Family and social effects on adoption of preventative health measures

Lead Research Organisation: Institute for Fiscal Studies
Department Name: IFS Research Team

Abstract

Sanitation - broadly defined as hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of waste and in particular human waste - has long been acknowledged as an indispensable element of disease prevention and primary health care programmes (Declaration of Alma-Ata, 1978). An estimated 2.3 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation services, and 4.5 billion people do not have access to safely managed sanitation. Hence the scale of the problem is urgent, and improving sanitation is included in both the Millennium and Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs and SDGs). It is estimated that better sanitation could prevent the majority of diarrheal-related deaths of 361,000 children aged less than 5 years each year. Improved sanitation would also have substantial impacts on developing countries' economic growth: the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank estimates that India, the context of the proposed research, loses more than 6% of its annual GDP due to inadequate sanitation.

Strategies to improve sanitation coverage across the developing world have focused predominantly on providing information and credit or subsidies to encourage the construction of private household toilets. However, a large number of recent impact evaluation studies on sanitation interventions in low-income countries find only modest impacts on toilet uptake and usage.
It is crucial for the design and targeting of policies aimed at improving sanitation, and consequently health and productivity, to gain a deeper understanding of what imperfections and constraints are driving this observed failure of sanitation interventions to achieve their full potential.

The proposed research aims to inform the design of effective sanitation interventions and policies by identifying the importance of social factors in explaining sanitation adoption decisions. In particular, our research will focus on understanding the role of dynamics within the household, such as between husband and wife who may value sanitation differently, and within peer groups, which are particularly important in interventions such as micro-credit which are delivered through groups within the community.

We focus on the context of India, which contributes almost 60% of the close to one billion people who defecate in the open globally (WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2017). The Government of India is committed to achieving SDG 6 of clean water and sanitation for all by 2030, including via its ambitious Clean India Movement which aims to make India open-defecation-free by 2019. At the same time, India remains a patriarchal society, where women are often seen as subordinate to men, and a society with very strict norms governing social interactions within the community. Social factors, and in particular those related to gender and community, are therefore likely to pose particularly strong constraints on sanitation investments in India.

We will seek to answer a number of important and related questions. First, we will ask whether women indeed bear higher costs of open defecation and place a higher valuation of toilets relative to men. Yet second, since women often have lower bargaining power within poor Indian households, we will investigate to what extent bargaining within the household over budget and mobility constrains their ability to invest in sanitation via building private latrines or using community toilets. Third, the effectiveness of encouraging individuals to invest in private latrines via microfinance lending is also likely to depend on the preferences and behaviour of key individuals within joint-liability microfinance groups. We will explore such intra-group dynamics and how leaders influence sanitation investment decisions. Finally, we will model and test whether investing in toilets allows grooms on the marriage market a better chance of attracting higher-quality brides (or any bride at all).

Planned Impact

First and foremost, we will strive for our proposed research project to have a direct impact on the institutions, policy makers and funders involved in the specific interventions subject to this study, including the Municipal Corporations of the Indian cities Lucknow and Kanpur, the microfinance institution Grameen Kota and its NGO arm, Navya Disha, the umbrella organisation FINISH Society, which works with more than 60 partners in more than 50 districts in 10 states of India, including Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs), NGOs and Cooperatives, and Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, which has community toilet complexes in 25 states and 4 union territories of India. All four studies further have the potential to directly speak to the design of India's flagship sanitation program, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or "Clean India" - the primary driving force behind the Government of India's sanitation coverage goal, estimated to cost 9.2 Billion USD.

Results of this research will continue to support implementing institutions to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of outcomes achieved through their interventions. This knowledge will enable evidence-based decisions to be made about the design and delivery of their interventions and form the foundation of advocacy initiatives. Also funders directly involved in the projects will be able to feed our research outputs into general awareness-creation and policymaking with the aim of enhancing productivity in developing countries. Funders include the Strategic Impact Evaluation Fund (SIEF) (funds from the Department for International Development (DfID), managed by the World Bank (WB)), and the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie). We will also engage partners in our other ongoing research work related to sanitation, which is conducted with organisations including WaterAid UK and Nigeria as well as PLAN International, through projects funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and DfID.

