Post-Brexit trade and investment: explaining the issues, formulating trade agreements and understanding the effect on UK foreign direct investment

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sussex
Department Name: University of Sussex Business School

Abstract

This proposal describes three exercises designed to advance the public understanding of and policy-making engagement with the Brexit process.

Video Explainers:
Since early 2017, the UKTPO has produced four three-minute animated videos that help to explain the issues and the effects of Brexit. These have enabled complex issues to be presented in an engaging and comprehensible manner. They have reached wide audiences and, through this, may have helped to inform public opinion and affect political decisions. They take great care to use layman's terms and avoid complex terminology and jargon. We propose to issue four new videos over the next eight months.

Brexit defies prediction, but all animations will be on highly pertinent issues in current debates that are not fully understood by many policymakers, MPs, journalists and the public. Our initial list is:
- Tracing Brexit effects to constituency level.
- Rolling over existing trade agreements.
- Trade remedies.
- EU trade negotiating structures.

Each video will be published on the University of Sussex's Vimeo and You Tube channels, the UK Trade Policy Observatory website and UK in a Changing Europe's website. Each will be accompanied by a press release to the UKTPO's media contacts and notification to the UKTPO's list of 1000+contacts. Each will also be posted on the University of Sussex social media accounts (Twitter and Facebook) and the UKTPO's Twitter account. It is hoped that UKiCE would also share the videos across their social media platforms.

Brexit and Foreign Direct Investment:
UKTPO research has already shown that, after the referendum, aggregate FDI declined relative to expectations (Briefing Paper No. 23). In addition, certain car manufacturers made clear that Brexit is at least a contextual factor behind their decisions to run down UK operations. We aim to extend this work, first by disentangling decisions deriving from the general uncertainty of the Brexit process from those reflecting the erosion of the UK's attraction as an export-platform. A partial approach to this will be to relate the extent of the exit to the potential change in trading conditions post-Brexit. For example, in goods it may relate to the tariffs that would follow a 'no-deal' Brexit; in services, the loss of the Single Market will similarly impede UK access to EU markets to degrees that vary across sectors.

In addition, we will compare firms' investment in the UK with that elsewhere (EU and non-EU) and also explore differences between greenfield FDI and M&A FDI.

Rules of Thumb for prioritising FTAs:
DIT has informally expressed interest in having such guidance. Obviously political dimensions are important but simple rules of thumb (or a checklist) of economic factors, which could be used by non-specialists, would be a useful supplement. Some UKTPO Fellows created one such set of rules in 2004. Experience since the Brexit referendum has suggested that the current rules need to be updated to reflect recent developments in theory, data and patterns of world trade. The aim is to create an operational bridge between simple clear concepts and identifiable data.

As well as obvious issues such as proximity, size, existing levels of trade and protection and the similarity of income levels, social norms and regulatory regimes - all of which require quite subtle handling to relate rules of thumb to economic welfare - we will specifically add services, FDI and value-chains to the mix.

The output would be a short analytical manual accompanied by guidance on available data. To the maximum extent possible the measures recommended will be operationalised in the TradeSift software, which has been developed by some UKTPO Fellows. The intended users are government officials with time and budget pressures, think tank analysts and academics teaching non-modelling courses.

Planned Impact

This proposal offers a programme of original research and synthesis alongside communications and engagement that will analyse trade policy and provide guidance on future options for the UK's post-Brexit trade policy.

The UKTPO strives to input directly into policy-making and engage with key policy-makers as well as with those who scrutinise government and can influence policy through parliament and the specialist media. Through a comprehensive outreach programme consisting of written reports, papers and blogs, media articles, some 25+ events and hundreds private meetings with high-profile policymakers, the UKTPO has become an influential player in the debates around Brexit and post-Brexit trade policies, not only in the UK but also abroad.

