Incidence, prevalence, harms and intervention effects for problem and injecting drug use: crime, morbidity & mortality

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Medical and Human Sciences

Abstract

Drug misuse causes severe problems for society, communities, and families and incurs huge economic costs. UK Government estimates suggest somewhere between #9 and #15 billion, in England and Wales alone, during 2000, and perhaps up to #16 billion during 2003/04. Most of this cost related to an estimated 330,000 people who had very severe problems with addiction to drugs like heroin and crack. The most recent economic estimates (2003/04) suggest that these people accounted for 99% of the total cost and that their crime accounted for 90% of the costs they generated. Drug misuse is also the third most common cause of death for people aged 15-34, mainly because of overdose from drugs like heroin. A lot of taxpayers? money is spent in trying to address these problems, but estimates of the number of drug users and associated problems have not been routinely or consistently available to help governments to make the best policy choices and it is difficult to be sure how certain the estimates are, because they relate to different time-periods. Our research will combine, and then compare, different sorts of information about serious drug problems to get a more exact idea of how many people are involved, how many get involved in crime, what proportion die, and how helpful treatment has been in reducing death and crime. Instead of just relying on how well people can remember their crimes, which is the approach that research studies have taken in the past, we will use treatment records and criminal records to see exactly when they were arrested and if any crimes happened while they being treated, or not. We will use a similar approach to look at death registrations. We will use statistical analysis to improve estimates of how many people have had severe drug problems, to learn whether more of these have died, and from what causes, and to discover whether this problem is worse in some areas than others. Using advanced statistical techniques, we will examine all of the available sources of information about drug misuse and bring these together to test whether they are consistent, to find out why inconsistencies occur, and to adjust the estimates to allow for any inconsistencies that we find. Our findings will provide the Government with much better estimates, to help to make decisions about how to deal with the drug problem and how to spend public money wisely.

Technical Summary

Decisions about drug policy are based on estimates of harms, prevalence, and intervention effects that are imprecise, sometimes inconsistent, and lack cross-validation. There is a need to develop more precise, better validated, and consistent estimates of key harms associated with Problem and Injecting Drug Use (P/IDU), and of the effects of treatment intervention, in order to provide a sound basis for policy decisions. The proposed research will examine the prevalence of P/IDU and key harms within three related strands. Strand A will analyse data for a virtual cohort (n=320,000) of PDUs in England, already assembled within work for the Home Office, to explore the timing of crime and mortality events in relation to evolving treatment status. This will provide a novel and more precise assessment of the magnitude and temporal persistence of treatment effects in reducing crime and mortality than has, hitherto, been available. Strand A recognises the cyclical nature of addiction treatment and avoids the difficulties inherent in self-report data. Findings about patients and circumstances that constitute a higher risk in terms of mortality or recidivism will have a direct bearing on treatment policy and practice and will inform work in Strand C. Strand B will apply Bayesian approaches to demographical IDU prevalence estimation with a view to comparison of IDUs? drug-related death rates; and will test the application of this approach to a common set of national sources for Scotland, reflecting the economically efficient approach taken in England Strand B will also explore regional trends in IDUs? drug-related death rates, with England as comparator, and so determine whether IDUs? death-rates by age-group and sex are regionally and nationally consistent. If not, questions about the differential effectiveness of IDU-related harm reduction policies may be posed. Strand C is the first comprehensive attempt simultaneously to model P/IDU prevalence, mortality and crime data together, using a Multi Parameter Evidence Synthesis framework. It will test the consistency of the available data and produce a coherent model, for England, of drug use, mortality and crime, cross-validated by several entirely independent data sources, to better inform policy development. Methods and results will have wider application in areas such as alcohol dependency. We will place particular emphasis on dissemination of results to policy and practitioner audiences, as well as via peer-review journals.

