UK in a Changing Europe Fellowship

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Economics

Abstract

What types of trade agreements should the UK join post-Brexit? The world trading system, comprised of multilateral, mega-regional, and bilateral trade agreements offers multiple paths forward for the future of UK trade. Which path to take depends crucially upon answers to questions like: How do the complex features of overlapping international trade agreements impact the choices of globally-engaged firms? How do trade policy and commitments over domestic policy among trading partners affects firms' decisions to enter and exit foreign markets, set prices and export volumes, and adopt production technologies?

The UK's future trade agreements must be crafted in a global environment in which the future direction of the world trading system is uncertain. The largest multilateral agreement, the World Trade Organization, is struggling to cope with some of the most intractable problems in international economic policy, including state support of industry and the protection of intellectual property. Mega-regional agreements, like the European Single Market, face serious complaints about rules and practices that infringe on national sovereignty and lack popular democratic support. Bilateral and smaller regional agreements are proliferating, but their value in creating trade seems to vary considerably.

Under this Fellowship, I will conduct research to better understand how individual firm responses to government policy and international agreements aggregate to global trade flows and, hence, impact welfare. Firstly, I will conduct empirical research estimating a firm and product level gravity model of trade, with detailed information on bilateral tariff preferences and the content of trade agreements provisions. This project will provide valuable guidance to policymakers regarding the global input sourcing choices of UK firms and the influence that specific trade agreements provisions exert over these decisions.

To evaluate the impacts of trade agreements, policymakers use standard economic models that assume markets within a country are competitive - that is, firms have no power to markup their prices over cost. I propose to build a multi-country model of trade featuring oligopolistic competition among producers charging variable markups and the use of local distribution services. Final consumer prices will thus embody foreign production costs, a global and destination-specific markup charged by the foreign producer, and a local distribution margin. Applying this model to analysis of proposed bilateral, regional, or multilateral trade agreements will highlight heterogeneity in changes to international and domestic prices across firms and industrial sectors under different types of trade agreements.

Finally, I will examine firms' choices of currencies in which to invoice their international sales. International trade is founded on micro transactions in different currencies. The currency in which exporters set their prices determines the degree to which movements in exchange rates affect the relative prices of internationally traded goods with implications for how export and import volumes will respond to large exchange rate shocks. Two projects will examine how (1) competition in foreign markets influences a firm's choice of an invoicing currency and (2) the relationship between the number of different currencies a firm uses for its foreign sales and the financing available to a firm.

This research will fill important gaps in policymakers' knowledge about UK trade which can be used to better predict the likely outcomes of different proposed trading arrangements. Regardless of the form Brexit takes, the need for concrete facts and more accurate models to evaluate policy is indisputable.

Planned Impact

As a Senior Fellow, insights from my research will be used to inform evidence-based policy decisions around future trading arrangements for the UK post-Brexit. The new methodologies that I develop will enable more accurate policy evaluation and economic analysis of trade agreements.

The research proposal has been designed with policy relevance in mind. My four research outputs will target the following policy objectives: (1) identifying what form(s) of trade agreements will be most beneficial to UK trade post-Brexit, (2) developing a multi-country model of trade, featuring realistic firm-level behaviour, that can be used for evaluating the impact of different types of proposed trade agreements on the UK, and (3) estimating important parameters of economic models that capture pricing behaviour of UK firms that trade goods internationally.

The primary beneficiaries of my research are therefore policy officials and civil servants from the Department for International Trade (DIT), the Department for Exiting the European Union (DexEU), HM Treasury, and the Bank of England who are responsible for designing and negotiation trade agreements, forecasting growth and tax revenue, and conducting monetary policy. The ultimate beneficiaries will be the British public who will benefit from a more evidence-based public policy.

To disseminate the implications of this research to key beneficiaries, I will (1) hold a minimum of four in-house seminars at DIT or DexEU and two 'retreat style' policy workshops for a similar audience in Cambridge, (2) write four research articles designed to answer prominent policy questions, (3) share at least four accessible, non-technical policy articles on platforms that reach policymakers and the popular press, and (4) present my research at seven high-profile academic conferences over the Fellowship's three years.