To achieve our ultimate goal of supporting sector decision-making through the provision of rigorous academic evidence, we will work with our partners from these impact evaluation studies to help ensure that our analysis responds to sector-relevant questions, placing emphasis on engaging key sector actors and translating the evidence into digestible outputs. Details on planned activities are provided in the Pathways to Impact section, and include presenting findings at important sector convenings (UNC Health and Water conference, iHEA Congress); engaging in one-to-one meetings with staff of institutions such as UNICEF who provide technical support to governments on sanitation interventions; active participation in donor meetings (organised by for example the Gates Foundation and DfID); and writing of policy brief and blogs, organisation of e-discussions, making use of tweets and publication of outputs on the IFS website (which currently enjoys >750k sessions and over 500k unique visitors a year from UK and abroad). We will benefit from the support of an experienced and successful communications team at the Institute for Fiscal Studies: including the Head of Public Relations, who has a strong track record of communicating with UK stakeholders in government, third sector, academia and media; and a media and writing consultant, who has wide networks in the international development community.

In all activities, we will be building on long-standing relationships. We expect the project design to continue to strengthen these relationships for future collaborations.
 
Description The project generated several key insights that can be summarized under two headline findings:
1) Social constraints, whether within the household, the marriage market, or between providers and users - act as a barrier to uptake of cost-effective preventive health investments;
2) If ignored, these can impede or even lead to unintended consequences of well-intended, and otherwise successful, policies.

As the international community aims to achieve universal access to safe and affordable basic services as part of the Sustainable Development Goals, governments need to consider these constraints when stimulating infrastructure investments. Collaborations resulting from this grant, in particular with the Asian Development Bank Institute, indicate the willingness of policy makers to engage with such research findings.

More specifically, we document the following findings:
• The basis for many social programs and policy interventions is the assumption that women derive larger benefits from them. In line, we document using novel data that women perceive higher benefits of a household toilet than men. Moreover, intra-household differences in perceptions of costs and benefits matter for sanitation investment decisions, but at different stages of the investment process. We further show that intra-household differences in perceptions influence sanitation loan adoption and investment only in households where the woman is involved in decision-making. Our findings highlight the importance of disseminating information on not just benefits of an investment, but also on costs - to both men and women within a household.
• We document evidence that social ties play an important role in encouraging and facilitating sanitation investments. We estimate peer effects in the take-up of a sanitation micro-credit program and sanitation investment within micro-credit groups. Further, we find that social ties that households can turn to for advice on home improvements can facilitate sanitation investment.
• However, sanitation interventions can also have countervailing impact on female empowerment. We show that the Indian Total Sanitation Campaign changed marriage market outcomes such that women experienced a loss in gain from marriage, suggestive of a decline in female control over household resources and thereby loss in female empowerment.
• We further document that in overcrowded and lower income areas, where stimulating investment in private sanitation is not feasible, men and women reveal comparable willingness to pay (WTP) for the use of sanitation infrastructure (community toilets). Although both genders also state a much higher hypothetical WTP for high quality facilities (at, or even above, the market price), actual improvements in facilities does not alter WTP for women, and shifts the demand curve of men downward. Simultaneously, facility caretakers became more stringent in enforcing payments by men, leading to less usage of improved sanitation facilities and higher open defecation by men, with negative consequences for public health.

In generating these findings, we have engaged significantly with other academics through seminars, conferences and individual discussions, leading to new collaborations within and outside this grant, detailed below.
Exploitation Route Over the course of the grant, we have generated a new collaboration with Zaki Wahhaj, and produced rigorous academic evidence that has been presented at academic seminars, conferences, and discussions. Two papers have been circulated as IFS Working Papers and are under review at the Journal of Development Economics, the highest-ranking journal for development economics, for a special issue on Sanitation and Development. The special issue, sponsored by the Asian Development Bank Institute and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, will raise awareness of this work not just among academics, but also among non-academic audiences including policymakers and practitioners in Asia and the Pacific. Moreover, the special issue will be open access further encouraging use of the evidence generated in this research.

