Primate medial thalamus: Investigating its functions and interrelated neural systems for memory

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Experimental Psychology

Abstract

The current proposal will investigate the contribution of the medial thalamus to memory processes. Strokes and chronic alcoholism are some of the main causes of brain damage in the medial thalamus resulting in memory loss and these conditions are becoming more prevalent as a consequence of our modern lifestyles. To my knowledge I am currently the only researcher in the world who is studying the contribution of the medial thalamus in memory processing using macaques. Old World macaque monkeys will be used as their brain structures and neural interconnections are very similar to the human brain. The monkeys will participate in a range of cognitive memory tasks. Animal models of amnesia continue to provide a valid and reliable methodology for conducting vital experiments. In association with other experimental techniques they complement and advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms of memory processing in the brain proving beneficial to both basic science and clinical practice. Therefore the proposed research is highly important since improving our understanding of the medial thalamus can have significant benefits in the longer term for the development of diagnostic tools and methods of rehabilitation for memory loss in both the younger and older population.

Technical Summary

The proposed research will investigate the cognitive processes and neural systems associated with memory processing in the medial thalamus. Strokes and chronic alcoholism are some of the main causes of brain damage in the medial thalamus resulting in memory loss and these conditions are becoming more prevalent as a consequence of our modern lifestyles. Yet relatively little is known about how the medial thalamus contributes to memory as the majority of research has focussed on the medial temporal lobes instead. Current evidence indicates that the medial temporal lobe is no longer a unitary long-term declarative memory system. Thus a shift has occurred into identifying other neural structures in the brain associated with memory. The present proposal will use a multi-faceted approach in primates to determine how various medial thalamic structures may contribute to memory processing and other cognitive abilities, for example, executive function.

Within this overall aim there are several main objectives and aims, I will
1. expand the characterisation of cognitive deficits in the macaque model of thalamic amnesia;
2. determine the neural circuits that are critical for medial thalamic involvement in new learning, retrieval and other cognitive processing including executive function;
3. complement the behavioural experiments using immunohistochemistry techniques, specifically immediate-early gene imaging, which will provide information about functional activity in neural circuits involving structures within the medial thalamus during particular types of cognitive challenge.
4. develop expertise in comparative studies of memory processing involving human patients and non-human primates using a combination of neuropsychological testing and functional neuroimaging techniques.

To my knowledge I am currently the only researcher in the world who is studying the contribution of the medial thalamus in memory processing using macaques. The primates will participate in a variety of different cognitive memory tasks. Animal models of amnesia continue to provide a valid and reliable methodology for conducting vital experiments and in association with other experimental techniques they complement and advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms of memory processing in the brain. Furthermore the similarity of brain structures and interconnections between humans and Old World macaques will benefit both basic science and clinical practice. The proposed research is highly important as improving our understanding of the medial thalamus can have significant benefits in the longer term for the development of diagnostic tools and methods of rehabilitation for memory loss in both the younger and older population.

Publications

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Buckley MJ (2016) Retrosplenial Cortical Contributions to Anterograde and Retrograde Memory in the Monkey. in Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

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Kwok SC (2015) Adaptability to changes in temporal structure is fornix-dependent. in Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)

 
Description ASCI/APC
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Provided detailed evidence about all of my monkeys life histories and was interviewed as a neuroscientist , project licence holder working with monkeys in the UK for the Pickard Report. This was published in 2013
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/338565/ASCResponsetoPickar...
 
