Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST)

Lead Research Organisation: Lancaster University
Department Name: Psychology

Abstract

In his recent CaSE speech, the UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser reported that 63% of the government's challenges have solutions rooted in the behavioural and social sciences. In the area of national security, it is the mission of the Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST) to undertake pioneering research and translational activities that deliver such solutions. To date, our network of 140 researchers from 35 UK and international HEI/SMEs has contributed significant instrumental, conceptual and capacity-building impact for end-users (Independent Review, 2019). These contributions include providing insights into the social and ideological drivers of far-right extremism, developing tools for making inferences about risk from online data, and validating new methods for effective, ethical information elicitation.

Our 2020-2023 plan for CREST builds on this foundation but uses a renewed structure to foster agile, solution-focused activities. Our approach will deliver: (1) research that is tightly bound to the challenges of our funders while remaining world-leading in its contribution to the academy; (2) a step-change in our support for funders' evolving needs and their efforts to translate research into practice; (3) new forms of researcher-stakeholder co-working that promote knowledge exchange, research relevance, and professional development on both sides; and, (4) an engaged, collaborative international community of social scientists contributing to national security.

The renewed Centre, whose 24 researchers and 7 PhDs will work with 9 administrative, communication, and research-to-practice professionals, will pursue three Agendas:

The RESEARCH AGENDA will produce theoretically motivated, high-quality synthetic and original research on key aspects of the funders' challenges. It will comprise eight projects that are solution focused, diverse in disciplinary and methodological approach, and subject to the Centre's ethical and open science standards. In doing so, it seeks both to nurture exploration and new ideas, and to take mature concepts through to field validation.

This Agenda includes mechanisms for DIRECT TASKING, whereby funders will be able to draw on the expertise of the CREST network, securing rapid and timely responses to specific needs. This includes having researchers undertake evaluative and comparative work within the funder, which we view as facilitating impact and capacity building.

To respond to emerging challenges, £900k of CREST's funds will support short-term RESEARCH COMMISSIONING. Funds will be allocated via our established transparent and competitive process that delivers scientific excellence, stakeholder relevance, and value for money.

Combining our existing communication and network activities, the KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE AGENDA will continue to innovate to ensure that research is communicated effectively across academia, our funders, government and industry, and the public. We will disseminate our findings to the academic community in peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, technical reports, and Open Science materials. We will engage users by focusing our production on fewer, high quality outputs, and by curating the existing CREST knowledge base to maximise its accessibility to time-poor user communities (e.g. via training frameworks).

The CAPACITY-BUILDING AGENDA will grow CREST's vibrant international network through a variety of events, from our biennial 150 attendee conference, to small-scale, challenge-focused residential 'sprints'. We will make a particular effort to reach underrepresented disciplines in order to foster new researcher-stakeholder exchanges, introduce new perspectives, and stimulate synergies across cognate centres and government departments. This Agenda will also train a cohort of seven PhD students, and continue our efforts to provide training and resources for the wider ECR community.
 
Description CREST's objectives were detailed in the funding application.

1. To run a world-class, interdisciplinary Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST).
Independent reviews of CREST, on which the current Award builds, shows that academics hold CREST in high-esteem and see our Centre as building a community that seeks to understand and mitigate security threats. During the last year, this has been echoed through requests for advice from practitioners and academics internationally, who regard CREST as innovative in its approach and impact, and as a centre they are looking to model in their own countries.

2. Implement a Research Agenda
CREST has eight S&T programmes, which engage in meaningful co-creation with funders to develop research that is responsive to their needs. Each programme has navigated the constraints of the pandemic, still felt in 2021, when in-person testing was not possible. The programmes have been innovative in their approaches and methods, and initial findings are starting to emerge and be disseminated through workshops and papers. The programme teams cover a range of disciplines from psychology through politics to linguistic analysis. CREST's ethical and open science standards are led by Towse, an Open Science Advocate and leader, to which our programmes adhere.

3. Deliver a responsive Direct Tasking capability
CREST offers funders timely access to guidance and connections to relevant knowledge and expertise. This year, we have assisted with four direct tasking requests, which have required a time-bound response to emerging areas of importance. Two of these direct tasking requests have been completed, with one receiving additional funding to continue the work over an extended period of time.

