Mapping the Quality of Working Life in Britain: An Occupational Approach

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: Surrey Business School

Abstract

While employment in Britain is at record levels, there is widespread concern many jobs are not of sufficient quality to maintain a healthy and thriving society. Growing public concern culminated in the government commissioning the 'Good work: The Taylor Review of Modern Working Practices' in 2017. A key recommendation of the Taylor Review was that the government should adopt a multidimensional definition of 'good work', among other recommendations. Building upon decades of academic research demonstrating their relationship with job-related wellbeing, the Taylor Review identified six dimensions as central to 'good work' (DBEIS 2017: 12) (wages, employment quality, education and training, working conditions, work-life balance, and consultative participation/collective representation).

The overall objective of this SDAI project is to explore an occupational approach to mapping, understanding, and improving the quality of working life by applying insights from sociological theories of stratification which suggest that the capacity to achieve high job-related wellbeing is to a large extent determined by occupation-field of work. However, this issue has been scarcely researched. The extent to which job quality and job-related wellbeing are structured across the occupational structure are critical issues to understanding and developing pathways to improving the quality of working life, for instance, through occupational mobility or workplace practices that might moderate the effect of occupational environment.

We propose creating a new Classification of Occupational Quality (COQ) for this purpose. This is because existing occupational classifications (such as the NS-SEC occupational class schema used by the ONS) were not intended to map job quality defined in a multidimensional way, and as such tended to focus on only a single job quality dimension. A more appropriate tool for the current academic and policy context is necessary. Moreover, the sparse existing research findings suggest that dimensions of job quality and measures of job-related wellbeing do not neatly map onto occupational classes in any case.

The specific research questions motivating this proposal are:
1. What is the structure of 'occupational quality'?
2. How does occupational quality influence individuals' subjective wellbeing over the life course?
3. Is mobility across occupational quality structure an effective means of improving the quality of working life?
4. To what extent does the workplace moderate the effect of occupational quality on job quality and wellbeing?

Using existing ESRC data, we will answer these questions through writing-up and submitting the results to four world-class academic journals. Emerging findings will be shared at, and feedback will be gathered from a range of national and international conferences, as well as specialist workshops with targeted academic experts to ensure maximum academic impact.

A distinctive part of our SDAI project is its impact strategy beyond academia. With the support of the Dept BEIS (the department responsible for implementing the government's job quality strategy) and the CIPD (the professional body of the HR profession who have been a leading voice in the job quality debate), we will channel our findings to policy and practitioner audiences (see Letter of Support). This includes a series of policy and practitioner workshops, as well as plain English briefings of our research outputs, to be hosted on the project website (www.qualityofworkinglife.org). We will also enlist a design agency to prepare searchable and graphical presentations of occupational quality data we will produce from ESRC data. The project website will also host short video factuals which we will produce, summarising each paper. Collectively, these strategies will ensure maximum impact at a time when the issue of job quality has never been so pressing as well as maximising return on existing ESRC investments.

Planned Impact

Governmental and policy groups:
The Labour Market Directorate within DBEIS is the main Civil Service department responsible for devising and implementing the government's job quality strategy following the Taylor Review and will eventually feed policy recommendations directly to Ministers for discussion in Parliament. Paula Lovitt (Head, Labour Market Directorate) and Cara Maguire (Economic Advisor, Labour Market Directorate) both of the Department of Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (DBEIS) are very supportive of our proposal and agreed to be a key part of our impact strategy, including participation at workshops and introducing us to relevant government departments involved in industrial strategy more broadly (see Letters of Support). Our impact strategy will involve forwarding one-page briefs throughout the project on both the proposed research and emergent key findings and inviting key individuals in government to our stakeholder meetings. In the longer-term, by deepening our networks within the government, we would hope the project's findings would form part of future discussions and evidence base to government's job quality strategy.

Practitioner and interest groups:
In the practitioner sphere, the main audience will be professional bodies and special interest groups concerned with the quality of work. The main one is the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIDP), the professional body of human resource professionals. As well as regulating learning requirements in the profession, the CIPD is a leading voice championing better working lives, playing a key advisory role in the Taylor Review. Jonny Gifford, Senior Advisor in Research at the CIPD is very supportive of our proposal and will offer advice from a practitioner perspective and will help channel findings to government (see Letter of Support). Additionally, the CIPD regularly circulates key research findings to its 140,000 members in professional publications (that we have previously written for). One-page briefs will also be channelled to relevant labour organisations and relevant think-tanks.