Publications

10 25 50

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Bird S (2013) Editorial: Counting the dead properly and promptly in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society)

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Bird SM (2013) Counting the dead: properly and promptly. in Lancet (London, England)

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Bird, Sheila (2012) Progress in reducing death registration delays, but more is needed. in Straight Statistics (http://www.straightstatistics.org/article/progress-reducing-death-registration-delays-more-needed)

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Bird, Sheila (2012) Measuring the delays in coroner-certified deaths. in Straight Statistics (http://www.straightstatistics.org/article/measuring-delays-coroner-certified-deaths)

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Bird, Sheila (2012) Registration of deaths in European countries: survey results in Straight Statistics (http://www.straightstatistics.org/article/registration-deaths-european-countries-survey-results)

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Bird, Sheila (2011) Mephedrone and cocaine: clues from Army testing. in Straight Statistics (http://www.straightstatistics.org/article/mephedrone-and-cocaine-clues-army-testing)

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Bird, Sheila (2012) Peterborough Prison: can matching ride to the rescue of a non-randomized study? in Straight Statistics (http://www.straightstatistics.org/article/peterborough-prison-can-matching-ride-rescue-non-randomized-study)

 
Description Bayesian capture-recapture approaches used by Public Health Wales
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Knowledge of the size of the 'in need' population
URL http://www2.nphs.wales.nhs.uk:8080/SubstanceMisuseDocs.nsf/5633c1d141208e8880256f2a004937d1/9033e325...
 
Description Bird, Sheila: Home Affairs Select Committee's seminar on drugs policy.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Bird, Sheila: Scotland's National Naloxone Advisory Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description Citations in "How can opioid substitution therapy (and drug treatment and recovery systems) be optimised to maximise recovery outcomes for service users?" (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2015)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/470399/ACMD_RC_OPTIMISING_...
 
Description Citations in "How can opioid substitution therapy (and drug treatment and recovery systems) be optimised to maximise recovery outcomes for service users?" (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2015)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/470399/ACMD_RC_OPTIMISING_...
 
Description Citations in "Reducing Opioid-Related Deaths in the UK" (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2016)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/576560/ACMD-Drug-Related-D...
 
Description Citations in "Reducing Opioid-Related Deaths in the UK" (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2016)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/576560/ACMD-Drug-Related-D...
 
Description Citations in "Reducing Opioid-Related Deaths in the UK" (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2016)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/576560/ACMD-Drug-Related-D...
 
Description Citations in "Understanding and preventing drug-related deaths The report of a national expert working group to investigate drug-related deaths in England" (Public Health England, 2016)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/phe-understanding-preventing-drds.pdf
 
Description Citations in "Understanding and preventing drug-related deaths The report of a national expert working group to investigate drug-related deaths in England" (Public Health England, 2016)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/phe-understanding-preventing-drds.pdf
 
Description Citations in"Understanding and preventing drug-related deaths The report of a national expert working group to investigate drug-related deaths in England" (Public Health England, 2016)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/phe-understanding-preventing-drds.pdf
 
Description Cited in Hansard - Pierce, M., Bird, SM., Hickman, M., Marsden, J., Dunn, G., Jones, A., Millar, T. (2016) 'Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England' Addiction 11(2): 298-308 DOI: 10.1111/add.13193
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2017-07-18/debates/733C6229-49D0-4559-8F59-5F1244C2DE13/DrugsP...
 
Description Enhancing clinical audit of drug user mortality in a large UK addiction treatment provider
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Guideline Title Clinical Guidelines on Drug Misuse and Dependence Update 2017: UK guidelines on clinical management. London: DoH
Description Pierce et al (2015) Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146, 17-23 cited in: UK Clinical Guidelines on Drug Misuse and Dependence
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical guidelines
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/673978/clinical_guidelines...
 
Description Risk assessment for overdose and suicide among treated opioid users
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Findings from our work on drug user mortality have informed the development of routine 'risk scoring' of patients treated by a large UK addiction treatment provider (circa 40,000 patients) to highlight those most likely to be at risk of fatal overdose or suicide.
 