The beneficiaries comprise four distinct groups:

1. Policymakers [ministers, policy officials and civil servants]
2. Influencers and scrutinisers [MPs, notably through Select Committees, think tanks, journalists,]
3. Affected parties and individuals [business, civil society, trade unions and associations, general public]
4. Academics [Economics, Business, Law, International Relations]

UKTPO outputs will enable target audiences to help shape trade policy, based on detailed and rigorous analysis, to ensure it is in their best interests and robust in the long term.

Demand for UKTPO analysis has been manifest in many ways since July 2016 (see Pathway to Impact for full details). The Observatory has a dedicated Business Manager responsible for all communications and engagement. The Business Manager will leverage existing networks and build new ones to ensure key stakeholders, as well as the widest audience possible, are informed of the learning and findings from this project. Engagement, further outlined in Pathway to Impact, will continue throughout the project and beyond.
 
Description Research on platform foreign direct investment (investment in the UK oriented primarily to supplying the EU) finds that the uncertainty surrounding the UK's future trading relationship with the EU had a negative effect on platform investment flowing into the UK. The greater the uncertainty - as captured by the higher the EU tariff that might be imposed on goods transferring from UK to EU - the more FDI appears to have contracted relative to a no-referendum counter-factual. The aggregate effect was a decline of 13.5%. There is also some evidence that some firms relocated to Europe.
Exploitation Route the model of FDI is original and will support related research and modelling.
Sectors Chemicals,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description The UKTPO was building up its reputation for insightful, accessible and relevant policy analysis prior to this grant and the grant has enhanced and reinforced this. The research has helped to widen understanding of UK trade policy post-Brexit, informing debates and policy discussions through the provision rigorous and accessible analysis that positions key issues into the public realm and policy circles. The animated videos, blogs and podcast episodes have contributed to informing public understanding of trade policy challenges in the post-Brexit era. All outputs have each had over 200 individual views/listens, with the Freeport video receiving over 5,000. In particular, the videos have been shared on social media by a range of policy actors and re-published by a range of third parties including Which? "to explain the intricacies around trade" and/or encourage policy action. For example, Tom Brake MP tweeted the video 'Brexit: Where does it hurt?' saying he wrote to all Labour MPs who urged Corbyn to stick with Brexit and reminded them that UKTPO data shows a no-deal Brexit would increase unemployment by 1.8% in the least affected of constituencies (Jul 2019). The outputs have also led to media coverage of the issues. Dr Lydgate's research has also brought new insight into the ways in which the UK government is attempting to navigate between competing pressures to 'globalise' and 'nationalise' with respect to particular environmental problems. The research has been picked up by news outlets, including Politico, among others. The webinar launching the Briefing Paper was well attended [115 attendees in total with over 50 attendees from across government ]. The research also fed into trade profession training for BEIS staff on trade and climate. Other papers have fed into parliamentary discussions, notably, on UK-Japan (House of Commons, 25 November 2020, UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement/ and House of Lords, 26 November 2020, Comprehensive Economic Partnership) and the cost of the UK-EU Agreement (House of Lords, 30 December 2020, European Union Future Relationship Bill) and have supported submissions of evidence to parliamentary inquiries on UK-Japan trade negotiations, and the environment and climate in international trade, supporting parliamentary scrutiny of UK trade policy. The analysis of investment has also contributed to that aspect of UKTPO's work for the UK Embassy in Seoul on the UK-Korea Trade Agreement and also to a number of appearances by Dr Minako Morita-Jaeger at webinars on the UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement - e.g. Japanese Free Trade Summit (20.01.21) and Asia Scotland Institute (26.01.21). The UKTPO issued a series of blogs on 'No deal' and circulated a Briefing Paper on the actual outcome of negotiations on 24th December 2020, which underpinned certain media contributions by Winters. These did not influence the outcome of negotiations at all but started to put the Trade and Cooperation Agreement in context for what is beginning to become an active debate on how Brexit is going.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description ESRC Festival of Social Sciences
Amount £730 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 11/2019
 
Description Extension: Post-Brexit trade and investment: explaining the issues, formulating trade agreements and understanding the effect on UK foreign direct investment
Amount £69,353 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/T002050/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description A net-zero emissions trade policy? Reflections on reconciling UK trade and climate ambitions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This online event - which launched the UKTPO Briefing Paper 47: Can the UK Government be 'world-leading' in both trade and climate policy? - was aimed at a mixed audience of civil service, businesses, practitioners and academics. The event aimed to raise awareness about the need for an interlinked approach to trade and climate policy and prompt discussion on achieving policy coherence. The event was well attended and the Q&A sparked a lively discussion about the UK policies required to achieve net-zero and how they can be integrated into UK trade strategy.

