Exploring Synergies within Volunteering in Law Enforcement and Public Safety in the UK and Japan.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Northampton
Department Name: Inst of Public Safety, Crime & Justice

Abstract

The overarching purpose of this proposal is to create a new partnership between UK and Japan-based academic and professional networks in the field of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety, form lasting links between UK and Japan and establish a foundation for collaboration beyond the project. Volunteering in law enforcement and public safety is an emergent research agenda in both the UK and Japan, yet significant opportunities exist to learn from the cultural contexts concerning how law enforcement agencies engage with the community to achieve their goals and enable citizens to protect people from harm.

The applicants to the proposed project are at the forefront of recent academic enquiry into volunteering in law enforcement and public safety in the respective countries and have strong networks across academia and into different policing/volunteering contexts. They are positioned to pump-prime UK-Japan collaborations across volunteering in law enforcement and community safety, each holding significant experience, expertise and knowledge in the field which holds value to the strategic and practical development of volunteering in each site.

Citizens have assumed a prominent role in the delivery of policing in the UK since before the development of organised law enforcement (Britton and Callender, 2018), with the Special Constabulary having deep historical roots. Special Constables are unpaid volunteers who, after successful completion of their training, hold the same warranted powers as 'Regular', paid police officers (Callender et al., 2018a). More recently, however, a multitude of volunteering opportunities have been created within policing for citizens to contribute to meeting policing objectives (Callender et al., 2018b) and a recent benchmarking exercise conducted across England and Wales outlined how there are over 38,000 volunteers operating within policing organisations, including 11,992 Special Constables and 8,265 Police Support Volunteers (Britton et al., 2018). There are also an estimated 40,000+ volunteers in other volunteer roles closely working with policing, including Community Speedwatch, Neighbourhood Watch, victim support services, street pastors and similar roles.

In September 2003, the 'Action Plan for Realizing a Powerful Society against Crime' was launched in Japan, led by the Prime Minister. By 2014, there were some 48,000 crime prevention organisations with approximately 3 million members, meaning that 1 in 38 adults in Japan is a crime prevention volunteer (Hino, 2018). Most crime prevention volunteer organizations consist of local residents and parents of elementary school children and are independent of the police, requiring an intimate partnership between citizens and the police. To widen participation in volunteering activities, Hino (2018) advocates a 'Plus Bouhan' (Plus Crime Prevention) approach which adds aspects of crime prevention to daily activities in the community.

Volunteering in law enforcement and public safety are therefore argued to be prominent in both sites, though different in the relative level of involvement of citizens at protecting people from harm. To enable the exchange of research and commercial knowledge, collaborative activities will be conducted over a one-year period. The activities conducted during the formative stages of the partnership include:

- two cultural exchange trips, with academic delegations traveling between the UK and Japan;
- collaborative analysis of qualitative data to explore synergies in ideologies, strategies, leadership and practices concerning volunteerism within law enforcement and public safety;
- a symposium outlining the results and value of the partnership will be conducted at an international conference; and
- local activities in each country in the form of presentations and briefings to local communities and police forces to embed learning and knowledge from the exchange.

Planned Impact

The proposed partnership will impact directly for policing organisations and community organisations which deliver volunteering, for volunteers, and for policymakers, senior professional leads and strategic stakeholders.

In the UK setting, we anticipate particular learning and policy transfer opportunities in respect of understanding how Japanese models achieve a much greater volume of engagement, have a more local agency and delivery, operate with less direct police involvement, and innovate in ways which are not seen in the UK setting.

In the Japanese setting, there is anticipated to be particular learning and policy transfer in respect of UK models of direct involvement in front-line, police officer roles through the Special Constabulary, including volunteers with formal policing powers, greater participation in more complex and high risk elements of policing, and the manner in which volunteering models are more closely integrated directly into policing organisations.

In both Japanese and UK settings, the knowledge exchange aspects of the project will help to directly inform ongoing voluntarism programmes, and through a series of 'policy and practice workshops' in both settings, to directly impact through exploring the impacts of findings on policy and practice. This will be in particular with regard to volunteer attraction and recruitment, volunteer ongoing engagement and morale, community reach and diversity of voluntarism, and retention of volunteers. The project will also allow practical learning across the settings in respect of: arrangements for supporting and developing volunteers, and related organisation, infrastructure, operating frameworks, and resourcing considerations; models of risk management; aspects of communication, projection and public affairs with respect of voluntarism; and in respect of performance models and value frameworks, to capture data, better understand costs, and capture all dimensions of contribution.