Description Use of Bayesian estimation methods to estimate prevalence of problem drug use in Wales
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://gov.wales/docs/dhss/publications/160104substanceannualen.pdf
 
Description Department of Health Policy Research Programme
Amount £1,130,886 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Health (DH) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2018
 
Description European Research Council Starting Grant
Amount € 1,500,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2018
 
Description MRC Career Development Awared in Biostatistics (fellowship)
Amount £375,101 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 08/2019
 
Description Medical Research Council: E-Health Research Initiative
Amount £4,373,292 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 12/2017
 
Description National Institute for Health Research HS&DR Programme
Amount £245,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2015
 
Description National Institute for Health Research, Public Health Research Programme
Amount £282,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 04/2016
 
Description PhD Studentship - Abi Lindon (Bristol) Comparison of the protection afforded by methadone and buprenorphine maintenance to heroin/morphine relapse and the effect of ethanol on any protection.
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description Wastewater analysis of traces of illicit drug-related chemicals for law enforcement and public health (WATCH)
Amount € 500,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 12/2016 
End 06/2018
 
Description n/a
Amount € 11,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 12/2015 
End 10/2016
 
Title Bayesian Model averaging tool 
Description Overstall has developed an R package to implement Bayesian model-averaging for contingency table log-linear models (with or without missing cell entries). An associated paper will be submitted. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication 
 
Title Drug Data Warehouse mortality linkage 
Description Linkage of an existing database about substance misusers contacts with health /criminal justice with ONS records relating to mortality. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This will enable work to investigate drug user mortality and intervention impacts. 
 
Description Analysis of impact of Scotland's in-prison methadone programme on drugs-related deaths 
Organisation Information Services Division (ISD)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Bird, with Dr Colin Fischbacher, Information Services Division, and co-investigators who held CSO-funded grant on prisoners' mortality: analysis of impact of Scotland's in-prison methadone programme on drugs-related deaths soon after release (paper in preparation).
Collaborator Contribution -
Impact Paper in preparation
Start Year 2013
 
Description Annual OD4-methadone index 
Organisation King's College London
Department Addictions Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bird, with Prof J Strang, to update and expand Annual OD4-methadone index (number of deaths with methadone implicated per million defined daily doses of methadone prescribed in that year).
Collaborator Contribution -
Impact -
Start Year 2013
 
Description Bayesian capture-recapture analysis of current injectors in England, 2009 
Organisation Glasgow Caledonian University
Department Public Health and Epidemiology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been developing Bayesian capture-recapture methods to allow for different capture-propensities across English regions and to make comparison between estimates from 2005 (already published) and 2009 (in preparation)
Collaborator Contribution As above - joint development of methods and ideas.
Impact See publications list
Start Year 2011
 
Description Bayesian capture-recapture analysis of current injectors in England, 2009 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Department School of Mathematics and Statistics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been developing Bayesian capture-recapture methods to allow for different capture-propensities across English regions and to make comparison between estimates from 2005 (already published) and 2009 (in preparation)
Collaborator Contribution As above - joint development of methods and ideas.
Impact See publications list
Start Year 2011
 
Description Health and Social Impact on Children Who Experience Serious Parental Alcohol Misuse 
Organisation Karolinska Institute
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in the analysis of linked secondary datasets
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in the analysis of linked Scandinavian datasets & in alcohol research
Impact Grant application submitted, unsuccessful.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Health and Social Impact on Children Who Experience Serious Parental Alcohol Misuse 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in the analysis of linked secondary datasets
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in the analysis of linked Scandinavian datasets & in alcohol research
Impact Grant application submitted, unsuccessful.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Impact of opiate substitution treatment on drug related deaths in the population 
Organisation King's College London
Department Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research methodology & datasets
Collaborator Contribution Research methodology & datasets, PPI
Impact Outline Research Proposal to NIHR Health Services and Delivery Programme
Start Year 2013
 