Wider public:
Throughout the project, we will maintain close contact with the Press Office at University of Surrey, and benefit from their input on generating a series of accessible press releases to coincide with article releases to maximise impact. These will lead to a high-level of exposure of the project and its findings. We also own the www.qualityofworkinglife.org domain, which will serve as the project's online hub. An innovative aspect of our impact strategy is to create an online and interactive version of the Database of Occupational Quality. The project website will also host the one-page briefs, press-cuttings, a blog, full papers, code, and links to the underlying data held by the Data Archive. Finally, we will also enlist the Marketing Team at Surrey to create a series of video factuals to be included in all promotion of the research, distributed across a range of sites as well as on the project's website.

Ensuring longer-term impact:
Mindful of the need to evidence impact, we will devise ways to quantify and demonstrate impact at the beginning of the project, reassessing these as the project develops such as citations, webpage views, media interest, and online surveys following stakeholder meetings. Additionally, we will maintain on-going dialogue throughout the project with the different communities and unite them in workshops culminating in a one-day conference at the project's conclusion. In the medium-term, the networks established during the conference will be maintained to aid more direct interaction between groups that is often an obstacle to developing high impact research. The project's website will aim, in the long-term, to continue as a hub for the maintenance (and expansion) of connections between academic and non-academic communities interested in understanding and improving job quality.

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
ES/S008470/1 01/03/2019 31/07/2019 £129,876
ES/S008470/2 Transfer ES/S008470/1 01/08/2019 31/03/2021 £95,111
 
Description By exploring an occupational approach to mapping the quality of working life in Britain using existing secondary data, this project has led to:

1. Significant new knowledge:

i. Work is more than earning an income, Good Work is its own reward - we find that 'work itself' is the single most important determinant of our overall job satisfaction.

ii. Good Work is highly stratified by occupation - but not necessarily along class lines; there are a variety of managerial and professional occupations that pay well but do not have correspondingly as high overall job quality (such as those related to law, finance, and ICT), while there are other occupations that are generally low-paid but have good overall job quality (such as beauticians, bakers, and publicans).

iii. The future of the occupational structure looks rather mixed - while the lowest quality occupations are most likely to be automated, expansion in the highest quality ones has stalled in the last 10-15 years.

iv. The quality of work is deteriorating for all workers in some critical respects - we find that work is becoming more controlled, more routine, and more intense for all occupations.

v. Career changes can work - but the relative quality of occupations switching from and to really matters - upwards occupational mobility can improve job satisfaction trajectories, while downwards mobility leads to a steady decline in job satisfaction lasting for many years.

2. New or improved research methods or skills developed:

i. We developed a new way of summarise overall job quality into a single wellbeing-centred metric, validated it, and applied it to a analyse the structure of jobs in the British labour market.

3. New new research extensions, collaborations, and partnerships:

i. The research team are engaged in new research exploring how the impact of Covid-19 has been differentiated according to occupation in the UK, taking the themes of this project into the pandemic and beyond.

ii. The research team completed a new project drawing heavily on the findings in this project in collaboration with the Chartered Institute and Personnel and Development, producing a report on occupational inequalities in the quality of work using newly collected data.

iii. Dr Williams and Dr Zhou are engaging in new research in collaboration with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development on how meaningfulness at work is potentially similarly stratified by occupation.
Exploitation Route Routes to Impact:
• 7 x short policy briefs and 6 x video factuals have been published and widely disseminated.
• 1 x short book has been published and 1 x article has been accepted for publication (both open access). 2 x further articles are being refereed.
• The research team have numerous conference papers and seminars presentations in order to highlight the scientific impact of the project and the secondary data upon which it is based.
• The research team have discussed the findings directly with numerous policy makers, central and local government officials, journalists, as well as third-sector organisations and professional bodies.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.qualityofworkinglife.org/blog/
 