I have based this programme of impact activities on the effectiveness of similar work on my Brexit priority grant. Feedback from two successful half-day workshops at DIT in 2017 clearly articulate the need for this type and format of knowledge exchange. My accessible policy briefs have bridged the gap to reach the popular press - two articles at VoxEU.org on the trade impact of Brexit have been read more than 30,000 times, and have led to research citations in The Economist, The Financial Times, Bloomberg News, The Telegraph and many BBC radio programs.

Responsiveness to the requirements of my stakeholders and flexibility to the changing environment will characterise my proposed dissemination program. For this reason, I have budgeted for the time, resources and skills of the Cambridge Faculty of Economics Knowledge Transfer Facilitator (KTF). The KTF will be responsible for project managing the policy workshops, enabling a continuous feedback and improvement loop. In tandem, the KTF will monitor the policy landscape to increase the instances where my research findings can be shared with relevant non-academic audiences.

Initially, the proposed impact activities will aid policymakers by providing answers to relevant policy questions post-Brexit. The new methodologies that I develop could be adopted to enable more accurate policy evaluation and economic analysis of trade agreements. Deepened engagement with UK policymakers and an expanded network will mean that I can continue to contribute to evidence-based policy formation in the future, beyond the tenure of this fellowship.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The work associated with this Fellowship is on-going. A number of papers are currently in development, and it is thus premature to report key findings.

A recent paper "The Pro-Competitive Effects of Trade Agreements," with Lu Han and Thomas Prayer, CEPR Discussion Paper 17463 (July 2022) examines the way that preferential trade agreements affect the way in which firms compete. The paper develops a new model of multi-country trade featuring variable markups in which the intensity of competition differs among firms from the same origin versus different origins. Initial findings suggest that tariff cuts have a pro-competitive effect on the markups of foreign exporters and that this effect is larger for more highly differentiated products. The findings from this paper have been presented at: an NBER conference on Trade and Trade Policy in the 21st Century (Boston); the Royal Economic Society Annual Meeting (UK); ECARES (Brussels); the UK in a Changing Europe Conference (UK) in April 2022; Christian-Albrechts-University (Kiel, Germany); Sardinian Empirical Trade Conference (Cagliari, Italy); European Trade Study Group (Gronigen, Netherlands); University of Sheffield (Sheffield, UK); University of Sussex; University of Nottingham; and at a workshop on International Trade and Multilateralism, University of Geneva (Villars, Switzerland).

One paper, "The looming threat of tariff hikes: entry into exporting under trade agreement renegotiation," joint work with Oliver Exton and Lu Han, was published in the American Economics Association Papers and Proceedings (May 2020). This paper examines how the looming threat of tariff hikes under a trade agreement renegotiation impacts firm entry into a trading partner's market by exploiting uncertainty over the future UK-EU trade relationship brought about by the June 2016 Brexit referendum. Using the universe of UK export transactions at the firm and product level, we find that uncertainty over future market access to the EU deterred entry modestly in the months immediately after the Brexit vote, but the deterrent effect increased over time.

Another paper, "Dominant Currency Dynamics: Evidence on dollar-invoicing from UK exporters," jointly with Lu Han and Minkyu Son, Cambridge-INET Working Paper No. 2051. CEPR Discussion Paper 15493 (Revised January 2021), was presented at the Banque de France - Aix-Marseille School of Economics (AMSE) Workshop in International Macroeconomics by Meredith Crowley, and at Bank of Canada (virtual), 2022; ASSA 2022 Virtual Annual Meeting (poster session, virtual), 2022 by Lu Han. It was previously presented a major conference in March 2021 by Meredith Crowley, and by Lu Han at: Workshop on Firm Dynamics, Market Structures and Productivity, Kent, 2021; and NBER International Finance and Macroeconomics Spring Meeting (virtual), 2021. Using export transactions data from the UK over 2010-2016, this paper documents strong evidence of two mechanisms that promote the use of a dominant currency: (1) prior experience: the probability that a firm invoices its exports to a new market in a dominant currency is increasing in the number of years the firm has used the dominant currency in its existing markets; (2) strategic complementarity: a firm is more likely to invoice its exports in the currency chosen by the majority of its competitors in a foreign destination market in order to stabilize its residual demand in that market.
Exploitation Route The findings suggest that providing certainty to business about future tariff rates can prevent a decline in economic activity. It directly speaks to the importance of government commitments to maintain stable trade policies whenever feasible.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