The findings from the strategic qualitative analysis workshop, based upon evidence from police leaders in both national settings, will challenge current paradigms of thinking about voluntarism in both settings, and serve to broaden senior perspectives through exposure to the strategic thinking and practice in the other national setting. Voluntarism tends to be a neglected aspect in policy discourse and strategic professional thinking in respect of policing and community safety in both national settings, and the new research developed through this project will be used to stimulate new perspectives, and to raise the profile and potential of volunteer activity.

The partnership and collaboration activities will more broadly contribute to wider policy collaboration work to develop international understandings, learning and networking in respect of police voluntarism. Through fostering and further strengthening relationships between Japan and UK, the project will also draw upon the international relationships of the project leads in Japan and the UK with the USA, Canada, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Netherlands, and in so doing will contribute to the develop, for the first-time, of a genuinely international discourse and engagement amongst senior leads across a variety of national settings in respect of policing and community safety volunteering.

Publications

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Description The overarching purpose of this project was to create a new partnership between UK and Japan-based academic and professional networks in the field of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety, form lasting links between UK and Japan, and establish a foundation for collaboration beyond the research.
Volunteering in law enforcement and public safety is an emergent research agenda in both the UK and Japan, yet significant opportunities exist to learn from the cultural contexts concerning how law enforcement agencies engage with the community to achieve their goals and enable citizens to protect themselves and their communities from crime.
Each of the project's four objectives are now outlined with progress for each being outlined:
1. To facilitate a cultural exchange of research and commercial knowledge between research active academics based in the UK and Japan
Two cultural exchange visits took place, which brought together academics, policy leads and senior practitioners at the national level, and included engagement with frontline practitioners and observation of volunteering in practice. Knowledge exchange workshops and discussion meetings were conducted during both visits, ensuring exchange of research, literature, ideas and practice and the development of new working relationships.
The UK team of academics was made up of Dr Matthew Callender, Dr Iain Britton and Dr Laura Knight, representing the Institute for Public Safety, Crime and Justice at the University of Northampton. This team of researchers have been the national evaluators of the National Police Chief's Council (NPCC) 'Citizens in Policing' programme since 2016 and undertake the role of academic advisors to the NPCC and Home Office in relation to volunteering in policing.
The Japan team of academics was made up of Dr Kimihiro Hino at the University of Tokyo, Professor Mamoru Amemiya and Sato Sanai at the University of Tsukuba. Dr Hino has been a crime prevention advisor to the government for several years and is working with Professor Amemiya and Ms Sanai on research related to the significant growth of crime prevention volunteers across Japan in recent years.
The Japan visit to UK took place between the 4th and 11th September 2019, and involved workshops and meetings with:
- Ed Barnard & Superintendent Paul Bartolomeo, policy managers at the College of Policing;
- Mary Bailey, National Police Chief's Council coordinator for Citizens in Policing in the UK;
- Esther McLaughlin, Citizens in Policing coordinator for Wales
- Aphra Brannan & Katryna Welsh, Home Office leads for Citizens in Policing
- Ed Sherry OBE, National Director, Volunteer Police Cadets
- Kent Police Citizens in Policing team
The UK visit to Japan to place between 16th and 23rd September 2019 and involved workshops and meetings with:
- Mr Ohta & colleagues, Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (Juvenile Section);
- Mr Uno & colleagues, Adachi City, Tokyo, Crime Prevention Section;
- Mr Tanaka, senior managing director, Japan National Crime Prevention Association;
- Mr Kondo & colleagues, National Police Agency lead for national volunteer promotion;
- Mr Matsui & colleagues, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Office for Promotion of Citizen Safety
- Site visit to Crime Prevention Volunteer project, Kitasenju, Adachi City
The connections established in the project have created a foundation for other UK academics and policymakers in both the UK and Japan to access and develop to advance the agenda of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety.
2. To create lasting links between academic and professional networks
The project hosted the first International Conference on Volunteering in Policing, in Birmingham, UK in November 2019. The event included a range of academic speakers from UK, USA, Ireland and Japan. As part of the programme, Dr Kimihiro Hino presented on 'Plus Bouhan: A new approach to protect children from crime in Japan', Dr Matthew Callender on 'Exploring synergies in volunteering in policing and public safety between the UK and Japan' and Dr Iain Britton on 'Setting an international research agenda for citizens in policing'. More than 60 delegates attended the event, including a diverse mix of academics, professionals and practitioners in policing, crime prevention and volunteer management, mainly from UK.
Dr Ross Wolf from the University of Central Florida, also a Reserve Deputy with the Orlando Police Department, gave a keynote presentation at the International Conference, explaining in detail the various models of volunteer law enforcement across police agencies in the USA. An introductory meeting was conducted with Dr Ross Wolf, Dr Kimihiro Hino and the research team at the Institute for Public Safety, Crime and Justice, to develop ideas for UK-USA-Japan research work in the future. This has formally connected Japan to the existing Volunteer Law Enforcement Officer Alliance in the US, which is beginning to engage academics and practitioners beyond the US in its research and training programme, facilitating lasting links between academic and professional networks.