Description CDA input AMS
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description CFM AWERB ERP
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description MRC Fellows symposium
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Integrated neural networks of the brain
Amount £4,955,047 (GBP)
Funding ID Strategic Award PI Professor John Duncan 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 04/2020
 
Description MRC Centenary Award
Amount £99,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 04/2015
 
Description MRC Supplementary Award
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2011 
End 04/2013
 
Description Newton International Training Fellowship
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2019
 
Description Out-of-season Award
Amount £159,664 (GBP)
Funding ID G0800329/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2013 
End 04/2015
 
Description Primate Workshop
Amount € 10,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 12/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description Senior Research Fellowship in Basic Biomedical Sciences
Amount £2,307,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 02/2021
 
Title MRI scanning non-human primates 
Description database of MRI scans (structural, functional, diffusion tensor scans) in monkeys including neurologically normal controls and lesion groups to compare. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Several publications using the control and lesion group scans development by MR imaging group at FMRIB of further FSL software packages to perform monkey brain extraction (BET) from the MR images 
 
Title Telomere samples for welfare assessments of NHPs 
Description blood samples and muscle biopsies from my monkeys have been collected for analysis of telomere length in welfare assessments of neuroscience animals. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The lengths of telomeres of my monkeys (n=20) are being quantified as part of a larger cohort of monkeys in the UK from Oxford (mine), CFM, UCL and Newcastle for the PI Professor Melissa Bateson on a NC3Rs project grant to assess welfare of neuroscience monkeys. In addition, I will also correlate the data from my own animals with other behavioural and cognitive measures I've assessed within my own monkeys during the course of their research studies. 
URL http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/researchportfolio/showportfolio.asp?id=308
 
Description HIV/SIV 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Faculty of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I've worked with the above collaborators to put together a funding proposal to investigate the neurocognitive deficits and neuropathology in HIV patients. This work also involves a translational cross species investigation of cognitive decline and neuropathology in monkeys prior to and after infection with SIV at NIBSC. My help has involved provided advice on neurocognitive testing for the animals and translational neurocognitive testing for the HIV patients as well as advice and expertise on set up and conducting of anaesthetised MRI scanning of monkeys. I've provided a feasibility study for MRI scanning of animals by organising a veterinary mobile scanner company to scan a cadaver animal at NIBSC with support from physicists at FMRIB. I analysed the MR images from this scan and included this information in the funding application. I attended the interview for the Wellcome Strategic award and answered questions on MR imaging of monkeys.
Collaborator Contribution provided overall evidence of cognitive decline in HIV patients and neuropathology in monkeys infected with SIV. Approached myself and a colleague at Oxford to combine human and monkey studies of neurocognitive decline and neuropathology. provided the PI role in organising the preliminary and full applications to the Wellcome Trust linked in other groups around UK to provide PET imaging and mitochrondial assessments for the study
Impact Our recent application for Wellcome Trust Strategic Award funding was turned down. Further funding is being sorted over the coming months as this work has the potential to greatly impact on our current thinking about cognitive decline linked to disease and neuroinflammation. the collaboration is multi-disciplinary involving infectious disease and neuroscience.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HIV/SIV 
Organisation National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I've worked with the above collaborators to put together a funding proposal to investigate the neurocognitive deficits and neuropathology in HIV patients. This work also involves a translational cross species investigation of cognitive decline and neuropathology in monkeys prior to and after infection with SIV at NIBSC. My help has involved provided advice on neurocognitive testing for the animals and translational neurocognitive testing for the HIV patients as well as advice and expertise on set up and conducting of anaesthetised MRI scanning of monkeys. I've provided a feasibility study for MRI scanning of animals by organising a veterinary mobile scanner company to scan a cadaver animal at NIBSC with support from physicists at FMRIB. I analysed the MR images from this scan and included this information in the funding application. I attended the interview for the Wellcome Strategic award and answered questions on MR imaging of monkeys.
Collaborator Contribution provided overall evidence of cognitive decline in HIV patients and neuropathology in monkeys infected with SIV. Approached myself and a colleague at Oxford to combine human and monkey studies of neurocognitive decline and neuropathology. provided the PI role in organising the preliminary and full applications to the Wellcome Trust linked in other groups around UK to provide PET imaging and mitochrondial assessments for the study
Impact Our recent application for Wellcome Trust Strategic Award funding was turned down. Further funding is being sorted over the coming months as this work has the potential to greatly impact on our current thinking about cognitive decline linked to disease and neuroinflammation. the collaboration is multi-disciplinary involving infectious disease and neuroscience.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HIV/SIV 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Experimental Psychology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I've worked with the above collaborators to put together a funding proposal to investigate the neurocognitive deficits and neuropathology in HIV patients. This work also involves a translational cross species investigation of cognitive decline and neuropathology in monkeys prior to and after infection with SIV at NIBSC. My help has involved provided advice on neurocognitive testing for the animals and translational neurocognitive testing for the HIV patients as well as advice and expertise on set up and conducting of anaesthetised MRI scanning of monkeys. I've provided a feasibility study for MRI scanning of animals by organising a veterinary mobile scanner company to scan a cadaver animal at NIBSC with support from physicists at FMRIB. I analysed the MR images from this scan and included this information in the funding application. I attended the interview for the Wellcome Strategic award and answered questions on MR imaging of monkeys.
Collaborator Contribution provided overall evidence of cognitive decline in HIV patients and neuropathology in monkeys infected with SIV. Approached myself and a colleague at Oxford to combine human and monkey studies of neurocognitive decline and neuropathology. provided the PI role in organising the preliminary and full applications to the Wellcome Trust linked in other groups around UK to provide PET imaging and mitochrondial assessments for the study
Impact Our recent application for Wellcome Trust Strategic Award funding was turned down. Further funding is being sorted over the coming months as this work has the potential to greatly impact on our current thinking about cognitive decline linked to disease and neuroinflammation. the collaboration is multi-disciplinary involving infectious disease and neuroscience.
Start Year 2012
 