Description The findings have been used in various ways. Most notably, the project has impacted the research conducted by the Charted Institute of Personnel and Development. the professional body for the HR profession in the UK, whose goal is to champion better working lives. Firstly, our initial findings demonstrating occupation is an important consideration for understanding the quality of work led to them commissioning and occupation-focused research project on this theme. This led to impact on their data collection efforts, collecting occupation information for the first time in their large-scale UK Working Lives Survey (c. 6,000 respondents annually), and coding this to the classification schemes we recommend based on our research. Thirdly, they produced and released a widely-shared infographic that shows inequality in various dimensions of job quality across occupations. The project's findings have also made a lasting impression on data collection and research elsewhere. For instance, the Office for National Statistics released its first ever job quality report, and consistent with our recommendations, adopted an index approach as well as publishing breakdowns by occupation. With respect to the UK Household Panel Study, we successfully lobbied for occupation to be included in data collection during the Covid-19 pandemic, informed by this project's findings. More generally, the project has created a large degree of interest particularly among policy-specialists in central and local government. So far, this has ranged from numerous meetings to more formal submissions of evidence. Further evidence of impact in this domain will be documented as it occurs.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Dr Williams was a member of the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification Steering Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Dr Williams participated in several meetings at Nuffield College, Oxford and advised on drafts of the new National Statistics Socio-Economic Classicisation (NS-SEC) rebasing, which is used by the Office for National Statistics as an official indicator of occupational class.
URL https://www.ons.gov.uk/methodology/classificationsandstandards/standardoccupationalclassificationsoc...
 
Description Dr Zou gave evidence to the DWP Committee on the Future of Work in the House of Commons
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Two project publications: Mapping Good Work (2020) and A longitudinal study of the impact of occupational mobility on job satisfaction trajectory: Individual differences in neuroticism (2020) were cited in evidence submitted by Dr Zhou which subsequently led to an invitation to give oral evidence.
URL https://committees.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/7601/pdf/
 
Title Successful lobbying for asking occupation and related ancillary information in the UKHS' Covid-19 waves 
Description The UK Longitudinal Household Panel Study (UKHLS, https://www.understandingsociety.ac.uk/) is an annual large-scale household panel study covering many domains of socio-economic life. Given the onset of the pandemic in March 2020, the survey team introduced a monthly panel in April 2020 focusing on topical themes where short-run answers may be helpful and so long-run questions may be studied at a later date. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Based on the findings of our project, which highlighted that the quality of work is highly differentiated by occupational position, we successfully lobbied for the collection of occupation data in the Covid-19 waves, beginning with the January 2021 questionnaire. This will enable the research team and other researchers to explore how socio-econoimc life the pandemic has been occupationally-differenced. 
URL https://www.understandingsociety.ac.uk/sites/default/files/downloads/documentation/covid-19/question...
 
Title Syntax to construct occupational quality scores in UK datasets coded to SOC2000, SOC2010, or ISCO88 
Description One of the key aims of the project was to map the structure of occupational quality - a classification of occupational quality. This was done through the creation and validation of the Good Work Index (GWI - detailed in Mapping Good Work, 2020). These files provide Stata syntax to derive GWI scores using occupation codes widely available in social surveys. The files have been reproduced in several occupation classification systems (SOC2000, SOC2010, ISCO88) so that they can be used widely across time periods and in international datasets. Full instructions and manuals deposited too. Also included are replication files to reproduce the analysis in the book. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Contact from other researchers who are implementing the classification in their research. 
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Occupational-Quality.zip
 
Description CIPD Good Work Index project 
Organisation Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) is the professional body of the HR profession. Based on the findings coming out of this ESRC project using ESRC secondary data, the research team were approached by and collaborated with the CIPD on a new project, aimed at presenting a much broader picture of occupational disparities in the quality of work, across many more domains we were able to address with the existing data infrastructure, as well as being more up-to-date - to inform their mission of Championing Better Working Lives as well as the Human Resource Profession more broadly. Key contributions by the team included: -Dr Williams advised on the survey design and continues to do so -Dr Williams advised on the measurement of occupation and assisted with coding it to SOC and NS-SEC -Analysed the new dataset -Authored a series of reports (see below) -Job quality by occupation infographic -The main contribution was influencing the direction of the report, specifically, its focus on occupational disparities
Collaborator Contribution The CIPD funded the UK Working Lives Survey (commissioning YouGov) upon which the research project is based. The CIPD also provided a large degree of input into the key outputs and designed the survey. The CIPD initiated the project.
Impact Key outputs include (see https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/work/trends/goodwork): -CIPD Good Work Index 2020 Report -CIPD Good Work Index 2020 Summary Report -CIPD Good Work Index 2020 Technical Index -Job quality by occupation infographic -UK Working Lives Dataset coded to SOC and NS-SEC
Start Year 2020
 