Following the UK visit to Japan, the IPSCJ team developed relationships with several members of the Tokyo Metropolitan Authority (TMA), which led to a follow-up meeting when the TMA visited the UK in October 2019. The IPSCJ facilitated a meeting between the TMA and the UK Home Office to compare and share ideas about national policy and practice. Representatives of the TMA visited the IPSCJ during their visit also, sharing recent research findings related to volunteer roles in community safety. The IPSCJ also facilitated a meeting between the TMA and the Northamptonshire Emergency Service Cadets, an innovative model of youth volunteering across policing, fire and rescue services and emergency response.
A briefing of the Japan-UK exchange visits was presented to the national Citizens in Policing Strategic Board on 23rd October, and options for future Japan-UK engagement were discussed with national leads. The briefing was also shared with the Citizens in Policing regional coordinators, ensuring messages were shared across England and Wales.
A series of six manuscripts are currently in development for publication in the City Planning Institute in Japan on Citizens in Policing in the UK. This will enable information to be shared across an extensive network of professionals, policy makers and academics across Japan. This will expose them to new initiatives and fundamentally different models of volunteerism in law enforcement and public safety. These groups will benefit from the established foundation for commercial and cultural exchange achieved in objective 1.
3. To compare volunteering in law enforcement and public safety within the UK and Japan, in respect of ideology, strategy, leadership and practice
Analysis workshops were undertaken during the exchange visits. From these sessions there has been a joint production of a model for international comparative typology of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety, based on several examples of practice in Japan and in the UK. This joint academic work is ongoing, and a paper is being drafted jointly by the academics engaged in the exchange.
An article was produced for professional press, Policing Insight, entitled 'A new research partnership exploring volunteers in law enforcement and public safety in the UK and Japan', published online on 31st March 2019. This paper sets the scene for international network development, summarising volunteer models in the two countries and identifying key areas for future research and consideration for practice learning. This professional policing magazine reaches audiences across 43 polices forces in England and Wales and is widely engaged at senior levels of policing and by policy and governance leads in policing and public safety.
Articles are being produced for circulation in Japan, to share knowledge of UK practice in relation to volunteers and to identify key similarities, differences and learning. A series of articles are being co-produced for the National Crime Prevention Association journal in Japan over the next year, covering a variety of aspects of volunteering in the UK and comparison to the Japan context, based on IPSCJ research products. The reach of these articles will support continued discussion about ideas, strategies, policy development and leadership models in the design and delivery of volunteering in policing and public safety.
These articles outline key differences in respect of ideology, strategy, leadership and practice in both sites, creating new opportunities and lines of enquiry for future academic studies and policy formation. It is intended that new initiatives will be developed in both sites based on the exchanges and knowledge created in the project. An example of this is a new UK-based project at a formative stage involving a partnership between the IPSCJ, the College of Policing and West Midlands Police to develop and evaluate a crime prevention volunteer programme, based on the Japanese model.
4. To identify and prioritise collaboration opportunities for future research.
As a result of this knowledge exchange work and related visits and network development, the IPSCJ is setting up a project to develop and evaluate a crime prevention volunteer programme, based on the Japanese model. The project is at the design stage, creating a partnership between the IPSCJ, the College of Policing and West Midlands Police. Additionally, and also based upon the exchange work, the IPSCJ is working with Community Speedwatch leads nationally to develop models to expand the reach and diversity of their volunteering, learning again from crime prevention volunteer programmes in Japan.
The national Police Support Volunteer (PSV) working group is developing a national action plan to develop PSVs in the UK. On 26th September in Newcastle the IPSCJ facilitated a workshop on future models, which included input from the Japan-UK exchange and key elements of learning from the Japan context, especially in relation to cyber volunteering, crime prevention volunteers and the 'Plus Bouhan' model.
Japanese academics are now involved in an ongoing collaboration between academics in the UK, USA and Malaysia to develop an academic paper on the future international research field of Citizens in Policing. The academic paper will be submitted for peer-review publication in summer 2020.
During the exchange visits, the UK-Japan research team began work to 'map' volunteer models in law enforcement and public safety around the world, engaging a wider global partnership of academics to facilitate its development. It is intended this work commences by spring 2020.
The UK-Japan research team have also put together plans to launch a new academic and policy network, the 'International Network for Police Volunteering Research', in spring 2020. Already engaging colleagues across the US, Canada, Malaysia, Singapore, France, Republic or Ireland and the Netherlands, the UK and Japan researchers on this project will play a core role in the development and sustainability of that new network model.
These developed networks, created through the project, will identify and prioritise collaboration opportunities in the field of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety.
Exploitation Route The project has been very successful at creating new connections between UK- and Japan-based networks of academics, practitioners and policy makers in the field of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety. These newly-formed connections and networks, alongside the delivered and planned dissemination outputs, create significant opportunities for the knowledge generated and shared in the project to be capitalised upon amongst governmental policy makers, practitioners in law enforcement and local authorities to develop and pilot new initiatives that involve citizens (including children and young people) in community safety, crime prevention and policing.
