Collecting New Time Use Resources (CNTUR)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Sociology

Abstract

Daily events - driving to work, cinema visits, playing with children - are the atoms of social life. The life-course of each individual in any society consists of a sequence of such events, partially reiterated over daily, weekly, seasonal and annual cycles. Specific elements of these sequences accumulate into individual biographical characteristics: a history of continuous job participation increases "human capital" (expected future wage), frequent visits to the theatre or concert call accumulate as cultural capital and so on. And in turn, these individual characteristics aggregate to form key societal variables such as employment levels, rates of cultural participation, quantities of household production and voluntary care provision.

Time, unlike money, is an appropriate unit of account for leisure and unpaid work as well as paid. So random samples of event sequences represent all the time devoted to all of a society's activities. Time Use Diary Surveys (TUDSs), collecting activity sequences from random samples, therefore, provide a more comprehensive and consistent view of socio-economic circumstances than emerge, either from the money-related phenomena which predominate in conventional economic statistics, or from sociologists use of disjointed questionnaire measures of work-related behaviour and domestic and leisure practices or participation in cultural and sporting events.

TUDSs have an unusually wide range of current or potential applications:
* Establishing relationship between conventional National Product and non-monetary output
* Identifying the impact of labour market exclusion on leisure, voluntary, other unpaid work
* Identifying short duration trips (underestimated in the National Travel Survey)
* Measuring (changes in) the domestic division of labour
* Estimating extent of sociability, co-presence and care activities
* Estimating personal physical activity levels in relation to medical/public health objectives
* Registering exposure to environmental risk or strain from people's daily activity
* Measurement of subjective well being and instantaneous or "objective" utility

The resource collection and enhancement activities proposed here will contribute substantially to historical and cross-national comparative research in each of these areas.

The UK has a substantial historical collection of full-scale TUDSs covering the period 1961-2001, but unlike most other developed countries, has no recent time diary survey. The new large UK time diary survey proposed here for 2014, not only updates the sequence of UK studies but, conforming to the standard Harmonized European Time Use Survey protocol, enables straightforward and detailed comparisons with more than a dozen other recent European time diary surveys, as well as comparisons with the much larger (20 country, 40 year, 60 survey) Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS), which is maintained by the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) and will also be extended as a result of this proposal.

The proposal also includes:

* the development of a new diary-based measure of enjoyment of activities, together with improved questionnaire measures of longer-term rates of participation in infrequent activities (exercise, sports, cultural events), and collecting these, both for an experimental sub-sample of the new UK diary study, and, in simplified form, as a module to be fielded as part of internet panel studies in 8 European countries.
* combining diaries with accelerometer body camera, and household equipment energy meters, in experimental samples, so as to validate and calibrate associations of activity measure with energy use and energy demand.
* improving and extending the historical and geographical range of the MTUS, and attaching additional calibrated measures.
* improving documentation and other researcher support on the CTUR website, and providing workshops and other training materials for time use data collection and analysis.

Planned Impact

We identify four groups of stakeholders:

Academics:
(1) social scientists, mainly sociology and economics, and
(2) non-social-scientists, mainly health and environmental research.
These two groups will make extensive use of the datasets we produce, as well as other information on data collection and analysis from from our newsletter or website, from innovations developed in CTUR's substantive research, and from our training and visitor programs.

Non-academics:
(3) UK national and international government agencies, NGOs, voluntary agencies
(4) Journalists, voluntary and private sector groups using our work .
These groups will additionally make use of our press releases and contributions to digital social media, as well as deploying our staff in advisory committee memberships and in paid or unpaid consultancies.

Impact objectives vary by stakeholder group:

Capacity building: For stakeholder group 1 we will develop the understanding of the central role of time-use data, so as to increase rate of utilisation of our data and resources. Aims for non-social science researchers (group 2) involve focussing on direct collaborations to improve our understanding of areas where our own expertise in measurement and modelling is mainly instrumental to the core science, thus enhancing the synergies arising from multi-disciplinary approaches in academic research.

Conceptual impact: Impact objectives for journalists and private sector stakeholders (group 4) are: to raise awareness of time use data in general and particularly of the importance of substantive findings developed from this material for public policy; and to contribute to attempts to understand and influence behaviour and hence markets for goods and services.

Instrumental impact: For stakeholder group 3, impact emerges in the form contributions, as committee members or consultants, to administrative, planning and implementation processes of the various stakeholders. As example: we recently provided a week's consultancy to ONS on the use of diary studies to estimate childcare volumes, contributing to Extended National Accounts to be published by ONS during 2014.