Description 'Mapping Good Work: The Quality of Working Life Across the Occupational Structure', Centre for Employment Relations, Innovation and Change (CERIC), Leeds Business School, University of Leeds, 19th February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Findings from the project presented to the Centre for Employment Relations, Innovation and Change (CERIC), Leeds Business School, University of Leed. The presentation was also broadcast live on Twitter through CERIC's Twitter account.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://business.leeds.ac.uk/divisions-work-employment-relations/events/event/487/mapping-good-work-...
 
Description 'Occupational Class Inequality at Work in Britain', Invited presentation on Culture, Class, Connection: Class and Inequality in the UK and Japan, Manchester University, 21st February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Findings from the project presented to an international audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.researchgate.net/project/Culture-Class-Connection-Bridging-Debates-on-Class-and-Inequali...
 
Description A 'Good Work recovery' is key to unlocking Britain's productive potential, 3rd September 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Williams was invited to produce a blog post applying findings from the project to recovery and productivity debates including presenting new and original analysis connecting occupational quality structures to regional productivity differences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.transformingsociety.co.uk/2020/09/03/a-good-work-recovery-is-key-to-unlocking-britains-p...
 
Description Blog post on the project's kick off, 28th May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post on the project's kick off, 28th May 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/mapping-the-quality-of-working-life/
 
Description Blog post summarising 'Occupational disparities in COVID-19 exposure', 20th May 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Updating our ESRC project to the current crisis throws occupational disparities in the quality of work into stark relief.

Analysis of recent Office for National Statistics data shows the reported deaths from COVID-19 among those of working age in England and Wales so far are concentrated among those occupations which tend to have the lowest overall quality.

Risk of exposure is much greater in routine and manual occupations than in managerial and professional occupations. These are also the occupations where social distancing will be more challenging and where working from home is not an option.

Based on original analysis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/occupational-disparities-in-covid-19-exposure/
 
Description Blog post summarising Does occupational mobility improve job satisfaction? 17th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising Does occupational mobility improve job satisfaction? 17th December 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/does-occupational-mobility-improve-job-satisfaction/
 
Description Blog post summarising Downward occupational mobility, unemployment, and job satisfaction, 20th May 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising Downward occupational mobility, unemployment, and job satisfaction, 20th May 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/downward-occupational-mobility/
 
Description Blog post summarising How does the workplace moderate occupational quality?, 20th May 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising How does the workplace moderate occupational quality?, 20th May 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/moderating-workplace/
 
Description Blog post summarising Key Findings, 8th June 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising Key Findings, 8th June 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/key-findings/
 
Description Blog post summarising What has been happening to occupational quality? 11th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising What has been happening to occupational quality? 11th December 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/occupational-quality/
 
Description Blog post summarising how 'Good Work recovery' is key to unlocking Britain's productive potential, 15th September 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising how 'Good Work recovery' is key to unlocking Britain's productive potential, 15th September 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/good-work-recovery/
 
Description Blog post summarising main recommendations, 8th June 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising main recommendations, 8th June 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/main-recommendations/
 
Description Blog post summarising the Good Work Index, 11th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising the Good Work Inex
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://qualityofworkinglife.qmul.ac.uk/good-work-index/
 
Description Book launch at British Academy of Management Conference, 2nd-4th September 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Project book Mapping Good Work (2020) was officially launched with the publishers (Bristol University Press) at the British Academy of Management conference (online).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Coronavirus class divide - the jobs most at risk of contracting and dying from COVID-19, 19th May 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Williams wrote a piece for the popular news outlet, The Conversation, extending the ESRC project's research on deep occupational inequalities in how work is organised to provide a preliminary analysis on how this related Covid-19 deaths.

Attracted 25,000 hits in the first few weeks of publication (one of the highest viewed articles from 2020).

Led to further media work and comment and has been cited several times in academic literature.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-class-divide-the-jobs-most-at-risk-of-contracting-and-dying-...
 