Description Impact of opiate substitution treatment on drug related deaths in the population 
Organisation Open University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research methodology & datasets
Collaborator Contribution Research methodology & datasets, PPI
Impact Outline Research Proposal to NIHR Health Services and Delivery Programme
Start Year 2013
 
Description Impact of opiate substitution treatment on drug related deaths in the population 
Organisation The Alliance
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Research methodology & datasets
Collaborator Contribution Research methodology & datasets, PPI
Impact Outline Research Proposal to NIHR Health Services and Delivery Programme
Start Year 2013
 
Description Impact of opiate substitution treatment on drug related deaths in the population 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research methodology & datasets
Collaborator Contribution Research methodology & datasets, PPI
Impact Outline Research Proposal to NIHR Health Services and Delivery Programme
Start Year 2013
 
Description Investigations of outcomes in community and inpatient alcohol treatment 
Organisation University of New South Wales
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative work with a post doc from UNSW to produce two national analyses of treatment outcome in alcohol dependence in the UK, developing methodological approaches from our project. Members of our team supervised analysis and write up of two outputs, published in Drug & Alcohol Dependence and Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, undertaken during a research placement at Public Health England.
Collaborator Contribution Early career post doc on placement at Public Health England from UNSW undertook analysis of national treatment data for UK and produced two published papers.
Impact Peacock, A., Eastwood, B., Jones, A., Millar, T., Horgan, P., Knight, J., Randhawa, K., White, M., Marsden, J (accepted) 'Effectiveness of community psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder: A national observational, cohort study in England' Drug & Alcohol Dependence Eastwood, B., Peacock, A., Millar, T., Jones, A., Knight, J., Horgan, P., Lowden, T., Willey, P., Marsden, J. (accepted) 'Effectiveness of inpatient withdrawal and residential rehabilitation treatment for alcohol use disorder: A national observational, cohort study in England ' Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Start Year 2016
 
Description Methadone prescribing in Scotland 
Organisation University of Strathclyde
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bird, with Prof Marion Bennie on methadone prescribing in Scotland
Collaborator Contribution -
Impact -
Start Year 2013
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation Information Services Division (ISD)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation King's College London
Department Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation Ministry of Justice
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation NHS National Services Scotland (NSS)
Department Health Protection Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department School of Social and Community Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department School of Social and Political Sciences Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation University of Manchester
Department Community-Based Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Department School of Mathematics and Statistics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation University of Strathclyde
Department Department of Mathematics and Statistics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description NIQUAD 
Organisation University of York
Department Department of Health Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two BSU staff members co-grant holders for NIQUAD whose objective is to enable key public health questions about addiction to be addressed by: - Improving, integrating, and harmonising the information base - Assessing the quality, precision, validity and consistency of available information - Making data accessible to a wider range of expertise - Developing methods to better exploit existing and new information sources This requires parallel work on developing micro (record linkage) and macro (evidence synthesis) integration of available information. The former strand will integrate administrative and research data at the individual case level to create statistically powerful 'virtual' cohorts that track pathways in and out of treatment, criminal justice, and healthcare, sequencing key events. Evidence synthesis will develop models that link all the available evidence to link and test its consistency and to examine the relationships between parameters. NIQUAD includes: key experts in surveillance and substance use epidemiology; non-addiction scientists with high-level skills in relevant statistical, mathematical modelling and health economic techniques; and health informatics experts to support the development of data resources to fuel the planned work.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionIntellectual/ Practical contributionPractical collaborationPractical collaborationIntellectual/ Practical contribution
Impact Several publications in press and in preparation, notably i) on cause-specific mortality of opiate users in England {Pierce M, BIRD SM, Hickman M, Millar T. National record-linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opiate users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources, 2005-2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014: in press.} ii) on impact of treatment modality on drugs-related deaths and of criminal-justice referral into treatment. See publications list
Start Year 2010
 