The project has enabled access to fundamentally different models of volunteerism, that are based on different types of relationship between the citizen and state. It is envisaged that significant opportunities, especially in relation to the Plus Bouhan approach in Japan exist in the UK to trial new initiatives that impact community safety are a very localised level. Also, models based on the UK Special Constabulary and Police Support Volunteers are absent within Japan, creating a space for different forms of volunteerism to be considered and trialled. There is a need to develop further the evidence base in both sites of successful models of volunteerism and further investigate cultural differences and influences.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description The overarching purpose of the project was to create a new partnership between UK and Japan-based academic and professional networks in the field of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety, to form lasting links between UK and Japan, and establish a foundation for collaboration. An emphasis across the delivery of the project has been achieving engagement and impact beyond academia, building on the strong and extensive professional and policy networks of the researchers both in Japan and the UK. Key areas of impact beyond academia have been: - Direct engagement of national leads both in Japan and in the UK in respect of policing, community safety, and volunteering. The project has engaged many senior police leaders and policy makers with practical examples of learning in terms of interesting and innovative practice from both countries that can be engaged in the other national setting; - This will create societal and economic impact by enabling new forms of volunteer model to be implemented increasing the number of volunteers in law enforcement and public safety, thereby improving perceptions of safety in the community and citizens sense of civic responsibility. Overall, as new models are developed based on these findings, the footprint and impact of volunteers in law enforcement and public safety will be increased; - The development of relationships through the UK to Japan visit with several members of the Tokyo Metropolitan Authority (TMA) led to a follow-up meeting when the TMA visited the UK in October 2019. The IPSCJ facilitated a meeting between the TMA and the UK Home Office to compare and share ideas about national policy and practice. Representatives of the TMA visited the IPSCJ during their visit also, sharing recent research findings related to volunteer roles in community safety. The IPSCJ also facilitated a meeting between the TMA and the Northamptonshire Emergency Service Cadets, an innovative model of youth volunteering across policing, fire and rescue services and emergency response; - The information exchanged during the TMA visit has supported the development of a new strategy for community safety across Tokyo, Japan. The new strategy aims to improve levels and perceptions of community safety in Tokyo. This is at an early stage of implementation. - The project has created links for key leads in Japan to the existing Volunteer Law Enforcement Officer Alliance, which is beginning to engage academics and practitioners beyond the US/North America to develop an international body for volunteers in law enforcement; - The cultural exchanges facilitated through this network will support the design and content of training models for volunteers in different national contexts, improving how volunteers in law enforcement serve the community and deliver positive outcomes. - A series of articles are being co-produced for the National Crime Prevention Association journal in Japan over the next year, covering a variety of aspects of volunteering in the UK and comparison to the Japan context, based on IPSCJ research products. The reach of these articles will support continued discussion about ideas, strategies, policy development and leadership models in the design and delivery of volunteering in policing and public safety in Japan, and the focus is on a widespread practitioner and policy readership; - The IPSCJ is setting up a project to develop and evaluate a crime prevention volunteer programme, based on the Japanese model. The project is at the design stage, creating a partnership between the IPSCJ, the College of Policing and West Midlands Police; - This project will achieve societal and economic impact by focussing on communities of priority need and on neighbourhoods that have traditionally had very low levels of community involvement and where trust in law enforcement is low. The intention to to demonstrate and measure the value of volunteering which will in turn be disseminated to other forces allowing cost benefits and savings to be made. - The IPSCJ is working with Community Speedwatch leads nationally in the UK to develop models to expand the reach and diversity of their volunteers, learning again from crime prevention volunteer programmes in Japan; - The national Police Support Volunteer (PSV) working group is developing a national action plan to develop PSVs in the UK. The IPSCJ has facilitated workshops on future models, which included input from the Japan-UK exchange and key elements of learning from the Japan context, especially in relation to cyber volunteering, crime prevention volunteers and the 'Plus Bouhan' model. - The societal impact through these new models will be achieved by attracting groups traditionally not involved in community safety, having benefits for the wider community through an increase in the volume of those supporting law enforcement.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Informing a review of community safety by Tokyo Metropolitan Authority through learning from UK policy and practice
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Leading national workshops and engagement with Citizens in Policing boards and leads in the UK
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Partnering to co-produce innovative new practice initiatives in Citizens in Policing in the UK based on Japanese models
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Widespread engagement of UK police forces in respect of Citizens in Policing practice to feed in learning from policy and practice in Japan
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Title International Comparative Typology of Volunteerism in Law Enforcement and Public Safety 
Description The research teams in the UK and Japan engaged in an analysis workshop to coproduce an international comparative typology of volunteerism in law enforcement. The typology is currently being constructed in partnership between the UK and Japanese academics, with plans to engage with the wider international network of academics working in this field. A manuscript for publication in a peer reviewed journal is currently in progress and is anticipated to be submitted in 3-6 months. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact No impact to date as model currently being developed. 
 