 
Description Political uncertainty and staff turnover have delayed the schedule of planned seminars and workshops with policy officials and civil servants. A policy workshop for the newly created Department of Business and Trade is at the planning stages. This will be similar to the workshop delivered to members of the Department of International Trade (DIT) in December 2021. December 2021 marked the first in-person workshop funded by this award for members of the Department of International Trade (DIT). The two-day workshop focused on frontier research developments in international trade and spatial economics. The first day of the event invited members of DIT to Cambridge for a programme of talks looking at new models and methodologies for studying complex economic phenomena. This included a presentation of the findings from the paper "Dominant Currency Dynamics: Evidence on dollar-invoicing from UK exporters," jointly with Lu Han and Minkyu Son. The second day saw over 50 attendees from DIT join discussions of the policy implications of important economic research findings. Sharing of research findings through online talks and seminars have continued, despite uncertainties, with members of the Department for International Trade (DIT), the Trade Remedies Investigative Directorate (TRID), and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Examples include: • March 2021: Participated in a confidential panel/seminar at TRID on applying an Economic Interest Test in Antidumping Investigations. • July 2020: Presented to a retreat for Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO) economists and law specialists in July 2020 on "Trade Agreements with Third Countries". • June 2020: Presented to approximately 100 Government Economic Service economists at an online session on "The Covid Trade Collapse". In 2020, I gave evidence to two UK Parliamentary Select Committees: firstly, on 8 June 2020, I testified before the House of Lords EU Committee's Goods Subcommittee on UK-EU negotiations; secondly, on 17 June, I testified before the House of Commons International Trade Committee on the UK-US FTA. I currently (Spring 2023) serve on the Trade and Economy Panel for DIT and have previously served on the National Food Strategy Panel for UK DEFRA (2019-2021). The findings of completed research and preliminary findings of on-going research are being shared via these panels and directly with civil servants to help guide policy choices.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Contributed to "Rebuilding a Resilient Britain: Trade and Aid," Report from Areas of Research Interest Working Group 9 for the UK Government Office for Science, January 2021.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a guidance/advisory committee
URL https://www.upen.ac.uk/go_science/Rebuilding%20a%20Resilient%20Britain_9.%20Trade%20and%20Aid%20(1)....
 
Description Gave testimony to the House of Commons International Trade Committee on UK-US Trade Deal Negotiations, via Zoom, on the 17th June 2020.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Contribution to a national consultation/review
URL https://parliamentlive.tv/event/index/0c114fcf-3ef8-473c-9c17-649af78d067b
 
Description Gave testimony to the House of Lords EU Committee's Goods Subcommittee on UK-EU negotiations, 8 June 2020
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Contribution to a national consultation/review
URL https://committees.parliament.uk/oralevidence/471/html/
 
Description Member of the Advisory Panel for a National Food Strategy at the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs's (DEFRA)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a guidance/advisory committee
URL https://www.nationalfoodstrategy.org/national-food-strategy-advisory-panel-announced/
 
Description Member of the Freeports Advisory Panel at the Department for International Trade
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a guidance/advisory committee
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/news/trade-secretary-announces-freeports-advisory-panel-will-ensure-uk...
 