Description Natural history of drug use and offending 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department School of Social and Community Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research proposal
Collaborator Contribution Methodological approaches to drug use epidemiologyMethodological approaches to drug use epidemiology
Impact MRC Research Grant application
Start Year 2011
 
Description Natural history of drug use and offending 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department MRC Biostatistics Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Research proposal
Collaborator Contribution Methodological approaches to drug use epidemiologyMethodological approaches to drug use epidemiology
Impact MRC Research Grant application
Start Year 2011
 
Description Performance and productivity of community substance misuse treatment services 
Organisation Cardiff University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise re analysis of secondary datasets on drug misuse treatment
Collaborator Contribution Expertise re non-medical prescribing
Impact Grant application in submission
Start Year 2014
 
Description Research Collaboration Agreement with CRI 
Organisation Crime Reduction Initiatives (CRI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The University of Manchester (Millar) has entered a research collaboration agreement with CRI, the largest provider of addiction treatment in the UK, as a platform for collaborative translational research, including potential future work by the NIQUAD MRC Addiction Research Cluster.
Collaborator Contribution CRI brings clinical expertise and the largest addiction patient cohort (circa 25k) in the UK, together with clinical information systems and IT infrastructure capable of supporting e-health research. CRI is now the addiction treatment service provider in recruitment areas for the ICCAM MRC Addiction Research Cluster Platform Study, in which the University of Manchester is a partner, and the collaboration will help to facilitate patient recruitment for this MRC study.
Impact CRI/University of Manchester conference "Recovery and Beyond" Manchester, 5th September 2012
Start Year 2012
 
Description 'Estimating the prevalence of problem drug use: the pitfalls of capture-recapture estimation and proposal for more coherent modelling' Seminar at the Center for Evidence Synthesis in Health, School of Public Health, Brown University, USA. 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Jones presented at seminar by invitation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 'Estimating the prevalence of problem drug use: the pitfalls of capture-recapture estimation and proposal for more coherent modelling' Seminar at the Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Jones presented at seminar by invitation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description A Cooks Tour of Drug Misuse Epidemiology: Millar, lecture to GP Clinical Commissioning Leads, November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Lecture described extent and causes of death among opiate users, extent of crime, and treatment effects thereon. Audience comprised GPs responsible for clinical commissioning as part of a DH-funded training scheme.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Advisory Group for Scottish Government regarding the formula for NHS funding distribution for Sexual Health & Blood Borne Viruses 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Hutchinson - The research and outputs from NIQUAD will inform this advisory group.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Advisory Group on Estimating the Prevalence of Substance Misuse in Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Hutchinson & Hickman - Advisory Group for a Scottish Government funded project, coordinated by the Information Services Division of NHS Scotland, involving policymakers and practitioners.

Provided a steer that further modelling work was needed on estimating prevalence of injecting drug use in Scotland. This is work that is being followed up now by King, Bird & Overstall.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Bayesian 'multi-parameter evidence synthesis' in addictions research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jones presented at Lisbon Addictions conference. Lisbon, Portugal. October 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Centre for Addiction Research & Education, Scotland, conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Bird presented on 'Do pharmaceutical interventions reduce drugs-related deaths? ' at 12th CARES [Centre for Addiction Research & Education, Scotland] conference on 7 June 2013, University of Dundee

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description College on Problems of Drug Dependence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Bird presented on 'Experimental vs Observational Methods to determine the effectiveness of naloxone distribution for determining opiate overdose deaths'.
at Naloxone Workshop at June 2013 conference in San Diego, USA of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Driving Innovation and Delivering Excellence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Millar co-Chaired the CRI/University of Manchester national clinical conference, June 2014

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.cri.org.uk/clinical_conference
 
Description Drug related mortality, treatment and recovery - NTA/PHE Recovery Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Hickman presented evidence to NTA/PHE Recovery Group