Description MRI collaboration to set up monkey scanning 
Organisation John Radcliffe Hospital
Department Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (fMRI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution I hold and manage one of the Home Office project licences to carry out this research I've contributed anaesthesia knowledge and management, I've contributed to the set up of MRI scanning in anaesthetised monkeys I've provided anaesthesia for my own and other researchers animals in experiments, I've provided anaesthesia equipment for use in animals under general anaesthesia, I've learnt to operate the MR scanner for MR imaging of monkeys for my own work and other researchers I've developed MR knowledge for diagnositc/clinical purposes related to postoperative neurosurgery complications for monkeys
Collaborator Contribution Partners have contributed to the overall setup of MR scanning in monkeys. Write sequences and continue to optimise these for experiments. provide Q&A support for the scanner image quality provide advice on data storage and management Assist with ideas for analysis of monkey MR imaging and provide MR physics and MR image analysis courses Provide monkey analysis packages via FSL updates Provide overall ongoing support for the MR imaging work Provide scanner operator training and support provide information and training for safety of scanner use and run annual safety courses
Impact outputs for me include training to be scanner operator learning imaging analysis techniques for monkey imaging data received training on how to design MR imaging experiments for monkeys and humans I've developed expertise in using software packages to help with image analysis including FSL, MATLAB, SPM8 I've collected MR scans of my monkeys brains pre-operation and post-operation to document the structural, functional and connectivity changes in their brains as a consequence of the lesions gained knowledge for MR use in diagnosis of complications related to neurosurgery of my monkeys publications listed in relevant section
Start Year 2009
 
Description MRI collaboration to set up monkey scanning 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Experimental Psychology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I hold and manage one of the Home Office project licences to carry out this research I've contributed anaesthesia knowledge and management, I've contributed to the set up of MRI scanning in anaesthetised monkeys I've provided anaesthesia for my own and other researchers animals in experiments, I've provided anaesthesia equipment for use in animals under general anaesthesia, I've learnt to operate the MR scanner for MR imaging of monkeys for my own work and other researchers I've developed MR knowledge for diagnositc/clinical purposes related to postoperative neurosurgery complications for monkeys
Collaborator Contribution Partners have contributed to the overall setup of MR scanning in monkeys. Write sequences and continue to optimise these for experiments. provide Q&A support for the scanner image quality provide advice on data storage and management Assist with ideas for analysis of monkey MR imaging and provide MR physics and MR image analysis courses Provide monkey analysis packages via FSL updates Provide overall ongoing support for the MR imaging work Provide scanner operator training and support provide information and training for safety of scanner use and run annual safety courses
Impact outputs for me include training to be scanner operator learning imaging analysis techniques for monkey imaging data received training on how to design MR imaging experiments for monkeys and humans I've developed expertise in using software packages to help with image analysis including FSL, MATLAB, SPM8 I've collected MR scans of my monkeys brains pre-operation and post-operation to document the structural, functional and connectivity changes in their brains as a consequence of the lesions gained knowledge for MR use in diagnosis of complications related to neurosurgery of my monkeys publications listed in relevant section
Start Year 2009
 