Description Member of the Trade and Economy Advisory Panel at the Department for International Trade
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a guidance/advisory committee
URL https://www.inet.econ.cam.ac.uk/news-item?item=mc-dit-tep
 
Title Data and code for: Invoicing and the Dynamics of Pricing-to-Market: Evidence from UK Export Prices around the Brexit Referendum 
Description This folder contains the programs and publicly available datasets that are needed to reproduce the results of "Invoicing and the Dynamics of Pricing-to-Market: Evidence from UK Export Prices around the Brexit Referendum," by Giancarlo Corsetti, Meredith Crowley, and Lu Han, in the Journal of International Economics (2022). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact In progress. 
URL https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/bnphpr3bff/1
 
Title Data and code for: The looming threat of tariff hikes: entry into exporting under trade agreement renegotiation 
Description We examine how the looming threat of tariff hikes under a trade agreement renegotiation impacts firm entry into a trading partner's market by exploiting uncertainty over the future UK-EU trade relationship brought about by the June 2016 Brexit referendum. Using the universe of UK export transactions at the firm and product level, we find that uncertainty over future market access to the EU deterred entry modestly in the months immediately after the Brexit vote, but the deterrent effect increased over time.
 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://www.openicpsr.org/openicpsr/project/117922/version/V1/view
 
Description "Brexit: A Stocktake," written by Anand Menon, Catherine Barnard, Meredith Crowley, Sarah Hall, Jill Rutter, and Jonathan Portes. The UK in a Changing Europe, June 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley is one of the authors of a new report called "The Brexit Negotiations: A Stocktake", published by academic think tank UK in a Changing Europe. This report finds that it is hard to see how the sort of comprehensive deal the UK and EU say they want can be agreed without an extension.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ukandeu.ac.uk/research-papers/the-brexit-negotiations-a-stocktake/
 
Description "The level playing field: regulation of trade in goods and services," in UK Regulation after Brexit, Hussein Kassim, ed. The UK in a Changing Europe, March 2021. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Meredith Crowley contributed "The level playing field: regulation of trade in goods and services," to a UK in a Changing Europe report, 'UK Regulation after Brexit'. The report takes a first step to mapping the new regulatory settlement in the wake of the UK's withdrawal from the EU. A joint initiative by 'Negotiating the Future' - a project undertaken as part of ESRC's 'UK in a Changing Europe' programme - together with the Centre for Competition Policy, and Brexit & Environment, it brings together leading specialists in policy and regulation to examine the impact on UK regulation of decisions taken by the UK government and the Trade and Cooperation Agreement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://ukandeu.ac.uk/partner-reports/uk-regulation-after-brexit/
 
Description "Trade" in Brexit: What Next?, Anand Menon and Jill Rutter, eds. The UK in a Changing Europe, 4 February 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Meredith Crowley wrote the 'Trade' section of the UK in a Changing Europe report 'Brexit: what next?', outlining the important role that Trade plays to UK GDP and the three issues that negotiations will need to address: trade in goods, trade in services, and domestic regulation and government support for domestic industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ukandeu.ac.uk/brexit-what-next-trade/
 
Description "Trade" in Brexit: What Next?, Anand Menon and Jill Rutter, eds. The UK in a Changing Europe, 4 Feburary 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Article highlighting the upcoming challenges related to trade as the UK left the EU.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ukandeu.ac.uk/government-faces-a-number-of-tough-choices-in-next-stage-of-brexit-new-academi...
 
Description "What would no deal mean?" written by Anand Menon, David Bailey, Tim Bale, Catherine Barnard, Matthew Bevington, Meredith Crowley, Sarah Hall, Katy Hayward, Martin Heneghan, Carmen Hubbard, Lisa James, Hussein Kassim, Ben Kienzle, Nicola McEwen, Jonathan Portes, Ivan Rajic, Meg Russell, Jill Rutter, Thomas Sampson, Maddy Thimont-Jack, Alan Wager and Dan Wincott. The UK in a Changing Europe, 23 September 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The report aims to spell out the potential impacts of leaving the EU without a deal and what this would mean in practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ukandeu.ac.uk/research-papers/what-would-no-deal-mean/
 