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description DrugScope 'Blog' of results of mortality work 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact DrugScope produced a 'Blog' summarising our work on opioid user mortality. This received >1700 views in the first two weeks of its posting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://drugscope.blogspot.co.uk/2015/01/half-picture-beyond-drug-overdose-as.html
 
Description Drugs-related Deaths in Glasgow Bird, invited lecture to Scotland's National Forum on Drugs-related Deaths 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Drugs-related deaths: by demography and toxicology and per 1,000 users Bird, invited lecture in Melbourne, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description EASL Amsterdam 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Hickman presented "Primary prevention of Hepatitis C" at the 48th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the study of the liver, 2013, Amsterdam

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Entry of 'Elevator pitch' competition at 'early career methodologists' MRC/NIHR event (September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Dr Hayley Jones took the opportunity to 'pitch' her methodological research in a strict 4 minute time period. Around 100 academics and NHS researchers were present at this London meeting.

This was an opportunity to explain why the most commonly used method for estimating the size of drug-using populations is flawed - and to suggest what might be done instead - in an accessible and engaging manner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nihr.ac.uk/funding/nihr-and-mrc-symposium-for-early-career-research-methodologists.htm
 
Description Estimating the prevalence of problem drug use: the need for caution with capture-recapture and consideration of other evidence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jones presented to the Problem Drug Use European Expert Meeting. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Lisbon, Portugal. June 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description European Monitoring Centre on Drugs & Drug Addiction, Lisbon, invited presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Representatives of EU Member states attended an invited presentation as part of the EMCDDA Annual Expert Meeting on Drug Related Deaths. "Record-linkage study of cause-specific mortality for 219,000 opiate or crack-cocaine users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice records in England and Wales, 2005-2009." Pierce, Bird, Hickman, Millar (presented), 17th October, Lisbon.

We received very positive feedback for our work on drug user mortality in England and Wales, which is at the forefront of EU research activity in this area, and were invited to contribute to EMCDDA synthesis work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Expert Group convened by PHE and Collective Voice to identify best practice in reducing drug related deaths 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Expert group representing Third Sector and NHS providers of substance misuse treatment to identify best practice in reducing drug related deaths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Hickman, Jones, Marsden, Pierce, Millar - Meeting with Home Office, Department of Health and national Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Hickman, Matthew; Jones, Hayley; Marsden, John; Pierce, Matthias; Millar, Tim: Meeting with Home Office, Department of Health, and National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse to discuss findings in respect of prevalence estimation methodology and their implications for national estimates of the prevalence of opiate and/or crack cocaine use.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Home Office, Public Health England, meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Met with Home Office Science (Crime and Policing, Drugs and Alcohol) and Public Health England colleagues to discuss evidence synthesis for drugs, crime and mortality.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description ISCB conference, Munich (August 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Around 30-40 academics attended a presentation on statistical methodology for estimating the size of drug-using populations, at the International Society for Clinical Biostatistics (ISCB) annual meeting. This talk highlighted important flaws that we had identified with the most commonly used methodology.

The talk clearly stimulated interest in the work, with several questions asked and more people coming to discuss the work later.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.iscb2013.info/
 
Description International Network on Hepatitis in Substance Users 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Hickman presented at the The 3rd International Symposium on Hepatitis Care in Substance Users, 2013, Munich

-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Invited Presentation to Public Health England staff 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact PHE Regional Staff attended a one day seminar where Millar presented findings on drug user mortality "Plugging the knowledge gap with Research - Analysis of secondary datasets better to understand drug user mortality"

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited presentation to the joint annual meeting of the Manchester Medical Society and Liverpool Medical Institution, Liverpool, March 6th 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Presented findings regarding drug user mortality to audience of clinicians.