Description Engagement of the UK Home Office 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The research collaborators for the project from Japan and the UK met with key leads from the UK Home Office, to discuss and learn from different models in Japan and the UK in respect of engaging volunteers. There was professional discussion regarding the future strategy and direction for UK policing in respect of voluntarism, which the Japanese research partners took back to their national context. Several practice models were discussed in detail. The Home Office colleagues also shared with the Japanese visitors an explanation of the College's remit and role.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with Citizens in Policing leads and practitioners in Kent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research collaborators from Japan and the UK visited Kent police headquarters for the day, met with senior leads responsible for Citizens in Policing, engaged with volunteers, had a demonstration of a collaborative joint response project involving the ambulance service and Special Constables, and discussed models of future delivery. The day provided an excellent opportunity for Japanese colleagues to see UK Citizens in Policing in practice, in a police force which is recognised as being innovative for its approach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with City Crime Prevention Officer (Previous Ministry of the Environment) and Osaka Prefectural Police Officer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Engagement with Mr Kondo & colleagues, National Police Agency lead for national volunteer promotion, to critically discuss national strategies of volunteering in law enforcement and public safety. There was much discussion about the involvement of citizens in policing in the UK, with consideration for cultural differences in Japan. There were detailed discussions about how police officers were and could work with citizens in volunteer roles in frontline policing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with Crime Prevention Section, Adachi City, Tokyo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The researchers from UK and Japan met with Mr Uno (Section Manager) and colleagues, Crime Prevention Section at City Hall in Adachi City, Tokyo. The focus of the dialogue was on the Beautiful Windows initiative that has resulted in a signifcant decrease in crime in Adachi City. There were sevral comparisons drawn to initiatives in the UK, and there was much discussion on new ideas and alternative approaches.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with Crime Prevention Volunteers and Site visit to Crime Prevention Volunteer project, Kitasenju, Adachi City 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The UK team engaged with and participated in a Community patrol in Adachi City. The team met with members of public who were crime prevention volunteers, observed as they distributed materials to other members of the public about crime prevention and then joined the crime prevention volunteers as they patrolled the community. During the community patrol, the research team were able to discuss directly with members of the public in Adachi City concerning their views and experiences, and engage in a dialogue about comparative models in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with Japan National Crime Prevention Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Research team met with Mr Tanaka, Senior Managing Director, National Crime Agency to engage in a dialogue of models of UK and Japanese volunteering in law enforcement and public safety. There was a focus on the relationship between the state and citizens involved in volunteering, the Guardian Angels in Japan and comparative models in the UK, the history and nature of Bohan Kyokai (Crime Prevention Associations) and the activities of volunteers. A key issue of discussion were the demographic profiles of volunteers in the respective countries and future strategies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Office for Promotion of Citizen Safety 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meeting with Mr Matsui & colleagues, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Office for Promotion of Citizen Safety where a series of Japanese initiatives were presented to the UK team. This engagement created connections with members of the Office for Promotion of Citizen safety who visited the UK following the fieldtrips to learn more about UK models of volunteering and engagement with children and young people. Connections were facilitated by the UK team with the delegation from Japan and practitioners in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engagement with Mr Ohta (Section Manager) & colleagues from the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (Juvenile Section) to share information and models of volunteering in public safety. In particular were comparisons of engagement with children, young people and young adults within volunteering in community safety and policing, with focus on Japanese initiative of university student volunteers who work on the protection and guidance of youth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with national leads for citizens in policing at the College of Policing, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The research collaborators for the project from Japan and the UK met with key leads from the College of Policing, to discuss and learn from different models in Japan and the UK in respect of engaging volunteers. There was professional discussion regarding the future strategy and direction for UK policing in respect of voluntarism, which the Japanese research partners took back to their national context. Several practice models were discussed in detail. The College also shared with the Japanese visitors an explanation of the College's remit and role.