Description "Will level playing field' issues derail the UK-EU negotiations?" with Lu Han. The UK in a Changing Europe, 26 May 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact UK in a Changing Europe have published a blog by Dr. Meredith Crowley and Dr. Lu Han on "Will 'level playing field' Issues Derail the UK-EU Negotiations?" The blog poses that key question now is whether the two sides will be able to bridge the gap in a way that facilitates continued negotiation and, ultimately, a free trade deal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ukandeu.ac.uk/will-level-playing-field-issues-derail-the-uk-eu-negotiations/
 
Description BBC News Channel (TV). "Trump proposes a US-UK Trade Deal," with Christian Fraser, 4 June 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley interviewed for BBC News Channel (TV) about Trump's proposition for a US-UK Trade Deal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BBC News TV Beyond 100 Days. "Future UK-EU Trade," with Katty Kay and James Reynolds, 19 December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed on the BBC about the future of UK-EU trade post-Brexit (with Katty Kay and James Reynolds).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BBC News TV. "US Tariffs on UK Steel and a future UK-US Trade Agreement," with Victoria Fritz, 1 June 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Meredith Crowley discusses US tariffs on UK steel replaced by quotas on the BBC TV News World Business Outlook. She says it is a "welcome sign that the relationship is warming" but not a first step towards a UK-US trade agreement. Prof Crowley's interview starts at 4min15.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m001801l
 
Description BBC Newsnight. "Brexit: How's it going?" with Victoria Derbyshire and Ben Chu, 30 January 2023 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley participated in a panel filmed in front of a live audience for BBC Newsnight which examines the impact of Brexit three years after the UK officially left the EU.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2023
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/m001hsvs/newsnight-brexit-hows-it-going
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Today. "UK and US battle over digital services tax," with Dominic O'Connell, 23 January 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed on BBC Radio 4's Today Programme, discussing the US-UK spat over a proposed digital services tax on (starts at 1h 25m).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m000dg9j
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Today. "UK revises no deal tariffs," with Dominic O'Conell, 8 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was on BBC Radio 4's Today Programme discussing the government's new plan for tariffs under a no deal Brexit (starts at 1h 46m).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m0009359
 
Description BBC Radio 5 Live Wake up to Money. "UK-EU Trade Deal," with Sean Farrington and Louise Cooper, 2 Dec. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed on BBC Radio 5 Live's 'Wake up to Money' about potential UK-EU Trade Deal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BBC Radio Scotland Good Morning Scotland. "Is the UK headed for a trade war with the US?" with Isabel Fraser and Gordon Brewer, 25 January 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed by BBC Radio Scotland about the UK's proposed digital sales tax and whether it will lead to a trade war with the US (starts at 1h 06m).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m000dq49
 
Description BBC World Service In The Balance. "Brexit, Trump and Trade," with Ed Butler, 21 December 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed on BBC World Service 'In the balance', discussing Brexit, Trade and Trump and their forecasts for the year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3csy9vx
 
Description BBC WorldService Marketplace Morning Report. "Make NATO Great Again," with Victoria Craig, 2 Dec. 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed on Marketplace Morning Report about whether NATO is still relevant and why 'getting Brexit done' is complicated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.marketplace.org/shows/marketplace-morning-report/nato-summit-london-70-defense/
 
Description BBC WorldService World interview - "Brexit Day," with Dan Damon, 31 January 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Gave radio interview to BBC World Service's World Update programme about the prospect for the UK and EU negotiating a trade deal modelled on the EU's deal with Canada (story starts at 6mins).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/w172wyb155z8wy9
 
Description BBC.co.uk article quote. "Farmers betrayed by no-deal Brexit tariff plan," 8 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in an article on bbc.co.uk/news about the cost of changes to lorry import taxes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-49970197
 