Resulted in further invitations to present this material to clinical groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description King, Bird, Overstall - Meeting with Scottish Information Service Division 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact King, Ruth; Bird, Sheila; and Overstall, Antony: meeting with ISD to to discuss estimates of injecting drug users in Scotland.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description King, Ruth - January 2012: Invited seminar at the National Records of Scotland (formerly the General Register Office for Scotland) (Edinburgh). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact -

Following the seminar at National Records Scotland (NRS) King & Overstall have been invited to undertake a feasability study for extending the standard log-linear models to allow forcorrupted records, partial data collation and observation of non-target individuals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description M Hickman: Invited Expert NIDA Expert Meeting on Drug Related Mortality. Symposium on Modelling. CPDD Miami June 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description M Hickman: Invited expert - Drug related mortality epidemiology. Vedette Cohort Study. Turin April 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description M Hickman: Invited expert - Hepatitis Epidemiology and Prevention. Liver Meeting. Hospital Doctor. London June 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description M Hickman: Invited expert - Primary prevention of HCV. South West Hepatology Group. Bristol November 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Manchester Addiction Research Network - presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Local researchers & health commissioners attended a presentation.

Public Health England (G Mcr) invited a further presentation for a commissioner conference next year, to coincide with publication of main findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Millar presented findings at the 15th Annual Meeting and Conference of the International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services, June 2015, Manchester, England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Millar, speaker at EMCDDA Continuity and Change, 23-26 September 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presented findings on drug user mortality to audience of EU member state representatives.

-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Millar: invited member of a Public Health England enquiry into drug related deaths in the UK, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/669308/Understanding_and_p...
 
Description Millar: invited member of an Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs working group to consider opioid related deaths in the UK, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/576560/ACMD-Drug-Related-D...
 
Description Millar: invited to join National expert group of substance misuse treatment providers to respond to drug related mortality in England' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.collectivevoice.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Improving-clinical-responses-to-DRDs-Au...
 
Description Millar: presentation to the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction expert meeting to assess drug-induced deaths data; Stockholm, September 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Millar: presentation to the Scottish Government /Partnership for Action on Drugs in Scotland Expert Meeting on Drug Deaths, Glasgow, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Millar: presented findings to the Expert Meeting of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction: Drug Related Deaths; Lisbon, September 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Mortality and treatment among 200,000 opioid users in England, 2005-2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact Pierce presented findings to the CRI/University of Manchester National Clinical Conference, June, 2014

The presentation prompted considerable debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description National estimation of the prevalence of problem drug use: revisiting and extending multiplier methods in a multi-parameter evidence synthesis framework 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jones presented at Lisbon Addictions conference. Lisbon, Portugal. October 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description National expert working group to investigate drug-related deaths in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Millar & Hickman contributed to the PHE national inquiry, in partnership with the Local Government Association, to investigate the causes of the rise in drug related deaths and what could be done to prevent future premature deaths.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/phe-understanding-preventing-drds.pdf
 
Description ONS Seminar - drug user mortality 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact ONS statisticians from the Life Events and Population (formerly Health & Life Events) Division at Office for National Statistics, Newport attended a presentation of findings re drug user mortality.

-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presented new methods and results to policy makers from Public Health England and the Home Office - September 2015 at PHE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jones & Hickman presented new estimation methods and results to policy makers from Public Health England and the Home Office - September 2015, at PHE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public Health England, Greater Manchester base 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presented findings re drug user mortality to PHE colleagues.

-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Royal Statistical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Bird presented on 'Experimental vs Observational Methods to determine the effectiveness of naloxone distribution for determining opiate overdose deaths'.
at RSS Edinburgh & at RSS Lancaster (Nov 21 2013)

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Royal Statistical Society - legislation to end the late registration of deaths in E&W 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Bird leads on this activity for RSS.

-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Royal Statistical Society Seminar - Causes of Mortality (Manchester, October 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Millar presented work on premature mortality among opioid users to the RSS seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Royal Statistical Society lead on need for legislation to end late registration of deaths in E and W 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Audience of 150 at Royal Society included Science Minister David Willetts whose attention I thereby drew to the delays in registration of inquest-deaths.