The Data Archive registered (2001-12) around 350 downloads of time-use datasets per year. We estimate that that there may be something like 500-1000 researchers worldwide making use of the ONS 2000-1 study (see CTUR's website ). Moreover the general trend of growth in interest in this area of work implies in turn that the potential market for a UK 2014 study is likely to be larger (perhaps substantially larger) than this. While economics is the largest single discipline, sociology is not far behind. Psychology figures substantially within the "other social sciences" category. Business and public policy specialists account for around 15% of all users, and a roughly similar proportion come from the engineering and other natural sciences. We are not aware of any category of social survey that has a wider spread across the entire range of academic disciplines. And we have noted throughout this application the recent acceleration of interest in time diary materials from medical and public health, as well environmental impact modelling. A recent article in the American Journal of Epidemiology, for example described the MTUS as the only available source of reliable data on recent historical change in population sleep patterns. The MTUS has similar promise for cross-national comparative and historical research into sports participation, exercise and sedentary behaviour.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title '7 Days' by Laurie Frick 
Description '7 Days' by Laurie Frick is a piece of artwork which visualises data from our Multinational Time Use Study. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Art exhibition. 
URL http://www.lauriefrick.com/7-days/
 
Description (1) The overall total of work time (including unpaid work as well as paid work) seems to have remained constant, over multiple decades, across the more than 20 countries for which we have assembled time use data. This finding, not available from any source other than the Multinational Time Use Study, throws doubt on previous assumptions of social progress implying a future "leisure society" and also on the assumption that work can be understood as a wholly instrumental activity. Instead, we may have to turn to other views, originating from social psychology, which point to "latent functions" of work processes, as contributing directly to individual well-being. Publication: < www.timeuse.org/node/10840>
(2) Assertions in the popular sociological literature that recent decades have brought increased time-stress or time-pressure, do not seem to be strongly founded in empirical evidence. Comparison of our closely matched 2000-1 and 2014-15 time use surveys suggest, if anything, a slowdown of life-pressure rather than a speed-up. Publication: Sullivan O, J Gershuny, "Speed-Up Society? Evidence from the UK 2000 and 2015 Time Use Diary Surveys", Sociology Vol 52 No.1, pp 20-38, Feb 2018.
(3) Medical researchers have been claiming for some time that sleep time has been reduced-by an hour per day-by the advent of "24/7 Society". Careful examination of our UK and MTUS data (in association with the Oxford Centre for Circadian Neuroscience) demonstrates that in fact sleep time has slightly increase over recent decades. Publication: article submitted to academic journal.
(4) Approximate quality in totals of paid plus unpaid work between men and women is maintained, and gender distribution of paid and unpaid work continues to converge. But the continuing relative specialization of men in the paid sphere both reflects and implies male advantages in life-chances.
Exploitation Route Further gender equality legislation and regulations -- particularly related to parental leave and publicly funded child care.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport

URL https://www.timeuse.org/
 
Description Narrative Impact. Apart from the ongoing growth in usage of our flagship Multinational Time Use Study resource for a wide variety of applications ranging from National Income Accounting via Gender Studies to Public Health epidemiology, we have two major new research impacts. (1) A sequence of publications discussing use of time diaries for understanding determinants of wellbeing in daily life are being widely read, and as well as used by the UK Office for National Statistics. (2) Our new study (CAPTURE24) comparing diary records with simultaneously recorded body camera and accelerometry sequences, show (i) that self-report time diaries provide accurate records of time use, and (ii) comparison of diary and and camera records with accelerometers suggest the possibility of major improvements in public recommendations of desirable levels of exercise. These impacts of our work are currently being written in as major contributors to elements in our next 5 year work programme. (3) BBC Women's Hour week devoted to "chore wars"; September 2014: CTUR made a substantial contribution to design of web materials, and gave interviews. Press coverage (Sunday Times, Daily Mail) of "stalled revolution" paper in November 2014. Eurostat making extensive use of CTUR expertise in design of future time diary studies. (4) We have now signed a memorandum of Agreement with the Office of National Statistics for cooperation in the design, fieldwork and analysis of time diary materials, and we are collaborating in a new "light diary" study 2019-20 as part of the ONS Omnibus urvey
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Office for National Statistics secondment and subsequent take-up of timeuse research activities in well-being.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Advanced Grant
Amount £1,921,488 (GBP)
Funding ID SCaEL 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2019
 
Description BARSEA
Amount £13,320 (GBP)
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 05/2016
 
Description Centre Grant Uplift
Amount £18,268 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/L011662/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 09/2016
 
Description Future Research Leaders
Amount £225,253 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N001575/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description Investigation of children's time alone
Amount £8,000 (GBP)
Organisation Office for National Statistics 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description NIH Award
Amount £29,549 (GBP)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 09/2014 
 
Description Time Use Data for Health and Well Being
Amount $2,887,555 (USD)
Funding ID 2 R01 HD053654-11 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start  
 