The PI is one of the co-editors of the special issue, which forms one of several collaborative activities with ADBI and Gates Foundation aiming to enhance sanitation and waste management in the Asia-Pacific region. Through this collaboration, our research findings will reach an extensive network of policymakers and stakeholders, culminating in policy dialogue which will contribute to a draft statement for the Kumamoto Summit 2022.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Other

 
Description ADBI-IFS collaboration on various activities related to 'Sanitation and Development' 
Organisation Asian Development Bank Institute
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Asian Development Bank Institute (main contact: KE Seetha Ram, Senior Consulting Specialist for Capacity Building and Training Projects, https://www.adb.org/adbi/about/staff-profiles/ke-seetha-ram) got in contact with PI Britta Augsburg to discuss Sanitation and Development. The conversation led to a collaboration on a number of activities, including roundtable discussion with experts, ADBI-BMGF-IFS virtual seminar series, a conference on sanitation and development which was organised to select papers for a special issue on Sanitation and Development in a top academic journal (Journal of Development Economics). More information on the events that came out of these discussions will be provided in separately listed events. From our side, we have contributed with the expertise we have built up in the area, including through this grant, and the academic network we have built around it. This led to the organisation of events with high caliber experts in the field, as well as the special issue with the top academic journal in the field of development economics.
Collaborator Contribution The ADBI has brought in expertise in organising events, contacts in the policy area to particiate (actively and as audience) in organised events, they provided funding for some of the speakers, as well as for open access to all articles that will be published as part of the Special Issue. And, in the future, the ADBI will organise more policy oriented events in which findings will disseminated.
Impact 1. A roundtable discussion on Sanitation and Development (20-21 April 2021), addressing the outlook for sanitation services delivery, financing, and its socioeconomic impacts. It was designed to be suitable for a mainstream, non-technical audience, through a TV show format, moderated by an experienced TV moderator. Six IFS (affiliated) researchers took participated either as presenters, panellists or co-moderator. In addition to having reached a large audience on the day and through tweets, a summary video of the event is being produced. 2. An ADBI-BMGF-IFS virtual seminar series (which features quantitative academic studies discussed by another academic in the field as well as one policy maker/practitioner). 3. A conference on sanitation and development is planned for October 2021. 4. Selected papers from the conference are currently considered for inclusion in a special issue of the Journal of Development Economics, a top field journal. PI Britta Augsburg will be one of the co-editors of this special issue. 5. A set of policy engagements will follow the publication of the special issue.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Molly Lipscomb, Associate Professor of Public Policy and Economics, Director of Social Innovation at University of Virginia 
Organisation University of Virginia (UVa)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Through the ADBI-IFS collaboration and the resulting Special Issue on Sanitation and Development, we invited Molly Lipscomb to join as a co-editor.
Collaborator Contribution Molly Lipscomb supported the process of organising the conference that was organised as part of the Special Issue and is co-editing. PI Britta Augsburg and her are collaborating on an editorial paper to be published as patr of the special issue.
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2021
 
Description Research collaboration - co-author 
Organisation University of Kent
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We started to engage with Zaki Wahhaj from Univeristy of Kent, and invited him to join study 2 funded from this grant (Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and sanitation micro-credit)
Collaborator Contribution Zaki made a ctricial contribution to the academic paper, writing the economic model that is included.
Impact Working paper "Gender Differences, Intra-Household Bargaining and Sanitation Investment", IFS Working Paper W21/45, https://ifs.org.uk/publications/15865. Currently under review in the Journal of Development Economics.
Start Year 2021
 