Description Sydney 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Nuffield Department of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I've provided the touchscreen based sensitive neurocognitive tasks for testing the patients that had originally been developed in monkey's for studying the effects of brain lesions Added additional thalamic stroke patients now being tested in UK. Applied for link to UK Dementia Platform to compare interactions between the thalamus and cortex in the data portal cohorts and some of our collected data
Collaborator Contribution provided the patients with medial thalamic strokes and unilateral temporal lobectomy cases provide with the training to be able to perform the neuropsychological testing with patients and controls thalamic stroke patients have now all had MRI scanning to document white matter changes as a consequence of thalamic stroke
Impact Presented poster a SFN 2012, New Orleans as indicated in engagements Presented work in progress in 2010 at International Society for Behavioural Neuroscience conference in Collieure, France June 6th Presented work in progress at 6th International Conference on Memory, Budapest July 2016
Start Year 2009
 
Description Sydney 
Organisation University of Sydney
Department School of Psychology
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I've provided the touchscreen based sensitive neurocognitive tasks for testing the patients that had originally been developed in monkey's for studying the effects of brain lesions Added additional thalamic stroke patients now being tested in UK. Applied for link to UK Dementia Platform to compare interactions between the thalamus and cortex in the data portal cohorts and some of our collected data
Collaborator Contribution provided the patients with medial thalamic strokes and unilateral temporal lobectomy cases provide with the training to be able to perform the neuropsychological testing with patients and controls thalamic stroke patients have now all had MRI scanning to document white matter changes as a consequence of thalamic stroke
Impact Presented poster a SFN 2012, New Orleans as indicated in engagements Presented work in progress in 2010 at International Society for Behavioural Neuroscience conference in Collieure, France June 6th Presented work in progress at 6th International Conference on Memory, Budapest July 2016
Start Year 2009
 
Description CFM training workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked many questions and guidance sort on difficult animals afterwards. Interested in further interacting, lab visits and monkey training tips.

Will get trainers and NACWO visits to Oxford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Glyn's lab talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 20 people attended my talk about the translational aspects of my research combining monkey studies and human studies to understand the neural basis of memory including PhD students, postgraduates, Head of Dept, colleagues. This talk was presented at their Cognitive Neuropsychology Centre within the Department of Experimental Psychology.

I am now getting involved with neuropsychological testing of patients and 'normal' controls within the centre through the links that I've established with Professor Humphreys and his group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description NC3Rs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact MRC program manager, Home Office Inspectors and other animal health and welfare specialists as well as policymaker representatives attend.
Poster 'An assessment of MRI chair training of rhesus macaques' Stuart Mason, Jennifer L McMillan and Anna S Mitchell - London 4th November 2013

Impact was very good with excellent support from the Home Office Inspectors and NC3Rs reps. Majority of attendees view poster and it provided a great deal of discussion and interaction. Inspector advised all to see our work. Will write up for publication
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description NC3Rs 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact over 100 delegates at the workshop. Our poster on 'Refinements in transport box training of macaques' was very well received. Facilitated a great deal of questions and discussion.
NC3Rs conference on Meet the trainers, 19 November 2012, London UK. authors Stuart Mason, Anna S Mitchell, Paul Honess. writing the study up for publication