Speaker: Dr Emily Lydgate, Senior Lecturer in Law; Fellow, UKTPO, University of Sussex

Discussant: Professor Andy Jordan, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia

Chair: Professor Jim Rollo, Fellow, UKTPO, University of Sussex
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJAULQuHcrg
 
Description Animated video on free ports: Free ports fact-checked 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The video consolidated research, also presented in a Briefing Paper 28 - What is the extra mileage in the reintroduction of 'free zones' in the UK? (Feb 2019)
Our animated videos help to explain the effects of trade policy. Free ports fact-checked explains how free ports work and why they are not the panacea for UK trade post-Brexit. Free ports will not significantly boost trade, create jobs or cut through red tape because they only delay tariff payments rather than abolish them.

5,269 views on YouTube from launch on 04.12.19-03.02.2021

Post publication of the video UKTPO research on free ports mentioned / media interviews in:

How would free ports work in the UK? The Times, 10 February 2020
BBC Politics South East - Free Ports Boost or Bust? BBC One South East, 17 February 2020 (starts approx. 21:05)
EU clamps down on free ports over crime and terrorism links, The Guardian, 10 February 2020
What is a free port?, Port Technology, 30 January 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Animated video: Brexit: Where does it hurt? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 1,431 views via YouTube May 2019- February 2020.
Shared via Twitter and RT'ed by Tom Brake MP.
Tom Brake MP tweeted that he wrote to all Labour MPs who urged Corbyn to stick with Brexit and reminded them that UKTPO data shows a no-deal Brexit would increase unemployment by 1.8% in the least affected of constituencies (Jul 2019).
The animated video portrays the potential shock that a 'no deal' Brexit may have on jobs across the 632 parliamentary constituencies in Britain. Allowing for commuting, we find that the economic cost of Brexit is widely spread and it is clear that the Brexit shock would eliminate a particular number of jobs. The video enables enabled a complex and technical issue to be presented in an engaging and comprehensible manner. The video presents original research first published in Briefing Paper 26 - THE BREXIT BURDEN: A CONSTITUENCY LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR HAMPSHIRE AND SUSSEX and expanded upon in the blog and related data set: 'The vulnerability of different parliamentary constituencies to Brexit economic shocks' (December 2019).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBW5A2nd5mA&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Animated video: Gains for trade (part 1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Published on 6 March - 12 March 150 views on YouTube. This video looks at the reasons why international trade can benefit an economy - be this through specialisation, more competition, or by leading to productivity change. An economy can therefore gain both by trading with countries which are very similar and those that are quite different. But not all firms, people or regions within an economy necessarily benefit from trade, and there may be both winners and losers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x51SlwwZKEE&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Animated video: Gains for trade (part 2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Published in April 2020, Gains from trade (part 2) looks at why trade results in winners and losers. Specialisation and the competition it creates in and between firms will mean some firms benefit whilst others struggle to adapt and / or compete. These firms may be forced to cut jobs or even close down and this, in turn, impacts on the workers and regions where those firms are located. But trade is only one factor that leads to winners and losers. Technology, for example, has had a significant impact. We show that various policies can help to mitigate the negative effects of trade on workers and regions and how these can be better than protectionism.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://youtu.be/6RpHW5tYAKA
 
Description Blog: Export-platform FDI and Brexit Uncertainty 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The blog presents the research of the working paper 'Export-platform FDI and Brexit Uncertainty' in a short and accessible format to non-experts.
The blog received over 200 views in the first two weeks of it being published on the UKTPO website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/uktpo/2020/02/14/export-platform-fdi-and-brexit-uncertainty/
 
Description COVID-19 and global trade - is the system immune to the pandemic? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A 30-minute podcast on the topic of the effect of COVID-19 on trade. Chris Horseman was joined by Michael Gasiorek, Professor of Economics and Fellow of the UKTPO; Allie Renison, Head of EU and Trade Policy at the Institute of Directors; and Simon Evenett, Professor of Economics and an Associate Fellow of the UKTPO.