Description BBC1 Countryfile. "What trade deals could mean for farmers and food prices," with Charlotte Smith, 31 January 2021. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed for BBC1's Countryfile, where she talked about how future trade deals could affect the UK, especially UK farming and food prices.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/m000ryp6/countryfile-ellies-home-turf
 
Description Bloomberg.com. "Economists Call for Alternative Path to US-China Trade Wars," by S. Donnan, 27 Oct. 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley is a member of the US-China Trade Policy Working Group. Bloomberg reported that this trans-national working group have just released a proposal "US-China Trade Relations: A Way Forward", which proposes a new way to negotiate an end to the US-China Trade War. The statement was co-signed by a number of prominent economists and legal scholars, including 5 Nobel Laureates in Economics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-10-27/economists-call-for-alternative-path-to-u-s-china...
 
Description FullFact.org. "£1.5bn GDP boost from UK-Japan trade deal is not on top of existing EU-Japan deal benefits," by Abbas Panjwani. 15 September 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Meredith Crowley was quoted in an article about the value of a new UK-Japan trade deal to the UK economy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://fullfact.org/economy/uk-japan-trade-benefits/
 
Description La Croix (Paris). "Les consommateurs britanniques ont le plus à perdre," by Antoine D'Abbundo, 15 December 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was interviewed about Brexit and it's effect on the UK economy, by the daily French newspaper La Croix. Dr Crowley answered questions on the proposed post-Brexit trade deals that Prime Minister Boris Johnson is negotiating with countries such as Japan, China and the US.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/events-files/news/docs/La-Croix-Meredith-Crowley.pdf
 
Description Le Soir (Belgium). "Brexit: un <> depend-il du scrutiny americain?" by Chloe Goudenhooft, 28 October 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted the Le Soir newspaper article, "Brexit: does a "no deal" depend on the American election?", which looks at how a Joe Biden victory in the US Election could impact Brexit. The article is in Belgian.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/people-files/faculty/mc865/docs/28-10-2020-Le-Soir-Brexit.pdf
 
Description NBCnews.com. "Trump's trade war could spark a recession, Goldman Sachs warns," by M. White, 12 Aug 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Meredith Crowley was quotes in an NBCnews.com article, "Trump's trade war could spark a recession, Goldman Sachs warns,"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nbcnews.com/business/economy/trump-s-trade-war-could-spark-recession-warns-goldman-sachs...
 
Description NPR Marketplace Morning Report. "How high is U.S.-U.K. trade on President-elect Biden's agenda?" with Victoria Craig, 9 November 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley gave a pre-recorded interview to Victoria Craig for the Marketplace Morning Report podcast. In the interview, Dr. Crowley talks about what a Joe Biden administration means for future UK-US trade relations and for Brexit. The Marketplace Morning Report is a BBC programme that broadcasts in the US on National Public Radio.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.npr.org/podcasts/381444599/marketplace-morning-report?t=1614186440513
 
Description New Statesman. "The freeport con," by Sebastian Shehadi, 10 November 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in the New Statesman article "The Freeport Con", which looks at the setting up of freeports as a post-Brexit trade policy. The UK government is championing these free economic zones, but experts are not convinced they will work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.newstatesman.com/spotlight/investment/2020/11/freeport-con
 
Description New Statesman. "Will the UK's free ports project survive Covid-19?" by Marina Leiva. 12 May 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in the New Statesman article "Will the UK's free ports project survive Covid-19?" which looks at the delays and possible cancellation of UK free ports project after the COVID-19 crisis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/economy/2020/05/free-ports-uk-consultation-brexit-coronavirus-...
 