Description 2020 Nov, IFS Work in Progress Seminar, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Britta Augsburg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2020 Nov, IFS Work in Progress Seminar, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Britta Augsburg
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Study visit of Paul Lesmes postponed due to covid 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Study visit of Paul Lesmes postponed due to covid
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 2020 Dec, Delhi Winter School 2020, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Antonella Bancalari 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2020 Dec, Delhi Winter School 2020, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Antonella Bancalari
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 2021 April, RES, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", to be presented by Britta Augsburg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2021 April, RES, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", to be presented by Britta Augsburg
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 2021 March, CSAE, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", to be presented by Antonella Bancalari 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2021 March, CSAE, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", to be presented by Antonella Bancalari
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 2021 March, WEAI's Virtual International Conference, "Marital Premium on Sanitation Investments in Rural India", presented by Sanghmitra Gautam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IFS presentation by Sanghmitra Gautam
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description 2021 March, WEAI's Virtual International Conference, "Marital Premium on Sanitation Investments in Rural India", presented by Sanghmitra Gautam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2021 March, WEAI's Virtual International Conference, "Marital Premium on Sanitation Investments in Rural India", presented by Sanghmitra Gautam
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 6th Zurich Conference on Public Finance in Developing Countries 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on "Coordination and the Poor Maintenance Trap: an Experiment on Public Infrastructure in India", related to 1st project of grant (Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and community toilet use in slums).
Engagement with other academics, getting feedback on study (analysis, results), interactions on the broader picture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.econ.uzh.ch/en/eventsandseminars/workshopsandconferences/CED-conference-Programm-2021.ht...
 
Description ADBI-BMGF-IFS virtual seminar series (which features quantitative academic studies discussed by another academic in the field as well as one policy maker/practitioner) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar series organised on Sanitation on Development, the purpose of which was to disseminate economic reserach on sanitation. Each seminar reached an audience of about 50-100.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.adb.org/news/events/sanitation-development-public-intervention-sanitation-peru-india
 
Description Conference on sanitation and development (IFS-ADBI-BMGF) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), the Batten Center for Social Innovation at the University of Virginia and the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) brought together leading researchers to present their cutting edge empirical research on sanitation and development over the course of this two-day conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ifs.org.uk/events/1944
 
Description Discussion of potential collaboration with Maitressh Ghatak, Professor or Economics, LSE on group dynamics work. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IFS potential collaboration with Maitressh Ghatak- Londo School of Economics and Political Science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Discussion of potential collaboration with Maitressh Ghatak, Professor or Economics, LSE on group dynamics work. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Discussion of potential collaboration with Maitressh Ghatak, Professor or Economics, LSE on group dynamics work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Discussions with water.org on potential join study related to financing on sanitation. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Discussions with water.org on potential join study related to financing on sanitation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Discussions with water.org on potential join study related to financing on sanitation. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact IFS discussions on collaboration- funding of the sanitation sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Juan Pablo Baquero Vargas, visit in London, 21.-29.8.2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Juan Pablo Baquero Vargas, visit in London, 21.-29.8.2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation at -- ADBI-BMGF-IFS virtual seminar series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 30 May 2021: Presentation by Britta Augsburg and Antonella Bancalari on "Sanitation and Development: Unintended Consequences of Public Intervention in Sanitation in Peru and India", discussed by Meera Mehta (Professor Emeritus, CEPT University; Executive Director, Center for Water and Sanitation), and Neeta Pokhrel (Chief of Water Sector Group), with opening remarks by Tetsushi Sonobe, Dean and CEO, ADBI, and moderated by Peter Morgan, Senior Consulting Economist and Vice Chair for Research, ADBI.

The presented work linked to study 1 of the grant (Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and community toilet use in slums).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.adb.org/news/events/sanitation-development-public-intervention-sanitation-peru-india
 
Description Presentation at 16th Annual Conference on Economic Growth and Development (ISI India) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2 presentations were given of work related to this grant, namely:
- Session 6(b) Gender V (Chair: Bipasha Maity): Britta Augsburg (Institute for Fiscal Studies), Bansi Malde (University of Kent and Institute for Fiscal Studies), Harriet Olorenshaw (Institute for Fiscal Studies) & Zaki Wahhaj (University of Kent): "To Invest or Not to Invest in Sanitation: The Role of Intra-Household Gender Differences in Perceptions and Bargaining Power ", related to second study of the grant: "Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and sanitation micro-credit"
- Session 5(f) Public Economics IV: Policy Implementation (Chair: Amrit Amirapu): Alex Armand (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CEPR, NOVAFRICA, and Institute for Fiscal Studies), Britta Augsburg (Institute for Fiscal Studies) & Antonella Bancalari (University of St. Andrews and Institute for Fiscal Studies) : "Coordination and the Poor Maintenance Trap: An Experiment on Public Infrastructure in India", related to 1st project of grant (Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and community toilet use in slums).