The podcast was released online and disseminated to mailing lists and on twitter. As of 20/01/2021, the podcast has been played 335 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites/covid-19-and-global-trade
 
Description Podcast - Dude where's my border? UK, Irish and EU trade post-Brexit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of the Irish border and its significance for the UK's future trading relationship with the EU. This episode features Alan Winters, Professor of Economics and Director of the UKTPO; Michael Gasiorek, Professor of Economics and Fellow of the UKTPO; and John Campbell, Economics & Business Editor for BBC Northern Ireland.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy position. The series is presented by Chris Horseman of Borderlex, and features UKTPO fellows and invited guests discussing a range of trade policy topics, including Brexit, Trade Wars and the World Trading System.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites
 
Description Podcast - Going Truly Global: Britain's role in the World Trade Organisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of Britain's role in the WTO. This episode features Minako Morita-Jaeger, Fellow of the UKTPO; Patrick Low, former Chief Economist at the World Trade Organization and Fellow of the UKTPO; and Amar Breckenridge, Senior Associate at Frontier Economics and a founder of the Trade Knowledge Exchange.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy positions. The series is presented by Chris Horseman of Borderlex, and features UKTPO fellows and invited guests discussing a range of trade policy topics, including Brexit, Trade Wars and the World Trading System.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites
 
Description Podcast - Have we got Brexit done yet? (And if not - what's left to do?) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of what remains on the Brexit agenda after the 31 January, featuring, Peter Holmes, Reader in Economics and Fellow of the UKTPO; Anand Menon, Professor of European Politics and Foreign Affairs at King's College London and Director of UK in a Changing Europe; and Fabian Zuleeg, Chief Executive of the European Policy Centre.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy position.

As of 3 March 2020, this episode has received over 240 listens across Europe, Canada and the USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites/have-we-got-brexit-done-yet
 
Description Podcast - How will the UK approve future trade agreements? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of how the UK will approve free trade agreements now that it has left the EU. The episode features Dr Emily Lydgate, Lecturer In Environmental Law and UKTPO fellow; Dr Anna Jerzwska, independent customs and trade consultant and advisor for the UN International Trade Centre; Maddy Thimont Jack, senior researcher on the Institute for Government's Brexit team, and Dr Holger Hestermeyer, Reader in International Dispute Resolution at Kings College London.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy position. As of 3 March 2020, this episode has received over 200 listens across Europe, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites/how-will-the-uk-approve-future-trade-agreements
 
Description Podcast - Testing the Special Relationship: Prospects for a UK-US Trade Deal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of a prospective UK-US trade agreement, featuring Michael Gasiorek, Professor of Economics and Fellow of the UKTPO; Sir Jonathan Faull, Chair of European Public Affairs for the Brunswick Group and Fellow of the UKTPO; Iana Dreyer, Founder and Editor of Borderlex; and Alan Beattie, Senior Trade Writer for the Financial Times and Associate Fellow of Chatham House.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy position.

As of 3 March 2020, this episode has received over 400 listens across Europe and the USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites/testing-the-special-relationship-prospects-for-a-uk-us-trade...
 