Description New York Times. "Getting Brexit Deal Over Finish Line Would Only Begin a Torturous New Race," by Benjamin Mueller, 23 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in The New York Times article "Getting Brexit Deal Over Finish Line Would Only Begin a Torturous New Race", which predicts that should Parliament pass the current Brexit deal, then this would only be the start of tough trade deal negotiations with the EU, that would more than likely end in a no deal outcome.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/23/world/brexit-boris-johnson.html
 
Description New York Times. "Global Trade Is Deteriorating Fast, Sapping the World's Economy," by Peter S. Goodman, 1 Oct 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in The New York Times article "Global Trade is Deteriorating Fast and Sapping the World's Economy", regarding the negative impact that Brexit is having on the growth of global trade.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/01/business/wto-global-trade.html
 
Description New York Times."Boris Johnson leaves a mixed legacy with his Brexit gambit," P. Coy, 8 July 2022. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact New York Times article about Boris Johnson's prime ministerial legacy quoted Prof. Meredith Crowley's chapter in the e-book, "The Economics of Brexit: What Have We Learned?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2022/07/08/opinion/boris-johnson-brexit-legacy.html
 
Description Research citation in The Economist. "The zombie economy," 31 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley's research "Renegotiation of Trade Agreements and Firm Exporting Decisions: Evidence from the Impact of Brexit on UK Exports", joint with Oliver Exton and Lu Han, was cited in the article "The Zombie Economy" in The Economist.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/11/02/britains-economy-is-holding-up-well-for-now
 
Description Research citation in the Financial Times. "How Uncertainty Hits Business Investment," by Tim Harford, 25 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley's research "Renegotiation of Trade Agreements and Firm Exporting Decisions: Evidence from the Impact of Brexit on UK Exports", joint with Oliver Exton and Lu Han, was cited in the article "How Uncertainty Hits Business Investment" in The Financial Times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://on.ft.com/2JkTr8z
 
Description The Economist. "What free ports can and can't achieve," 8 August 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in The Economist article "What free ports can and can't achieve", regarding the government's new policy to create free ports or free trade zones. It is proposed there will be ten of the new tariff-free zones around the UK, post-Brexit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/08/08/what-free-ports-can-and-cant-achieve
 
Description The Guardian. "UK tweaks tariffs amid no-deal Brexit countdown," by Kate Proctor & Lisa O'Connell, 8 Oct 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in the Guardian newspaper article "UK tweaks tariffs amid no-deal Brexit countdown", which looks at the recent changes made to the temporary tariff schedule by Department for International Trade, in preparation for the UK leaving the EU.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/oct/08/uk-tweaks-tariffs-amid-no-deal-brexit-countdown
 
Description The Japan Times. "As U.K. eyes post-Brexit trade deal with Japan, its hand may not be as strong as it thinks," by Chris Russell, 16 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in the Japan Times article "As UK eyes post-Brexit trade deal with Japan, its hand may not be as strong as it thinks", discussing the prospects for a Japan-UK Free Trade Agreement post-Brexit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/10/16/business/u-k-eyes-post-brexit-trade-deal-japan-hand-may...
 
Description The New York Times. "Brexit's Advance Opens a New Trade Era," by Peter S. Goodman, 13 Dec. 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley was quoted in the New York Times article "Brexit's Advance Opens a New Trade Era" about the implications of the General Election result and the now inevitable Brexit for the system of global trade.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/13/business/economy/uk-election-brexit-trade.html
 
Description The New York Times. "Globalization is moving past the US and its vision of world order," by Peter S. Goodman, 19 June 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley quoted in the New York Times article "Globalization is moving past the US and its vision of world order," by Peter S. Goodman
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/19/business/globalization-us-world-order.html
 
Description VoxTalks from the CEPR (London). "Pro-competitive trade agreements," with Tim Philipps, 11 November 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Meredith Crowley interviewed by Tim Phillips for VoxTalks Economics podcast. She suggest that new data casts doubt on the conclusions that trade economists have drawn in the past.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://cepr.org/multimedia/how-does-trade-policy-affect-competition
 
Description VoxTalks from the CEPR (London). "The threat to global prosperity," with Tim Philipps, 20 June 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr. Meredith Crowley interviewed by Tim Phillips tp explain why prospects for the world economy are 'grim'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://voxeu.org/vox-talks/threat-global-prosperity