Title Long term time use from short term data 
Description Two stage estimation, calibrating questionnaire-based "stylised" items using day-diary records from same subject. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Potential improvements to Labour Force estimations 
 
Title MTUS-X 
Description Subset of MTUS version 6.1, revised and enhanced made accessible by the IPUMS data download system managed by the University Minnesota, USA. 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Extra downloads and publicity result from the easier access via the IPUMS system. 
URL https://www.mtusdata.org/mtus/
 
Title Multinational Time Use Study - Version 6.1 
Description Update and extension to the original MTUS, involving a new 'Simple File' with in excess of 70 harmonised surveys. The further development of the study is now managed jointly by Dr Ewa Jarosz and Dr Jooyeoun Suh of the CTUR. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Acceleration of rate of requests for data to approximately 20 per week. 
URL http://www.timeuse.org/mtus
 
Title United Kingdom Time Use Survey, 2014-2015 
Description The United Kingdom Time Use Survey, 2014-2015 (UKTUS) is a large-scale household survey that provides data on how people aged 8 years and over in the UK spend their time. At the heart of the survey is a time diary instrument in which respondents record their daily activities. Time diaries record events sequences for prescribed periods, usually a single day. They are an effective means of capturing rich data on how people spend their time, their location throughout the day, and who they spend their time with. The sample was based on households, and household members eight years and over completed time-diaries for one weekday and one weekend day. In addition, those in paid work were asked to complete a weekly work schedule. All individuals who completed a time diary were invited to take part in an interview, and someone in the household was selected to take part in a household interview. These interviews provide additional demographic, economic, and social information about households and individuals. The UKTUS 2014-15 was designed to be, as far as possible, compatible both with the previous UK Time Use Survey, conducted by ONS in 2000-2001 (see under SN 4504) and with other European time use studies carried out in since 2008 (not currently held at the UK Data Archive). It followed the Eurostat 2008 guidelines on Harmonised European Time Use Studies (HETUS), but was tailored to the needs and requirements of UK users. In particular, specific fields for mobile device use and enjoyment of time were added to the UKTUS 2014-2015 diary. In line with the key aims of the study, all data have been deposited with the UK Data Archive, to be made available for analysis by government and academic users. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Adopted by Office for National Statistics as the UK submission to the Eurostat Harmonised European Time-Use Study database. 
URL https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/catalogue?sn=8128
 
Description AHTUS-X 
Organisation University of Maryland
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution HTUS-X data extract builder is a collaborative project between the Maryland Population Research Center, the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) at the University of Oxford and the Minnesota Population Center (MPC) dedicated to making it easy for researchers to use data from the American Heritage Time Use Study. CTUR is responsible for harmonization of the different surveys included in the project.
Collaborator Contribution The MPC is responsible for delivering these data through this web-based data dissemination system.
Impact AHTUS-X website developed and launched.
Start Year 2015
 
Description AHTUS-X 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution HTUS-X data extract builder is a collaborative project between the Maryland Population Research Center, the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) at the University of Oxford and the Minnesota Population Center (MPC) dedicated to making it easy for researchers to use data from the American Heritage Time Use Study. CTUR is responsible for harmonization of the different surveys included in the project.
Collaborator Contribution The MPC is responsible for delivering these data through this web-based data dissemination system.
Impact AHTUS-X website developed and launched.
Start Year 2015
 
Description European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Consultancy 
Organisation European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Country Unknown 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Consultancy advice on Kyrgistan time use survey
Collaborator Contribution Financial contribution
Impact Consultancy
Start Year 2015
 
Description Public Time Use Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A public lecture on Time Use in Britain attracted over 100 attendees including academics, practitioners, students and the general public. The purpose of the activity was to engage a wide range of people in Time Use Research and what it can tell us about society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Time Use Exhibit at Ashmolean Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Ashmolean Museum hosts regular public events under the 'LiveFriday' banner, which promote research at Oxford around a particular theme. Our Research Centre took part in the May 2015 LiveFriday, titled 'Social Animals', which focused on the Social Sciences. A team of our researchers organised a Time Use exhibit which included a time bank, where members of the public could 'donate' their time, and an experiment to show the public how time use research can shed light on gender inequality. The event received good feedback and succeeded in engaging the public in our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ashmolean.org/assets/docs/Events/Ashmolean_Social_Animals_LiveFriday_Programme_2015.pdf
 
Description Two Day Time Use Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A two day Time Use Seminar was hosted in Oxford which featured talks from all members of the research team and also invited speakers from other institutions and organisations. Up to 50 people attended the seminar and engaged in discussion about various aspects of Time Use Research. Practitioners from the Office for National Statistics and NatCen attended which resulted in stronger ties with both organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015