Description Podcast - The Missing 80% - Making Deals on Trade in Services 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of services trade and trade agreements. This episode features Ingo Borchert, Senior Lecture in Economics and Fellow of the UKTPO; Julia Magntorn-Garrett, Research Officer at the UKTPO; and Sebastian Benz, Economist at the Trade in Services Division of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy positions. The series is presented by Chris Horseman of Borderlex, and features UKTPO fellows and invited guests discussing a range of trade policy topics, including Brexit, Trade Wars and the World Trading System.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites
 
Description Podcast - The UK's global tariff consultation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of the UK Government's global tariff consultation. This episode features Julia Magntorn Garrett, Research Officer at the UKTPO; Allie Renison, Head of EU and Trade Policy at the Institute of Directors; Sue Davies, Head of Consumer Protection and Food Policy at Which?; and Rodney Ludema, Professor of Economics at Georgetown University and Associate Fellow of the UKTPO.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy positions. The series is presented by Chris Horseman of Borderlex, and features UKTPO fellows and invited guests discussing a range of trade policy topics, including Brexit, Trade Wars and the World Trading System.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites
 
Description Podcast - US-China trade tensions: The threats and opportunities for Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of US-China trade tensions. This episode features Jim Rollo, Professor Emeritus at the University of Sussex and Deputy Director of the UKTPO; and Steven McGuire, Dean of the University of Sussex Business School and Fellow of the UKTPO.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy positions. The series is presented by Chris Horseman of Borderlex, and features UKTPO fellows and invited guests discussing a range of trade policy topics, including Brexit, Trade Wars and the World Trading System.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites
 
Description Podcast - What's For Sale? The NHS and trade agreements 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A podcast as part of the UKTPO's 'Trade Bites' series on the topic of healthcare, services trade and the NHS. This episode features Ingo Borchert, Senior Lecturer in Economics and Fellow of the UKTPO, and Laura Bannister, Senior Adviser at the Trade Justice Movement.

Trade Bites aims to stimulate debate at a pivotal time for trade policy. The series is intended to inform and entertain the public in the area of international trade policy and so help the development of sound and constructive policy positions. The series is presented by Chris Horseman of Borderlex, and features UKTPO fellows and invited guests discussing a range of trade policy topics, including Brexit, Trade Wars and the World Trading System.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://soundcloud.com/uktpo-tradebites
 
Description UKTPO blog - A quick recap on the costs of No Deal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In the lead up to the negotiation deadline for a UK- EU deal, this blog explained that a No Deal outcome, in particular, one at such a late stage, would directly lead to higher costs, higher prices, lower competitiveness and job losses. The blog was viewed over 200 times in the first two weeks after publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/uktpo/2020/12/15/a-quick-recap-on-the-costs-of-no-deal/
 
Description UKTPO blog: Sustaining and Trading Fish in the North 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Fisheries were one of the fault lines in the stumbling Brexit talks. In this blog, Prof Erika Szyszczak puts the issue under a legal lens, and discusses the implications of the Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) the UK put in place with four Northern fishing nations; Greenland, Norway, Iceland and the Faroe Islands. The blog was viewed over 200 times within the first two weeks of publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/uktpo/2020/12/04/sustaining-and-trading-fish-in-the-north/
 
Description UKTPO blog: UK-EU trade relations: A checklist of 10 key issues 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this blog, Professor Michael Gasiorek outlined 10 key points to consider when analysing a UK-EU trade deal, in order to help interested parties and the general public to assess how 'good' a deal might be for the UK. This included discussion and explanation of tariffs, rules of origin, mutual recognition, financial services, and state aid, among other key issues. The blog was viewed over 600 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/uktpo/2020/11/20/uk-eu-trade-relations-a-checklist-of-10-key-issues/
 
Description UKTPO blog: Wasting time on the level playing field 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this blog, Alasdair Smith asks whether the biggest obstacle to a deal, the level playing field, really matters enough to both sides to prevent an agreement. Prof Smith argues that the EU's concerns about UK social and environmental policies being used to give an unfair advantage to UK firms are theoretical rather than real, while the UK's aversion to EU rules on the level playing field seems to be more about symbolism than practicalities. The blog received over 200 views in the first two weeks after publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/uktpo/2020/12/17/wasting-time-on-the-level-playing-field/