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with the coordinator for Citizens in Policing in Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research collaborators for the project from Japan and the UK met with key lead for 'Citizens in Policing' in Wales, Esther McLaughlin, who coordinates activity for volunteering strategy and practice across the four Wales police forces. The session discussed learning from different models in Japan and the UK in respect of engaging volunteers. There was professional discussion regarding the future strategy and direction for Wales policing in respect of voluntarism, which the Japanese research partners took back to their national context. Several practice models were discussed in detail. A strong future contact was developed for the researchers both in the UK and Japan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with the national lead policy officer for the National Police Chiefs' Council, UK on 'Citizens in Policing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The research collaborators for the project from Japan and the UK met with the lead policy officer for 'Citizens in Policing' in the UK, Mary Bailey, who coordinates policy and practice nationally, to discuss and learn from different models in Japan and the UK in respect of engaging volunteers. There was professional discussion regarding the future strategy and direction for UK policing in respect of voluntarism, which the Japanese research partners took back to their national context. Several practice models were discussed in detail. Relationships were fostered between the national CiP portfolio and the research collaborators both in the UK and in Japan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engagement with the national leadership for Volunteer Police Cadets in the UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research collaborators for the project from Japan and the UK met with the national coordination lead for Volunteer Police Cadets, Ed Sherry, to discuss and learn from the example of youth engagement via the Cadets model in the UK (of which there is no direct comparison in Japan). There was professional discussion regarding the future strategy and direction for UK policing in respect of voluntarism and particularly in respect of young people, which the Japanese research partners took back to their national context. The session also engaged with the new, innovative practice of Mini Police in UK police forces.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Research Conference on Citizens in Policing, held in Birmingham UK on 8th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research project hosted the first international conference on Citizens in Policing. Attended by a wide range of (primarily UK) practice and policy leads from police forces and nationally, and with a range of speakers including from the UK and Japan (partners for this collaboration), Republic of Ireland and the USA. Contributions to the conference included outputs from this research project, as well as a plenary presentation from Dr Ross Wolf, University of Central Florida. Discussions at the conference pointed to a wider initiative to develop an international research and practice network (work which is now ongoing with plans for imminent launch). The conference covered a wide range of different initiatives, and examples of practice and research, from across Citizens in Policing, and included round-table conversations involving researchers, practice leads and policy leads.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Publication in Policing Insight 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A publication in Policing Insight, a professional subscription for the policing and law enforcement community, to outline the new collaboration with Japan with the support of the ESRC Connections Grant, and share contact details to facilitate contact between the UK and Japan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://policinginsight.com/features/opinion/a-new-research-partnership-exploring-volunteers-in-law-...
 
Description Report on Citizens in Policing in the UK in the City Planning Institute in Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Publication in the City Planning Institute in Japan on Citizens in Policing in the UK. This is the first of a series of six related articles to be published. The future issues will focus on particular UK initiatives to share with practitioners and policymakers in Japan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.cpij.or.jp/com/ac/reports/18_299.pdf