Description Does occupational mobility improve job satisfaction? 17th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising analysis relating to the third research question.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.qualityofworkinglife.org/does-occupational-mobility-improve-job-satisfaction/
 
Description Dr Williams invited to give expert comment to BBC news, 19th June 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Williams was invited by BBC news to give expert comment on occupational inequalities in Covid-19.

Led to further media enquiries from the BBC and news agencies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-53171372
 
Description Dr Williams met with Department of Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy, 19th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Williams met with Department of Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy on 19th December 2019 and outlined initial findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Dr Williams summarises Mapping Good Work for Bristol University Press, 18th September 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Williams summarises Mapping Good Work for Bristol University Press, 18th September 2020.

For book launch.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=555hg-BfCQs&feature=emb_imp_woyt
 
Description Expert media invititation: 'Budget 2021: experts react', 3rd March 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Williams was invited to give expert opinion to the popular news outlet The Conversation on the Chancellor's 2021 budget and wrote about how it does not address some of the key challenges identified in this project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://theconversation.com/budget-2021-experts-react-156414
 
Description Interim Findings Workshop, Queen Mary University of London, 9th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Interim findings closed workshop to specially-invited policy specialists in the area. We presented the emerging findings and sought feedback and advice on how the research could be made impactful. Resulted in follow-up meetings and broader dissemination among attendees' networks.

Included representatives from:
Department for Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (DBEIS)
The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)
Carnegie UK
Office for National Statistics
What Works for Wellbeing Centre
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.qualityofworkinglife.org/impact/
 
Description Interim project workshop at the Queen Mary University of London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A research workshop to share interim project findings with representatives from ONS, CIPD, Carnegie UK Trust and What Works Centre for Wellbeing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited blog for What Works Centre for Well-being 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Ying was invited by What Works Centre for Wellbeing (WWCW) to write a blog on the impact of Covid-19 on employee involvement and skill development. The 12-week blog series were shared with business managers and HR practitioners to improve employee well-being during the pandemic. The blog was published on WWCW website in May 2020: https://mcusercontent.com/2d377079b40b0c935e6166dff/files/9b995fe2-ba45-46ac-abf4-1c393d5d2bcf/Ying_Zhou_blog.pdf?mc_cid=935e30b2d0&mc_eid=f67fc612a5.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited oral presentation to the DWP Committee in the House of Commons 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In May 2020 the DWP issued a call for evidence to prepare for the changes in the world of work brought by the 'Fourth Industrial Revolution', which is described by the UK Government as 'new technology creating new industries, changing existing ones and transforming the way things are made'. The DWP is particularly interested in how new technologies have affected employment, training and skills, careers and worker wellbeing. Dr Ying Zhou led a submission of a written response based on her research on job quality, occupation and employee well-being. She was invited to present oral evidence to the DWP Committee in the House of Commons on 4th November 2020. For more details, please see https://committees.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/7601/pdf/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited presentation 'Mapping Good Work', Surrey Business School, University of Surrey, 27th January 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Williams was invited to present 'Mapping Good Work' at Surrey Business School, University of Surrey, 27th January 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Invited presentation on 'Class Inequality At Work' to Social Mobility Commission and Cabinet Office, 14th January 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Williams was invited to present findings from his body of research on class inequalities in the British labour market, including presenting findings from this ESRC project. It was the findings from this project which generated a significant degree of interest and resulted in requests to share the book and policy briefings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Invited presentation to the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I was invited to present the key findings from the project to Eurofound, which is EU's main research agency on working conditions. The workshop lasted about two hours and generated a lot of interest from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Invited presentation to the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I was invited to present the key findings from the project to Eurofound, which is EU's main research agency on working conditions. The workshop lasted about two hours and generated a lot of interest from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Invited seminar at Leeds University Business School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Invited talk to academics at Leeds University Business School to share the research findings from the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Job quality Session, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) Applied Research Conference, Dublin, 23rd January 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented emerging research to a combination of academics and HR practitioners - research that is a spin-off from the main project and jointly authored with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://events.cipd.co.uk/events/arc/
 