Conference @ RS was entitled: Foundation debate on maximising the use made of public and research data - 10Jul13

2014 Open Letter to Prime Minister (with Sense about Science and six Charities including INQUEST, SAMARITANS) to press for legislation in the current parliament. Request declined by Simon Hughes on behalf of government but he did engage in a helpful correspondence. Support also from PQs by Dr Julian Huppert , Cambridge MP.

The report by Professor David Wilkie CBE on the Foundation round-table discussion and debate on the theme "Maximising the use of public data - should research and publically acquired data be made more accessible" has now been posted on the Foundation web site together with the speakers presentations where available and audio files of what they said.

The speakers were Professor Geoffrey Boulton OBE FRS FRSE, Chair, The Royal Society Inquiry into Science as an Open Enterprise, Professor Sir Nigel Shadbolt FREng, Chairman and Co-Founder of the Open Data Institute, The Rt Hon David Willetts MP, Minister of State for Universities and Science, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Professor Sheila M Bird OBE FRSE, Programme Leader, MRC Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, joined the panel in the discussion sessions.

The Foundation site is at:

www.foundation.org.uk

The round-table discussion was held at The Open Data Institute and the debate was held at The Royal Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.rss.org.uk/uploadedfiles/userfiles/files/18%20June%202014%20Open%20Letter%20to%20PM%20Lat...
 
Description Royal United Services Institute, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Millar presented findings on heroin use incidence/prevalence to an audience of policy makers, law enforcement, border force and intelligence officials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Ruth King - Invited speaker at the London Mathematical Society 150th Popular Lectures, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact King Presented at a public lecture on estimation methods, also available to the public via YouTube
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BCM8Fg7Nb4
 
Description SCORE COST Working group meeting in Malta, October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Jones & Hickman presented "Integration of wastewater data with epidemiology: Statistical considerations relating to uncertainties"

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Scotland - National Naloxone Advisory Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact -
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Scottish Government (Justice Department, Drug Policy Unit) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Seminar on 'The case for RCTs in Criminal Justice'.
Since mid 2010 SMB has been member of Scotland's National Naloxone Advisory Group, which monitors the impact of Scotland's public health policy on take-home naloxone (implemented from January 2011)

Second invitation which arose out of a previous seminar on related material.
SMB provided scientific background and study size considerations for Scotland's before-after comparison of percentage of opiate-related deaths that occur within 4 weeks of release from prison. This is a key outcome measure in monitoring the impact of take-home naloxone.
SMB also arranged for 3 naloxone related questions to be added to Scotland's Needle Exchange Surveillance of Injectors (NESI) in 2011 to assist in monitoring the carriage of naloxone.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013
 
Description Scottish Informatics Program Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Bird contributed lectures at SHIP conference in St Andrews in August 2013.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Sewage Epidemiology Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jones presented 'Accounting for uncertainties in sewage epidemiology' at The first international multidisciplinary conference on detecting illicit drugs in wastewater, EMCDDA, Lisbon, Portugal. May 2013

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Sewage Epidemiology Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Hickman presented 'Key challenges for integrating wastewater data into the epidemiology models: why do we need to... where do we go next? at the First international multidisciplinary conference on detecting illicit drugs in wastewater, EMCDDA, Lisbon, Portugal. May 2013

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Symposium (public event) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented results of our MRC funded research at a public symposium debating drugs legislation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bap.org.uk/articles/street-drugs-in-the-northern-powerhouse-perspective-and-policy/
 
Description UK Focal Point on Drugs - invited presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Representatives of govt Science, policy, and researchers/experts, and EU representative attended expert meeting on drug related deaths.

Led to invitation to present findings at EU /EMCDDA Annual Meeting on Drug Related Deaths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013