4. Respond to emerging and short-term challenges by commissioning synthetic and original research
CREST's recent commissioning call offered £1.25m at 100%FEC and went live in February 2021. Developed through collaboration with our funders, the call sought innovative proposals. We received 47 applications, and secured reviews from 133 experts. We commissioned 11 projects of up to 12 month duration. A summary of the projects (PI and titles) are given below.
Dr Noemie Bouhana, University College London. Assessing the Environmental Risk of Terrorism: Operationalising S5 (ASSESS-5).
Dr Lewys Brace, University of Exeter. Con.Cel: Tracking the Online Contagion of Incel and Male Supremacist Ideology.
Dr Calvin Burns, University of Greenwich. The Effect of Different Online Mediums and Variable Formats on Information Disclosure in Vetting Interviews.
Prof Paul Gill, University College London. Conspiracy Theories and Extremism.
Anastasia Kordoni, University of Lancaster. Detecting Hybrid Social Identities: A Computational Analysis of Influence and Resilience in Online RWE Communities.
Prof David McIlhatton, Coventry University. Evaluating Security Interventions in Public Locations: Developing and Testing a Co-created Framework for Protective Security.
Prof Rachel Monaghan, Coventry University. Prosecuting Extremists in the United Kingdom: An Exploration of Charging, Prosecution, and Sentencing Outcomes.
Dr Alexandra Phelan, Monash University. Misogyny, Hostile Beliefs, and the Transmission of Extremism: A Comparison of the Far Right in the UK and Australia.
Dr Nicola Power, Lancaster University. The Psychology of Interoperability: Building Better Multi-Agency Counter-Terrorism Training (INTEROP).
Dr Charis Rice, Coventry University. Situational Threat and Response Signals (STARS): Understanding Overt Communications in Terrorism Deterrence across Different UK Contexts.
Dr Colin Roberts, Cardiff University. Mapping and Modelling Influence Interactions between Conspiracy Communities and Extremist Entities (MICE2).

5. Implement a knowledge exchange agenda
CREST invests heavily in translating research into practice. This year, we prepared nine policy briefing reports and guides from research that was funded by a previous linked Award; we prepared and distributed widely CREST Security Review magazines on topics of Risk and Covid-19; and we engaged in 33 networking events that ranged from small round-table events to practitioners and policy-makers to large-scale International event for researchers and practitioners.

6. Disseminate our findings widely
CREST output was published widely through academic outlets*, our website (www.crestresearch.ac.uk; ~20,000 visits and 2,400 views of our resources per month), newsletters (over 1,300 subscribers), social media (over 4,000 twitter followers), and our triannual magazine CREST Security Review (distributed to over 150 end-users and openly accessible on our website - to academics, practitioners and members of the public).

* This year, core programmes and previously commissioned projects have been completing work that was funded by a linked previous award and for which we had a NCE. As such, many publications that were published this year have been attributed to the previous award, hence the small number of academic publications uploaded with this submission.

7. Train a cohort of PhD students and Early Career Researchers.
CREST continues to support early career researchers (ECRs). We welcomed an initial intake of 4 PhD students this year, arranged for our ECRs (PhDs and RAs) to engage with practitioners through networking events and co-creation meetings, and provided opportunity - through our connections (e.g., EPSRC SPRITE+) to engage in a range of ECR-training events (e.g., grant writing).

8. Develop a rich and diverse income stream that moves CREST towards being self-supporting by 2023.
CREST continues to seek additional streams of funding. This year we re-invigorated our relationship with the innovation hub Plexal, have started to work on preparing CPD training targeted at industry, and have initiated conversations with additional stakeholders (e.g., NCA) with the aim of building these partnership across the Award. This work will continue as we assess the effectiveness of these activities and explore other streams of income.