Description Meeting with CIPD to advise on the next wave of the UK Working Lives Survey, 4th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) to advise on the next wave of the UK Working Lives Survey (a large survey of job quality in the UK). Drawing upon our ESRC research, we advised what new questions and data collection that fills gaps in the existing ESRC data we have been using in the project. For instance, our third research question is about job mobility and the existing ESRC data does not contain much information on motivations/reasons for job mobility and job quality in a single survey (e.g., BHPS/Understanding Society). Moreover, we asked for a panel element to be introduced to the survey so we could explore these items longitudinally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Meeting with Employment and Skills Division, Greater Manchester Combined Authority, 6th March 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Williams met with senior officials to discuss how our validated Good Work Index might be used to map job quality within and between regions and cities - extending its applicability to beyond occupations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Meeting with Good Work Standards and Economic Fairness Directors, Greater London Authority, 2nd March 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Williams met with senior officials to discuss how our validated Good Work Index might be used to map job quality within and between regions and cities - extending its applicability to beyond occupations. High degree of interest shown and requests were made for a copy of the book and other summary documents related to the project, and were shared.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Meeting with Michaela Morris, Head of ONS' Classification Unit, 24th March 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Williams met with Michaela Morris, Head of ONS' Classification Unit, 24th March 2020 to discuss the findings of the project and revisions to SOC and other government classifications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Meeting with head of the Labour Force Survey David Freeman, 5th September 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Williams met with David Freedman (Head of the Labour Force Survey) who was planning the introduction of new job quality items into the survey. Outlined the findings of Mapping Good Work (2020) on how different facets of work relate to wellbeing and how our validated Good Work Index might be used to map job quality in the UK nationally.

Led to further communication with relevant Office for National Statistics staff regarding their first-ever job quality publication including its authors attending a workshop organised by the project team in December 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Project website launched (www.qualityofworkinglife.org) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project website launched (www.qualityofworkinglife.org). Led to various enquiries from interested members of the public, trade union officials (from several unions, both public and private sector), professional body representatives (e.g., from the nursing profession), and others.

The website acts as a gateway between the researchers and interested parties, hosting our research briefs, videos, blogs, and more.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.qualityofworkinglife.org
 
Description Steering Group for the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification Rebasing Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Mark Williams was invited to the Steering Group for the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification Rebasing Project. The project is to update the official socio-economic class indicator used by the Office for National Statistics for the 2021 census. This included a face-to-face meeting at Nuffield College, Oxford, on the 17th September 2019 with other group members, the ONS, and NatCen. Emerging findings from the project were used to provide advice on the rebasing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The Good Work Index, 11th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising analysis answering the first and second research question.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.qualityofworkinglife.org/good-work-index/
 
Description Video factual 1: An introduction to an occupational approach 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Video factual 1: An introduction to an occupational approach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/au02vez90rx6oog/Video%201.mp4?dl=0
 
Description Video factual 2: What is the structure of occupational quality and what has been happening to it? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Video factual 2: What is the structure of occupational quality and what has been happening to it?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/86rzgzhszln658y/Video%202.mp4?dl=0
 
Description Video factual 3: Does occupational mobility improve job satisfaction? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Video factual 3: Does occupational mobility improve job satisfaction?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/tyvmni3x8lmg53n/Video%203.mp4?dl=0
 
Description Video factual 4: Downward occupational mobility, unemployment, and job satisfaction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Video factual 4: Downward occupational mobility, unemployment, and job satisfaction
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5p589s637zbk9kk/Video%204.mp4?dl=0
 
Description Video factual 5: Occupational quality, workplace practices, and wellbeing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Video factual 5: Occupational quality, workplace practices, and wellbeing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/koc02yw9x3ywsds/Video%205.mp4?dl=0
 
Description Video factual 6: Key findings and recommendations (with CIPD, Carnegie Trust UK, and What Works Centre for Wellbeing) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Video factual 6: Key findings and recommendations (with CIPD, Carnegie Trust UK, and What Works Centre for Wellbeing).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://vimeo.com/425541365
 
Description Visit to What Works for Wellbeing Centre, Westminster, 14th January 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Williams and Dr Zhou with the What Works for Wellbeing Centre to discuss project findings and how our work can inform their core purpose and how we can collaborate towards the wellbeing agenda.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description What has been happening to occupational quality? 11th December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post summarising analysis answering the first research question.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.qualityofworkinglife.org/346-2/