One of the trainers from Yerkes came to our lab the next day and provided some guidance on training technique. We were able to discuss with her our refinements in better detail. My RA is now applying to attend a workshop on training and enrichment for NHPs in Feb next year in Texas.
My RA went to this training workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description NC3Rs invited talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk on our non-human primate training methods at annual NC3Rs primate workshop in London. Colleagues in industry, Home Office Inspectors, other research scientists, and animal technicians all have indicated how much they learned from my talk. I have been asked to attend other labs to present work and provide discussion and input into their non-human primate training methods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://nc3rs.org.uk/events/2015-primate-welfare-meeting---10-years-supporting-nhp-welfare
 
Description Neuropsychology Unit. Sydney 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact 8 clinicians attended the talk who work at the Neuropsychology Unit in Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney Australia, very interested in translational research approach, great questions discussion afterwards

Wanting me to attend again in 2011 for further collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Primate training workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Organised a hands-on primate training workshop with monkeys in our primate unit for 8 participants from primate units in Europe to learn more about our techniques, welfare and refinements we've been making to decrease the time to train monkeys for neuroscience research. Funded by PRIMTRAIN.EU. All 8 participants throughly enjoyed the workshop and learnt so much more than they anticipated. They've introduced changes back at their own units. We've been invited to give talks and visit units in the EU. I have contributed (lead workshop talk and interactive PRT training) to the German Primate Training Workshop - March 2018. We have also linked up with Dame Judy MacArthur-Clark and her work with the 3Rs programme for the UK Foreign Office in China. We have a delegation of 8 Chinese primate researchers coming to Oxford March 2018 to participate in another training workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2017
 
Description Prince of Wales Hospital talk Sydney 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact 20 health professionals attended, very interested and supportive of the work. Translational approaches to investigating memory deficits in stroke patients, using a cohort of Australians. Many questions asked and discussion during the day long visit.

Continued interest in my work, wanting to collaborate further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Rochester visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 35 students, postdocs, PIs, clinicians attended my talk, What does the mediodorsal thalamus do? Lots of questions and discussion, was visiting the lab of a potential collaborator in Rochester US.

Keen to collaborate on medial thalamus and interconnections to the region of brain of their interest, the striatum. Interested in being a co-PI for funding applications to be submitted next year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description School visit (Hanborough Manor) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Brain Awareness activity within the school. Children excited to be learning more about the brain and interacting with a neuroscientist! Sparked lots of questions and extensive feedback from children's parents after the event.

They'd like me to come back again for further interactions/ brain workshops
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Schools presentations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Psychology and animal research talks for A Level high school students at their national conference days held in Cambridge - November 2016 and November 2017. Many questions about both psychology research and animal research to further understand what it is all like as a career.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Texas primate training 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact My RA (who does the training of the monkeys) was awarded a UFAW travel award to attend the workshop in the US in February 2013. While he was on the workshop he presented some of our research work that has focused on further refining different training techniques across different groups of my monkeys to reduce time to acclimate to transport boxes and becoming comfortable with touchscreen training.

one of the workshop organisers had visited our lab in Oxford in 2012 and was keen to collaborate with us on further training techniques we had planned. Her input was helpful for the latest study involving training animals to enter MRI restraint chairs. This was presented at NC3Rs workshop in 2013 mentioned in other sections of this report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description UAR Lab animal tour 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact contributed to Understanding Animals Research videoing of our labs and primates - this was then turned into a virtual lab tour that is freely available on the internet. http://www.labanimaltour.org/ . We won the award for Public Engagement for our efforts in promoting our research and welfare in December 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.labanimaltour.org/
 
Description Wellcome Strategic traning workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Lots of discussion and questions afterwards. Requests for further tips for training animals to improve current practise in Yerkes

After my talk, I've had further requests from colleagues for advice and support during training monkeys. In addition, I've received an informal request to check availability for an invited speaker talk in US next year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description brain stimulation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Asked to discuss my research at a workshop in Tuscany that I was attending on Deep brain stimulation: the motor system and beyond. organised by Advanced courses in neuroscience.
Title: The mediodorsal thalamus and prefrontal cortex, how do they interact in cognition

excellent impact, lots of discussion and proposed the mediodorsal thalamus as a potential new target for deep brain stimulation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012