9. Maintain effective processes for project management
We continue to use our online Work Operating System, which allows us to track a range of things such as data management, project progress, outputs, stewardship requests, and networking events. We consider matters relating to EDI when planning our activities and calls, and our research undergoes scrutiny by CREST's ethics committee ahead of commencement.
Exploitation Route To inform policy and practice.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description This is the first year of CREST 2020-2023 extension ('CREST3.0'), which builds on 5-years of successful impact and engagement through a Centre that has a new structure and a shift in focus to current stakeholder requirements. CREST's impact within this year is thus a combination of mature activities built up within the first period and new activities whose impact journey is only just beginning. As outlined in our Case for Support, CREST3.0 has increased the number of CREST's core S&T programmes from five to eight, simultaneously narrowing the focus from 'thematic-focused' to 'problem-focused.' Much effort from research teams this year has been the extensive co-design process undertaken with stakeholders, defining the precise activity and contributions of these eight projects, and the direct tasking that will sit alongside the empirical work. The impact of this approach is deepening understanding on both sides. CREST's research now embodies the challenges facing stakeholders. Stakeholder roadmaps now embody the limitations of research and the theoretical lens that we were able to shine upon their problem sets. Connected to this is the success of our recent commissioning round. A total of 47 submissions were reviewed by 133 researchers and practitioners-who, again, were generous with the detail of feedback they provided-and the 6-person independent panel selected eleven projects to commission. The commissioning has grown our academic network of expertise by ~15 new members and 2 new institutes; and has allowed us to support female, and early career, project leads. The projects will deliver in 2022. They promise to offer rapid knowledge-exchange to support policy-makers' understanding. The publications of CREST3.0 combine a few 'early wins' from the new projects (e.g., publications in Current Directions in Psychological Science and Psychological Science) with 12 'knowledge exchange' materials (e.g., CSR, guides) that have been created by the CREST3.0 communication team to ensure the full exploitation of research undertaken within the first 5-years of CREST. This cross-over between the first and current instantiate of CREST is important to us, and during this year we undertook in conjunction with stakeholders an extensive audit of all that was done, with a view to ensuring we have maximised the value of the research's impact. The result is that there is now 12 issues of CSR and 274 resources available on CREST's website, which includes guides, reports, toolkits and videos. They receive over 2,400 views a month. Part of the value of these knowledge exchange outputs is their engagement with the wider public. We have had success this year with campaigns to engage the media on projects of key interest to public narratives and, indeed, public safety. The Communications team has helped support the ACT EARLY coverage-a campaign that encourages reporting of CT concerns and draws on the CREST2.0 project of Thomas. The work has been covered in outlets including the BBC, Daily Mirror, Guardian, New York Times, Sky News, and The Independent. Another highlight has been our work translating research into practice. Despite the continued challenge of delivering events due to COVID-19 restrictions, we ran and/or supported 33 large and smaller-scale meetings. For example, Marsden delivered 5 roundtable events to practitioners and policy-makers with around 30 attendees at each; Hope delivered a keynote to raise awareness of CREST research in South East Asia to a mixture of academics and practitioners. CREST also broadened its delivery of CPD training to new user-groups, supported in part by the development of the eliciting information framework developed by our Research-to-Practice Fellow Anna Leslie (see https://crestresearch.ac.uk/comment/the-eliciting-information-framework-a-vehicle-for-research-into-practice/). This framework affords a structure by which stakeholders can think about their development needs and a way in which CREST can efficiently marshal its delivery, combining CREST resources with taught content. Indeed, user engagement with areas of our online resources has witnessed up to a two-fold increase. One way in which we measure the maturity of CREST's impact is the extent to which national and international partners look to CREST for advice and/or partnership. Nationally, CREST has supported 23 'stewardship' queries from government departments and the wider community. We have also begun more substantive work with the National Crime Agency, with whom we secured additional funding to curate a series of knowledge exchange products around emerging biometrics. Finally, we have significantly strengthened our international collaborations, particularly with the US National Counterterrorism Innovation, Technology, and Education Centre (NCITE). With aligned missions, CREST and NCITE are rapidly finding ways to extend their impact by 'building once' and using both in the UK and the US.
 
Description Ben Lee - Joint Extremism Unit Independent Advisory Group on Counter Terrorism in Prison and Probation
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Invited to sit on advisory committee for Canadian Practitioners Network for the Prevention of Radicalisation and Extremist Violence
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description PREVENT Review
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Response to HO request for expert advice on the pandemic's impact on online extremism
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Computational Social Science - Social Data Bias.
Amount £148,725 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2021 
End 05/2022
 
Description 2 Roundtable events at the Home Office 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised by Sarah Marsden, CREST PI.
Roundtable 1 - Nov 13 2020
Roundtable 2: Nov 23 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 3 x Roundtable events: Transnational Extreme-Right Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Roundtable 1: Transnational Extreme-Right Series. The History of extreme-right transnationalism. April 12 2021
Roundtable 2: Transnational Extreme-Right Series: Contemporary extreme-right transnationalism. April 26 2021
Roundtable 3: Transnational Extreme-Right Series: What's next for extreme-right transnationalism. May 10 2021
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Advanced elicitation skills training 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to stakeholders;Advanced elicitation skills training to government agency (20 people) Anna Leslie
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Behavioural and social scientists in national security network event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact CREST hosted - Paul Taylor, Matthew Francis and Paul Grasby. With three external speakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Briefing - Ben Lee. Coronavirus and online extremism 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Briefing - Ben Lee (2020). Coronavirus and online extremism (internal governmental policymakers) December 1 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description CCSITP Overview online presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CCSITP Overview online presentation (Critical Communication Skills in Territorial Policing)
Presented by Simon Wells. CREST Research to Practice Fellow.
May 2021. 300 attendees online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description CREST Article: A Short Introduction To The Involuntary Celibate Sub-Culture 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CREST blog, written by Dr Lewys Brace
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://crestresearch.ac.uk/resources/a-short-introduction-to-the-involuntary-celibate-sub-culture/
 
