populations we aimed to investigate as part of the study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Forum on Migration Statistics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Adepoju organised and chaired a session on migration data in West Africa. This is the second such forum and ran from 20-21 January 2020 in Cairo, Egypt
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.iom.int/ifms/formal-agenda
 
Description International Metropolis Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The plenary I participated in focused on south south migration providing perspectives on knowledge on migration from Africa. The conference aim was to engage a wide pool of stakeholders to create awareness, influence public opinion and provide food for thought for existing and potential engagement on research on migration within Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.internationalmetropolis2019.ca/en/
 
Description Interview with Altai Consulting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The interview was to get information on Nigerian migration governance process by a research consortium in France
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description MIAG inception meeting in Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The consultative workshop was held on Monday, October 7, 2019 at 9:00 am. Participants at the workshop included the Principal Investigators (PI) and Co-Investigators (Co-PI) on the MIAG Project (Prof. Joseph Teye, Dr. Delali Margaret Badasu, both from the Centre for Migration Studies and Prof. Giles Mohan and Dr. Craig Walker, both from the Open University, United Kingdom), research assistants, stakeholders from both government institutions and non-governmental organizations, civil society organizations, the Media and some post-graduate students from the University of Ghana and other participants from the university community and beyond. In all, 79 participants were present, including 8 media houses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Migration-consortium-discusses-ways-of-ensuring-i...
 
Description Poster Presentation at the Open Impact Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The AMADPOC team presented a poster on the Migration and Inclusive African Growth Project at the joint Open University and Makerere University Open Impact Conference in Kampala Uganda on 13-14 December 2019. Ms. Natalie Chaponda and Ms. Gorrety Yogo were present on ground to talk about evidence cafe and how it helps us to understanding migration's role in inclusive growth. The conference was focused on extending the frontiers of access to higher education in Africa: strategies for leveraging online and distance learning programs. The conference was a celebration of the 50th Anniversary of The Open University, an appreciation of the achievements of the University on the continent in the last 50 years, in partnership with leading institutions like Makerere University, and an opportunity to co-create a strategic vision for the next 50 years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at the DSA conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Paper to be presented at the DSA conference in Birmingham in June 2020. The paper is part of a panel on Migration and Inequality
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.devstud.org.uk/conferences/2020/panels#8919
 
Description Review of National Migration Profile 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The validation exercise was to review and endorse the final migration profile document the first meeting was to review the document and the second to endorse the draft document from the perspective of policy makers NGOs researchers and other stakeholders
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Organized by Mo Ibrahim radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3yMU3GIxT4
 
Description Webinar: Research With Mobile Communities in a time of Covid 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This webinar was one in a series on covid commissioned by the Strategic Research Area in International Development and Inclusive Innovation within the OUs faculty of arts & social sciences. The webinar brought together a range of international early career academics and research NGO partners to discuss the effects on covid on research with mobile, migrant populations. Three members of the MIAG team participated, reflecting on their experiences of data collection. Topics of discussion included: challenges and opportunities of access, gendered dimensions of research, ethical questions and the implications & responsibilities of participatory research with vulnerable communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020