The presentations allowed for dissemination among an international audience (mainly academics), witha focus on India (conference organised by the Indian Statistical Institute), engagement and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.isid.ac.in/~epu/acegd2021/
 
Description Presentation at ADBI-IFS-BMGF Conference on Sanitation and Development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of "Gender Differences, Intra-Household Bargaining and Sanitation Investment", linked to study 1 of the grant (Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and sanitation micro-credi)
Dissemination of findings, discussion on results and methodology, selection to submission for Special Issue on Sanitation and Development in top peer-reviewed academic field journal 'Journal of Development Economics')
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ifs.org.uk/events/1944
 
Description Presentation at ADBI-IFS-BMGF Conference on Sanitation and Development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of "Sanitation and Marriage Markets in India: Evidence from the Total Sanitation Campaign", linked to study 1 of the grant (Sanitation as a pre-marital investment strategy and its role in influencing spousal allocations)
Dissemination of findings, discussion on results and methodology, selection to submission for Special Issue on Sanitation and Development in top peer-reviewed academic field journal 'Journal of Development Economics')
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ifs.org.uk/events/1944
 
Description Presentation at CSAE annual conference, March 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of "To invest or not to invest in sanitation: the role of intra-household gender differences in perceptions and bargaining power", output for study 2 of the grant (Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and sanitation micro-credit).
Discussion with other academics on results, approach, dissemination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://web.cvent.com/event/dc76f5e6-f011-4daf-9261-aa8ae223e7dd/websitePage:73cbf190-207a-4f8b-928e...
 
Description Presentation at Universidad del Pacifico, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Antonella Bancalari 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Universidad del Pacifico, "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Antonella Bancalari
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation at the RES Annual Conference 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on "To invest or not to invest in sanitation: the role of intra-household gender differences in perceptions and bargaining power" in the session: G30: Development Economics: Gender. Links to study 2 of the grant "Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and sanitation micro-credit".
Debate on results, methodology, dissemination of findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://virtual.oxfordabstracts.com/#/event/2363/submission/379
 
Description Roundtable discussion on Sanitation and Development (20-21 April 2021), jointly organised between IFS, ADBI and BMGF 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A roundtable discussion on Sanitation and Development (20-21 April 2021), addressing the outlook for sanitation services delivery, financing, and its socioeconomic impacts. It was designed to be suitable for a mainstream, non-technical audience, through a TV show format, moderated by an experienced TV moderator. Six IFS (affiliated) researchers took participated either as presenters, panellists or co-moderator. In addition to having reached a large audience on the day and through tweets, a summary video of the event is being produced.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.adb.org/news/events/adbi-bmgf-sanitation-development-apr-2021
 
Description Seminar presentation at the LISER Seminar Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on "Coordination and the Poor Maintenance Trap: an Experiment on Public Infrastructure in India", which included discussion resulted to the 1st project of grant (Intra-household bargaining, sanitation preferences and community toilet use in slums).

Discussion on study results/analysis/policy implications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.liser.lu/?type=module&id=218&tmp=2965
 
Description Seminar presentation, University St Andrews, February 2020 "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Antonella Bancalari 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar presentation, University St Andrews, February 2020 "Improving Infrastructure in Developing Cities: Experimental Evidence from India", presented by Antonella Bancalari
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Started collaborating with Dr Zaki Wahhaj, Reader in Economics, University of Kent for a model on intra-households bargaining and sanitation investments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Started collaborating with Dr Zaki Wahhaj, Reader in Economics, University of Kent for a model on intra-households bargaining and sanitation investments
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Started collaborating with Dr Zaki Wahhaj, Reader in Economics, University of Kent for a model on intra-households bargaining and sanitation investments. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IFS Collaboration with Dr Zaki Wahhaj- University of Kent
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021