Description CREST Article: Proof Of Life Or Death? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CREST blog written by Matthew Fields, based on their research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://crestresearch.ac.uk/resources/proof-of-life-or-death/
 
Description CREST Article:Only Playing: Extreme-Right Gamification 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog written by Ben Lee, based on their research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://crestresearch.ac.uk/resources/only-playing-extreme-right-gamification/
 
Description CREST Security Review: Risk - Issue 11 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Included 12 articles from a variety of researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://crestresearch.ac.uk/magazine/risk/
 
Description CREST presentation; Communication and resilience training 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Support to Health workers within Government dealing with resistance to treatment and rehabilitation through presentations and exercises aimed at using methods developed within CREST and by CREST affiliated academics. 14 attendees. Simon Wells, CREST Research to Practice Fellow.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Developing novel methods while exposing challenges for psychological science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Symposium presented at British Psychology
Society - Annual Cyberpsychology Section Conference, July 6-7, Online, UK
Davidson, B., Ellis, D. A., Shaw, H. and Stuart, A. (2021).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Elicitation skills training 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to stakeholders; Elicitation skills training to. government agency
Anna Leslie
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Eliciting Information Framework 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations to stakeholders: Eliciting Information Framework to UK government department
Anna Leslie
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Eliciting Information Framework to Police 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations to stakeholders: Eliciting Information Framework to Police
Anna Leslie
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Eliciting Information Framework to US government department 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations to stakeholders:Eliciting Information Framework to US government department
Anna Leslie
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Examining Consistency in Digital Behaviours. Heather Shaw 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CREST presentation; ACE-CSR : Examining Consistency in Digital Behaviours
Heather Shaw. CREST, SRA
25 March 2021. '
185 people invited to the Teams meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Exploring right-wing extremism in online spaces: Can we use big data to predict offline action 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Association for Psychological Science, Virtual Convention, May 2021.
Brown, O., Joinson, A. N., Smith, L. G.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Guest lecture - Ben Lee. National Action, Atomwaffen Division, and Contemporary Right-Wing Terror(ism). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Guest lecture - Ben Lee (2020). National Action, Atomwaffen Division, and Contemporary Right-Wing Terror(ism). Bournemouth University. December 7 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Guest lecture . Extremist trajectories: Ideology, narrative identity and the pursuit of human goods. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Guest lecture - Sarah Marsden (2020). Extremist trajectories: Ideology, narrative identity and the pursuit of human goods. Bournemouth University. December 14 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Guest presentation - Ben Lee. Extremism and Extremist Groups - their potential threat in an Irish Context - Unwrapping a layer at a time. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Guest presentation - Ben Lee. Extremism and Extremist Groups - their potential threat in an Irish Context - Unwrapping a layer at a time. April 28 2021
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Guest presentation - Ben Lee. International Policy Responses to Violent White Supremacy: A Virtual Roundtable. Institute for Strategic Dialogue 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Guest presentation - Ben Lee (2020). International Policy Responses to Violent White Supremacy: A Virtual Roundtable.
Institute for Strategic Dialogue. October 15 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Keynote: South East Asia Regional Meeting of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Mixed audience of research and practitioners; goal of raising visibility in SEA region.

Highlights CREST research in South East Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description NCA Training - 1 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anna Leslie and Simon Wells delivered training to NCA practitioners in April.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description NCA Training - 2 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anna Leslie and Simon Wells delivered training in May to the NCA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Qualitative analysis for sensitive research - how to protect against researcher vulnerabilities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Olivia Brown wrote a blog called, 'Qualitative analysis for sensitive research - how to protect against researcher vulnerabilities'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://blogs.bath.ac.uk/centre-for-qualitative-research/2021/05/06/qualitative-analysis-for-sensiti...
 
Description RICU (HO) market segmentation discussion 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Matthew Francis & Paul Grasby organised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Resilience working group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentations to stakeholders: Resilience working group.
Anna Leslie
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Trauma & Violent Extremism Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 1. Initiated an international, multidisciplinary working group of practitioners, policymakers and researchers who work on trauma and violent extremism. Since this session we've formalised the network and run a series of online events bringing together an international audience to discuss research and share good practice. This has led to new funding applications and research collaborations.
2. Provided the springboard for the next phase of the research. We have since engaged in a larger piece of work via CREST which is being supported by the working group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description University of Bath research shows how to improve emergency service response to terrorist incident 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Olivia Brown wrote a blog called 'University of Bath research shows how to improve emergency service response to terrorist incident'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://scienmag.com/university-of-bath-research-shows-how-to-improve-emergency-service-response-to-...